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A MONOdRAPH 



CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBKANCHIA 



ENGLAND, 



HENRY WOODS, M.A., 

UNIVERSITY LECTURER IN I'AL^OZOOI.OGT, CAMBRIDOE. 



VOL. I. 




LONDON: 
PRINTED FOR THE PAL^ONTOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY. 

1899—1903. 



PRINTED BY IDLiHD AND SON, LONDON AND DOEKINO. 



2^ 



THE 



PAL^ONTOGKAPHICAL SOCIETY. 



INSTITUTED MDl'i'CXLVH, 



LONDON: 

MDCCCXCIX— MDCCCCI 1 1 . 



MONOGEAPH OF THE CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRA^^CHIA 

OF ENGLAND. 

VOL. I. 



ORDER OF BINDING AND DATES OF PUBLICATION. 



PAGES 


PLATES 


ISSUED IN VOL. 
FOB TEAB 


PUBLISHED 


General Title-page, Contents, Introduction, 


- 


1903 


December, 1903 


and Bibliography, i — xliii 








1—72 


I— XIV 


1899 


December, 1899 


73—112 


XV— XIX 


1900 


December, 1900 


113—144 


XX- XXVI 


1901 


December, 1901 


145—196 


XXVII— XXXVIII 


1902 


December, 1902 


197—232 


XXXIX-XLll 


1903 


December, 1903 



CONTENTS. 



lutroduction 

Bibliography 

Description of species 

Nuculana 

Nueula ... 

Anomia .. 

Area 

Barbatia 

CxraminatoJou 

Trigonoarca 

Cucullsea 

Isoarea 

Peetuuculus 

Limopsis 

Trigonia 

Mytilns ... 

Modiola 

Crenella 

Lithodomus 

Septifer 

Dreissensia 

Myoconcha 

Spoudylus 

Plicatula 

Pectcn (Syncyclonema) 

„ (Camptonectes) 
(Chlamys) 

„ (xEquipecten) 
(Neitliea) 
Velopecteu 
Hiunites 

Additious and corrections . . . 
Index ... 



I>AQE 

vii 
xi 
1 
1 

1-2 

27 

32 

35 

-14 

47 

49 

G5 

66 

71 

73 

91 

92 

104 

105 

106 

110 

114 

116 

134 

145 

152 

163 

186 

197 

218 

220 

224 
.»7 



IN'riJODUCTTON, 



Detailed accounts of three families only of English CretaceoTis Lamellibranchs 
have hitherto ])een given, namely, the Trigoniida3 by Lycett, and the Nucnlidre and 
Nncvdanida? by Gardnei'. Numerous species, however, belonging to various 
families, were described and figured by J. and .1. de ('. Sowerby in the 'Mineral 
Conchology,' and a few also by Parkinson in his 'Organic Remains of a Former 
World.' A number of works, dealing ]n'imarily with the stratigraphy of the 
Cretaceous beds, also contain descriptions and illustrations of Cretaceous Lamelli- 
branchs from certain districts or from special horizons. One of the earliest of 
these is 'The Fossils of the South Downs; or. Illustrations of the Geology of 
Sussex,' by Gideon Mantell (1822), in which a number of Lamellibranchs from the 
(lault and Chalk of the south-east of England are descri])e(l and figured ; but 
unfortunately the figures are not very satisfactory, and in many cases the type- 
specimens are now missing; nevertheless, with the aid of other examples collected 
from the same localities, it is nsually jiossible to discover the characters of 
Mantell's species. 

Another early work dealing with a special district is the ' Illustrations of the 
Geology of Yorkshire,' by John Phillips (1829), in which a few Lamellibranchs 
from the Speeton Clay are figm-ed and others recorded. In ' An Outline of the 
Geology of Norfolk,' by S. Woodward (1833), the more important species from the 
Norwich (/halk ai'c illustrated, but descriptions are not given. 

In Fitton's great memoir (1830) on 'The Strata between the Chalk and the 
Oxford Oolite in the south-east of England,' many species of Lamellibi-anchs, 
chiefly from Blackdowu, are excellently figured and briefly described by .1. de C. 
Sowerby ; and most of the type-specimens are now ])reserved in the Hi-istol 
Museum. An accoimt of the more important Lamellibranchs tVom the Lower 
Greensand of the Isle of Wight and of the AVeald is given by Edward Forl)es 
(1845) in a paper entitled 'Catalogue of Lower Greensand Fossils in the JIusenm 
of the Geological Society,' Part I. Most of the specimens therein desci-ibed may 
still be seen in the Society's ]\Iuseum. 

Dealing with almost the same aiva as Mantell's work is the later publication of 



viii CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRAXCHIA. 

F. Dixon on ' The Geology and Fossils of the Tertiary and Cretaceous Forma- 
tions of Sussex' (1850 or 1852). This contains excellent figures of some Chalk 
Lamellibranchs by J. de C. Sowerby, but the descriptions of the species are very 
l)rief, or in some cases even omitted ; moreover, the type-specimens appear to have 
been lost, and in man}- instances their original locality is not stated. 

The latest work on the Lower Cretaceous Lamelliln-anchs of England is that by 
W. Keeping on ' The Fossils and Palajontological Affinities of the Keocomian Deposits 
of Upware and Brickhill ' (1883). Most of the original specimens descrilied in 
that memoir are preserved in the Cambridge Museum. 

A few papers have been published from time to time on the Lamellibi'anehs of 
special horizons, such as those of the Cambridge Greensand by Seeley (1861) and 
by Jukes-Browne (1875, 1877); those of the Faringdon Greensand by Sharpe 
(1853) ; those of the Chalk of Cambridg-e by Etheridge (1881) ; and those of the 
Chalk Rock by myself (1897). Various papers dealing Avith Cretaceous strati- 
graphy give brief notes on some of the species of Lamellibranchs. 

The distribution of the Cretaceous Lamellibranchs of England is indicated in 
many books and papers on stratigraphical and local geology. The more important 
of those dealing with the Lower Cretaceous deposits are : — (i) on the Isle of "Wight 
by Fitton (1847), and by Bristow, Reid, and Strahan (1889); (ii) on the Weald by 
Topley (1875); (iii) on Faringdon by Phillips (1871); (iv) on Lincolnshire In- 
Keeping (1882) and others ; (v) on Speeton by Lamplugh (1889, 1896). 

The distribution of Lamellibranchs in the Gault is given in great detail l)y 
Price (1879) ; in the Upper Greensand of Blackdown and Haldon by Downes 
(1882), in that of Warminster by Jukes-Browne (1896), and in the L^pj^er Green- 
sand and Chloritic Marl of Maiden Bradley by Jukes-Browne and Scanes (1901). 
Amongst the more important works dealing with the zonal distribution in the Chalk 
are those by Barrels (1876), Meyer (1874), Jukes-Browne and Hill (1886-96), 
Griffith (1S91), and Rowe (1900, 1901, 1903). 

The distribution of Cretaceous Lamellibranchs in different districts is also 
indicated in numerous memoirs issued liy the Geological Survey other than those 
above referred to ; and revised lists showing the general distribution of the species 
in the L^^pper Cretaceous rocks are given in the memoir on ' The Cretaceous Rocks 
of Britain,' by Jukes-Browne, vol. i, 1900, pp. 453 — 487, and vol. iii (in the press). 

The following monograph deals with the Lamellibranchs of all the Cretaceous 
deposits of England, with the exception of the Wealden formation, which, it is 
thought, will be more satisfactorily studied in connection with Mollusca of the 
I'urbeck Beds. The species fomid in the lowest part of the Speeton Series in 
Lincolnshire and Yorkshire ai^e, as a matter of convenience, included in this work, 
although they may possibly prove to be of Upper Jurassic age. The families are 
here considei'ed generally in the order given in Pelseneer's classification. 



IXTRODUCTTOX. ix 

Some of the disadvantages of taking sucli a great range of formations are obvious. 
For example, it is almost impossil)le to collect personally from sncli an extensive 
series of beds, or t(3 become sufficiently familiar with their stratigraphical details 
and foreign equivalents. The first of these objections is to a large extent removed 
by the magnificent collections which have been made by many enthusiastic and 
careful workers in the Cretaceous rocks. Some of these collections are still in 
private hands ; many are now preserved in private museums ; but all have been 
placed freely at my disposal. 

Although works dealing with the fossils of limited horizons are often of great 
service to stratigraphical geologists and collectors, yet, from a palaeontological 
standpoint, such works are apt to be somewhat unsatisfactory, since, owing to the 
want of sufficient material for comparison from other horizons, the importance of 
slight differences is liable to be overrated, and a proper idea of the variabiUty of 
the species can scarcely be obtained. Further, some of the differences between 
forms from different l)eds and successive horizons are found to hv due merely to 
dissimilar preservation, or are connected, just as is the case at the present day, 
Avitli the varying conditions under which the forms lived. Moreover, the knowledo"e 
of a genus obtained from the study of a number of species from various horizons 
is obviously much more thorough than when only a few forms from one horizon 
are being considered. 

From a biological standpoint the most satisfactory method would l^e to study a 
.small group, such as a genus or family, and ti'ace it through all formations from its 
earliest appearance to the present day or to the period of its extinction; and 
further, not to limit oneself, as is usually done, to a single couutiw, l)ut to study 
the representatives found in all parts of the world. The difficidties of obtaining 
.specimens and of undertaking such extensive travel as that method of work would 
involve are very great ; but quite as great, in the case of Lamellibi-anchs, is the 
difficulty of becoming familiar with the enormous literature which exists on 
this grouj) of molluscs from every geological system. Consecpiently this method 
can scarcely be attempted until monographs on the Lamellibrauehs found in all the 
geological systems of most countries have appeared. Moreover, such monographs 
are urgently needed in stratigraphical investigations. So that, great as is the 
labour involved in the preparation of a monograph on the Lamellibrauehs of any 
geological system, it can scarcely be regarded as more than a necessary preliminary 
to the work which will be carried out in tlie future on many interesting problems 
in phylogeny and stratigraphy. 

Among.st the collections which have been studied in the course of this work 
are those in the British Museum, the Museum of I'l-actical Geology, and the 
Geological Society of Loudon; the Museums of 13ath, Bristol, Brighton, Cambrido-e, 
Exeter, Xorwich, and York. In all cases help has been freely given by those 

b 



X CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBKANCHiA. 

officia]!}' connected with tlie institutions named, and in tliis respect I desire to 
express my sincere thanks to Mr. H. A. Allen, Mr. H. Bolton, Mr. W. Rupert 
Jones, Mr.F. Lenej, Mr. E. T. Newton, Mr. R. B. Xewton, Mr. H. M. Platnauer, 
Mr. F. R. Rowley, and Dr. A. Smith Woodward. I am also greatly indebted to 
several o-eologists for the loan of specimens from their collections, especially to 
Dr. H. P. Blackmore, Mr. R. ]\1. Brydone, Mr. G. E. Dibley, Mr. R. Fortin, Mr. 
C. Griffith, Mr. A. de Grossouvre, Professor E. Holzapfel, Mr. A. J. Jukes-Browne, 
Mr. G. W. T.ampluo-h, Mr. J. P. J. Ravn, Mr. C. Reid, Dr. A. W. Row^e, Mr. J. 
Scanes, Mr. J. AV. Stather, Mr. .1. F.Walker, and Dr. A. Wollemann. I nmst 
likewise thank Mr. Jukes-Browne and Dr. F. L. Kitehin for their kindness in 
reading the proofs and for other valuable assistance, whilst in liibliographical 
difficulties I owe nuich to the ever-ready help and unrivalled knowledge of 
Mv. C. Davies Sherborn. 

A portion of the travelling expenses involved in the preparation of this work 
and a part of the cost of the drawings have been defrayed from two grants made 
to me by the Government Grant Committee of the Royal Society. Every facility 
for carrying on this work in the Woodwardian Museum has been given me liy 
Professor T. McKenny Hughes, whose kindness I gladly take this opportunity of 
gratefully ackno \yledgi ng. 



HUJLlUGKArHY OF THE CllETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 



[This Biljliiigrapliy Joes not iuclufle Strut igrapliical Memoirs -n-hicli give only lists of Cretaceous 

Laiuellibrauclis.] 



Ai.'ASSiz, L. Etiides critiques sur les ]\Iollus(Hies fossiles. Xeuchatel, 18-40-45. 
Part I, 18-iO; Part II, 1842 ; Part III, 1812 ; Part IV, 184-5. 

Aless,vxi)1!1, G. de. Fossili cretacei della Lombardia. Palseont. Ttal.,\o\. iv (1898), 
p. 1G9. [Lamellibranchs, pp. 180—189, 191—200.] 

■ Xuovi Fossili de Senoniano Lombardo. liendiconti 11. List. Lombardo dl 

Sci. e Lett., ser. 2, vol. xxxiv (1901), p. 18o. [Lamellibrauchs, 
pp. 192—197.] 

Ar/i'H, A. Geognostiscli-palaeoutologischc Besclireibmig der luiclisteu Umgebuug 
von Lemberg. Haidiiiger'.s Ndfnni-t.ss. Abhandl., vol. iii, pt. ii (1850), 
p. 171. [Lamellibranchs, pp. 227 — 255.] 

Anthula, D. J. Ueber die Kreidefossilien des Kaukasus, init einem allgemeinen 
tiberblick liber die Entwicklung der Sedimentiirbildungen des Kaukasus. 
Beitr. z. Paldont. u. Geol. Osterr.-Umjanis u. d. Orients, vol. xii, pts. 2, 3, 
Vienna (1899), p. 55. [Lamellibranchs, pj). 71 — 91.] 

Oji the ^liddle Neocomiau of Tzernovatz. Ami. (jcol. Peiiin. BaJlcan, vol. vi 

(1903), p. {■>. [Lamellibranchs, pp. 51—62.] 

Archtac, a. d'. Memoire sur la Formation (,'retacc du sud-ouest de la France. 
Mem. >Sor. c/col. de France, vol. ii (1837), p. 157. [Lamellibranchs, 
pp. 181—189.] 

Rapport sur les Fossiles du Tourtia. Ibid., ser. 2, vol. ii (1817), p. 2".tl. 

[Lamellibranchs, pp. 300—313.] 

• Coupe geologique des environs des Bains de Rennes (Aude), .suivie de la 

description de quelques fossiles de cette localite. Bull. Sac. geol. de 
France, ser. 2, vol. xi (185-4), p. 185. [Lamellibranchs, pp. 208 — 216.] 

Arnaud, H. Position des Hippiirites dllatatus et Hipjmrites biuculatus dans la 
serie ci'etacee. Bnll. Sor. ijeol. de France, ser. 3, vol. xii (1883), p. 138. 

Baily, "W. H. Descriptions of some Cretaceous Fossils from South Africa. Qnart. 
Juurii. iteol. Soc, vol. xi (1855), p. 454. [Lamellibranchs, pp. 460 — 463.] 



xii BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE 

Bakkojs, C. Memoire sur le Terrain Cretace des Ardennes et des Eegions yoisines. 
Aunal. Sor. g>'ol. dn Nord, vol. v (1878), p. 227. [Lamellibranchs, pp. 300, 
301, 405—408, 419, 420, 474—479.] 

Sur qnelques especes nouvelles ou pen connues du Terrain Cretace du Kord 

de la France. Ihid., vol. vi (1879), p. 449. [Lamellibranclis, pp. 
452—456.] 

Bayle, E. Observations sur la structure des coquilles de Hipimrites, sim-ies de 
quelques remarques sur les Radiolites. Bull Soc. (jcol. de France, ser. 2, 
vol. xii (1855), p. 772. 

Observations surle R<idi(d!fe.-< Jonanvetl. Ibid., ser. 2, vol. xiii (1855), p. 102. 

Observations sur le Badiolitet^ cornn-pa.storis. Ibid., ser. 2, vol. xni (1855), 

p. 139. 

• Observations sur le Spluvriditcs foUacevx. Ibid., ser. 2, vol. xiii (1855), 

p. 71. 

Nouvelles observations sur (pielques especes de Rudistes. Ibid., ser. 2, 

vol. xiv (1857), p. 647. 

Sur les Rudistes decouverts dans la craie de ]\Iaestriclit. Ibid., ser. 2, 

vol. XV (1858), p. 210, pi. iii. 

Explication de la carte geologique de France. Vol. iv. Atlas, pt. 1. Fossiles 

principaux des Terrains^ Paris, 1878. [Lamellibranclis, pis. ciii— 
cxh'iii.] 

and CoQUAND, H. Memoire sur les fossiles secondaires recueillis dans le 

Cliili. Mem. Soc. gcol. dr France, ser. 2, vol. iv (1851), p. 1. [Lamelli- 
branclis, pp. 37, 38.] 

Beheendsen, 0. Zur Geologic des Ostablianges der argentinisclien Cordillera. 
Zeiischr. d. dent.^cli. geol GeseUsch., vol. xliii (1891), p. 369. [Lamelli- 
branclis, pp. 417 — 119.] 

Beheens, G. Ueber die Kreideablagerungen anf der Insel Wollin. Zeifsch: d. 
deutsch. qeol. (leselhch., vol. xxx (1878), p. 229. [Lamellibranclis, 
pp. 256—260.] 

Bi.AiNViLLE, H. M. D. UE. Mauuel de Malacologie et de Concliyliologie. Text 1825. 
Plates 1827. Paris. [Lamellibranclis, pp. 508—581.] 

Dictionnaire des Sciences naturelles. Planches. Gonchylinloiiie et Mulucoloijie. 

Paris, 1816-30. 

Blaxckenhokn, M. Beitriige zur Geologic Syriens : Die Entwickelung des Ivreide- 
systems in ]\Iittel- und iS'ord-Syrien. Eine geognostiscli-paliiontologisclie 
Monographic. Cassel, 1890. [Lamellibranchs, pp. 71 — 97.] 

BuEHii, Gr. Beitrage zur Kenntniss der Hilsmulde. Zeiischr. d. deutsch. qeol. 
GeseUsch., vol. xxix (1877), p. 215. [Lamellibranchs, pp. 231—242.] 

• Coralliochama. Zeltschr. d. deutsch. geol. GeseUsch., vol. xliv (1892), p. 560. 

Ueber Cormicaprina. Neues Jahrh. filr Miu., etc. (1893), vol. ii, p. 129. 



CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. xiii 

BoKHM, G. Beitrag- znr Kenntniss der Kreide in den Sudalpen. Palxontograpliica, 
vol. xli (1895), p. 81. [Lamellibranchs, pp. 96—132, 137—142.] 

• Beitrag zur Gliederung- dcr Kreide in den Venetianer Alpen. Zelfschr. <l 

tleui>ich. qeoh (Scselhrh., vol. xlix (1897), p. 100. [Lamellibranclis, pp. 

172—178.] 

■ Ueber Caprinidenkalke aus Mexico. Ibid., vol. 1 (1898), p. 323. [Lamelli- 

In-anclis, pp. 324 — 330.] 

Beitriige zur Kenntniss niexicanisclier Capridenkalke. Feliv and LenV^ 

lleitr. ■■. Gnd. n. I'al. d. L'epuhl. Mrxko, pt. 2 (1899), p. 143. [Lamelli- 
branchs, pp. 146 — 151.] 

Boii.M, J. Der Griinsand von Aachen und seine Mollnsken-Fauna. \'crhnndl. (?'•■< 
naturhist. Vereiues der 'preu.^^iscli. liheiii]., vol. xlii (1885), p. 1. [Lamelli- 
branchs, pp. 75 — 147.] 

Die Kreidel)ildung-en des Fiirbergs und Sulzliergs bei Siegsdorf in Ober- 

bayern. rahvoidofirayhlcn, vol. xxxviii (1891), p. 1. [Lamellibranchs, 
pp. 70—93.] 

■ Ueber cretaceische Gastropoden vom Libanon und vom Karmcl. Zeitschr. d. 

deidsch. (/eul. ae.selL^ch., vol. Hi (1900), ]). 189. [Lamellibranchs, p. 218.] 

BdiiisiAK, A. Sur les Aucelles du Crctacc inferieur de la Crijnce. Bidl. Com. 
iieol. St. Petershour,j, vol. xx (1901), p. 279. 

BostiUKT, J. Fossiele Fauna en Flora van het Krijt van Limburg. Li W. C. H. 
Staring's Nafiiiirlijke. Hititorie van Nederland. De Bodeiu ran Nederland, 
vol. ii (1860). Haarlem. [Lamellibranchs, pp. 376 — 388.] 

BouLE, M. Note sur les Fossiles rapportes de Madagascar par M. E. Gautier. 
Jlull. Mks. d'Eii^t. n<it., vol. i (1895), p. LSI. [Lamellibranchs, pp. 182, 
185, 186.] 

Boyle, C. B. A Catalogue and Bibliographv of North American Mesozoic Inverte- 
brata. Bull. U. S. Gcol Snroei/, 'Washington, No. 102 (1893). Part I, 
Bibliography ; Part II, Alphabetical List of Species. 

Beauns, D. Die senonen Mergel des Salzberges bei Qucdlinburg und ihre orga- 
nischen Einschliisse. Zeitsrhr. f. d. gesainmt. Nafuriri^smsch., vol. xlvi 
(1876), p. 325. [Lamellibranchs, pp. 357 — 395.] 

BuiAET, A., and Cornet, F. L. Description mineralogique, geologi(iue, et paleonto- 
logique de la Meule de liracquegnies. Mem. couron. et Mem. des savavf.s 
etravg.Acad. Jloij. Bctg., vol. xxxiv (1868). [Lamellibranchs, pp. 4-5 — 8 !■.] 

Bkuilt, F. LTeber die Fauna tier Orbitolinen fidirenden Schicliteu tier unter.sten 
Kreide in der Kriin. Aldiavdl. d. I: bai/er. Akml. d. Wins. Miinrhev, CI. ii, 
vol. xxi (1902), p. 603. [Lamellibranchs, pp. 606—608.] 

Bhonn, H. G. Hippnriles. In Erscher and Gruber's Allgem. Encyrt. d. Wissevsch. 
n. Kiiii.de, sect, ii, pt. 8 (18;)1), pp. 371 — 376. 

■ Die Versteinerungen des Salza-'I'lialcs. JifJnh.f. Min., (Jeogn., GeoL, u. rdrr- 

J'actenk. [3], (1832), p. 150. [Lamelliln'anchs, pp. 172*, 178.] 



xiv BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE 

Bronx, H. Gr. Letli^a Geognostica oder Abbildimgen und Besclireibung der fiir 
die Gebirgs-Formationen bezeiclmendsten Versteiuenmgen. Vol. ii, 
Stuttgart, 1838. [Lamellibrauclis, pp. (323— (III, (367— 7U5.] 

. Ibid. Third Edition (by Bronn and Romer). Vol. ii, pt. v (1851-2). 

[Lamellibranclis, pp. 240 — 305.] 

Index PalfBontologicus. Vol. i (1848) ; vol. ii (1849). Stuttgart. 

Bkuguiere, J. G. Histoire naturelle des Vers et des ]\Iollusques. Encydopedle 
methodique, Paris, 1789—1832. Vol. I, pp. 1—3 14 (1789), pp. 345—758 
(1792). Vol. II, pp. 1—144 (1830), pp. 145—594 (1832). Vol. Ill (by 
Deshayks), pp. 595 — 1152 (1832). (For dates see Sherborn and Wood- 
Avard, rroc. Zool. Sor., 1899, p. 595.) 

BucH, L. VON. Petrifications recueillies en Americpie par Mr. A. de Humboldt et 
par Charles Degenhardt. Berlin, 1839. (Also in von Bucli's Gesam- 
melte Schriften, vol. iv, pt. 2, 1885, p. 519.) 

BuKCKHARDT, C. Beitrage zur Kenntniss der Jura- und Kreideformatiou der 
Cordillere. Palmmfopraphka, vol. 1 (1903), p. 1. [Cretaceous Lamelli- 
branclis, pp. 70 — 84, pis. xii — xvi.] 

BuRCKUAEDT, R. Le Gisement Supracretacique de Roca (Rio Xegro). llev. Mua. 
de la Plata, vol. x (1901), p. 207. [Lamellibranchs, pp. 212—214.] 

BuviGNiER, A. Statistique geologique, mineralogique, minerallurgique et paleon- 
tologique du departement de la Meuse.- With atlas. Paris, etc., 1852. 
[Lamellibranchs in atlas, pp. 8 — 2(3.] 

Chofi'.vt, p. Description des Fossiles Cretaciques : ]\Iollus(pies. In 1'. Choffat ct 
P. de Loriol, Materianx pour I'etude stratigraphique et paleontologique 
de la Province d' Angola. Mnn. Soc. Phi/s. et d'Hist. nat. de Genrce, vol. 
XXX, No. 2 (1888), p. 61. [Lamellibranchs, pp. 82—95.] 

Bibliographie recente du group de Ostrca Joanna.'. Per. Grit. Paleozool. 

(1898), p. 179. Also Com.m. d. trahalhos qeol. Portugal, vol. iii (1898), 
p. 292. 

• Recueil d'etudes paleontologiques snr la Faune Cretacique du Portugal. 

Vol. i. Especes nouvelles ou pen connues. Ser. 3. Mollusques du Seno- 
nien a facies fluvio-marin. [Lamellibranchs, pp. 96 — 104.] Ser. 4. 
Especes diverses. [Lamellibranchs, pp. 132 — 168.] 1901-2. 

CoLLOT, L. Description du Terrain cretace dans une partie de la Basse-Provence. 
Bull. Sor. r/eol. de France, ser. 3, vol. xviii (1890), p. 49. [Brief Xotes on 
Lamellibranchs, pp. (iO, 6], 100— 102.] 

Sur les Trigonies byssiferes. Riid., ser. 3, vol. xxvii (1899), p. 224. 

CoNEAD, T. A. Notes on Shells, with descriptions of New Species. Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci Phllad., vol. vi (1852), p. 199. [Lamellibranchs, p. 200.] 

■— Notes on Shells. Ihld., p. 320. 

Descriptions of New Fossil Shells of the United States. .Tmirn. Arad. Nat. 

Sei. Philad., ser. 2, vol. ii, pt. 3 (1853), pp. 273—276. Ibid., pt. 4 
(1854), pp. 299, 300. 



CRETACKOl^S LAMELLIBRANCHIA. xv 

CoNHAD, T. A. Descriptions of Eighteen New Cretaceous and Tertiary Fossils, etc. 
Proc. Acail. Xaf. Sri. PhiloJ., vol. vii (185')), p. 2C)5. [Lamellibrauclis, 
p. 2(36.] 

Descriptions of One Tertiary and Eight New Cretaceous Fossils from Texas. 

/W(/., p. 2(i8. 

Descriptions of Cretaceous ami Tertiary Fossils. Bej). U. S. and Mexican 

Bonnddvii Surrci/, vol. i. [)t. 2 (1857). p. I 11. [Laniellibi'anchs, i)p. 1 1^ 
-157.] • 

Observations on a. Ci-uup of Cr(>taeeous Fossil Shells found iu Ti^jpah Count}', 

Miss., with descrijitions of fifty-six new species. Jonrii. Acad. Naf. Sri. 
Fhilud., ser. 2, vol. iii (1S58), p. :323. [Laniellibranchs, i)p. :524— 330.] 

Description of New Species of Cretaceous and Eocene Fossils of Mississippi 

and Alal)ama. .Joiirn. Acad. Naf. Sci. I'liiladrlphia, ser. 2, vol. iv, pt. iii 
(18(10), p. 275. [Laniellibranchs, pp. 276—283.] 

Descriptions of New Species of Cretaceous Fossils. //-/'/., [). 299. [Lamelli- 

brauclis, pp. 302—305.] 

Descriptions of New Species of Tertiary, Cretaceous, and Recent Shells. 

Amrriciiii .Tdiirii. I^nirh., vol. ii (1866), pp. 10|., I(t5. 

Descriptions of and References to Miocene Shells of the Atlantic Slope, and 

descriptions of two new supposed Cretaceous species. Ibid., vol. iv 
(1868), p. 278. 

Descriptions of New Fossil Mollusca, principally Cretaceous. ////'/., vol. v 

(1870), pp. 96— 103. 

Descriptions of New Genera and Species of Fossil Shells of North Carolina 

in the State Cabinet at Raleigh. Ajjpetidix to W. C. Kerr''.-^ Report Geol. 
Sure. K. Cowl ilia, vol. i (1875), Raleigh. [Lamelliln-anchs, pp. 2 — 11.] 

Synopsis of the Cretaceous Mollusca of North Carolina. Il'i<l., p. 1:>. 

[Laniellibranchs, pp. 13 — 16.] 

CooPEi!, J. G. On some New Cretaceous (and Eocene?) Mollusca of California. 
Froc. Califuni. Acad. Sci., ser. 2, vol. vi (1896), p. 330, pis. xlvii, xlviii. 

Coi^iAxn, H. Notice sur les richesses paleontologiques de la province de Con- 
stantiiie. .Iniini. dr Cuiirln/I., vol. iii (1852), p. -118. [Lanicllil)ranclis, 
PI). 4:):], \-M:] 

■ Syjio[>sis des aniniaux et dcs vegetaux fossiles observes dans la formation 

crctacec du sud-onest dr la Fi'ance. Hall. Sac. qrol. de France, ser. 2, vol. 
xvi (1859), p. 9 15. [Laniellibranchs, p]). 957—962, 969, 970, 975, 970, 
982—985, 909-1008, 1017, 1018.] 

Description phj-sirpie, geologic pie, pah'ontologiipie, et minci-alogi(pie du depart e- 

ineiit de la Charente, 2 vols. Vol. L Besancon, 1858. Vol. 11. Marsedle, 
18(30. [Laniellibranchs, vol. ii, pp. 102—109, 119—121, 123—125, 
128—131, 1 l(t— 115, 1(34—177.] 

Geologic et raleontologie de la Region sud de la I'rovince de Coiistantine. 

With Atlas, 1862. [Lamellibranchs, pp. 189 — 235, pis. vi — xxiii.] 



xvi BIBLTOGEAPHY OF THE 

CoQUAND, H. Monographie de VEtage Aptien de I'Espagne. Marseille, I860. 
[Lamellibranclis, pp. 87 — 1 70.] 

Monographie du genre Ofitmi. Marseille, 18C9. 

CiiTTKAiT, G. Etudes sur les j\Iollusques Fossiles du departement de I'Youne. Bull. 
Soc. Scl. Ynniie, vols, vi — xi, 1852-57. [Lamellibranclis (in vol. ix), 
pp. 48—124, 1855.] 

CiiAGTNj F. W. Contributions to tlie Palaeontology of the Plains, Xo. 1. Bull. 
WaMurn Coll. Lah., vol. ii, Xo. 10 (1889), p. 05. [Laniellibranchs, 
pp. 67, 68.] 

Crepjteb, H. Die Kreide von New Jersey. Zeifschr. d. (leufsrh. ijeol. Gescllsch., 
vol. XX (1870), p. 191. [Lameliibranchs, pp. 225—237.] ' 

CuviEB, G., and A. Beon(;\iart. Description geologique des couches des environs 
de Paris, etc., in Cuvieb, Recherches sur les Ossemens Fossiles, vol. ii, 
pt. 2 (June, 1822). Paris. [Lameliibranchs, pp. 597—604, 008, 609.] 

Da[xelli, G. Appunti geologici suUa parte nieridionale de Capo di Leuca. Boll. 
Soc. gpul. If alia nil, vol. xx (1901), p. 6 1 6. [Lameliibranchs, pp. 642 — 651 .] 

Daintree, E., see R. ETJiKRrroE. 

Dames, W. Ueber PtijrJiiinn/a. Zeitschr. d. deutsch.. i/eoL (ji'svJJsch., vol. xxv 
(1873), p. 374. 

Ueber Diluvialgeschiebe cenomanen Alters. Ibid., \o\. xxvi (1874), p. 76. 

[Lameliibranchs, pp. 762-6.] 

Depbance, M. J. L. Dictionnaire des Sciences naturelles . . . ]jar plusieurs 
Professeurs du Jardin du Roi, et des principales ficoles de Paris. 
Strasbourg- and Paris, 61 vols., 1816-45. 

Deicke, H. Beitrage zur geognostischen und palaontologischen Beschaffenheit der 
untei'en Ruhro-eo-end. Erster Beitrag- : Die Tourtia in der Umo-eo-end 
von Miilheim a. d. Ruhr {Beilagi; zinn 23 Jahresberirlite der Eealschiile 
I. Ordiiinig ?ya Miilkeim an der EuJir), 1876. [Lameliibranchs, pp. 25 — 
29.] 

Deshayes, G. p. Traite Elementaire de Conchyliologie, avec les Applications de 
cette science a la Geologic. 2 vols. Paris, 1839-53. 



-^and Milne-Edwabds, H., see Lamarck. 

Dieulafait, L. Position de VOstrea Conhnii dans le Neocomien du sud-est de la 
France. Bull. Soc. fjeol. de France, ser. 2, vol. xxvii (1870), p. 431. 

Dixon, F., see J. de C. Sowerby. 

DoNCiEUX, L. Monographie geologique et paleontologique des Corbieres Orientales. 
Annul, de I'Univers. de Li/em, n. s., fascic. 11 (1903). [Lameliibranchs, 
pp. 307—310.] 

DouviLLE, H. Essai sur la Morphologic des Rudistes. B^dl. Soc. geol. de France, 
ser. 3, vol. xiv (1886), p. 389. 



CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. xvii 

DouviM.E, H. Sur quelques formes pen connues de la famille ties CliamidEe. 
////(/., ser. 3, vol. xv (1887), p. 756. 

Etudes sur les Caprines. Ibid., ser. 3, vol. xvi (1888), p. 699. 

Sur rpielques Rudistes du terrain cretace inferieur de Pj'renees. Ibid., 

ser. 3, vol. xvii (1889), p. 627. 

Etudes sur les Rudistes. Revision des principales espcces d'Hippurites. 

Mem. Soc. geol. de France, Pal^ont., vol. i, no. 6 (1890), pis. xv — xvii. 

• Sur les caracteres internes des Sauvagesia. L'liU. Soc. (jeol. de France, ser. 3, 

vol. xix (1891), p. 609. 

• Etudes sur les Rudistes. V. Sur les Rudistes du Gault superieur du 

Portugal. Ibid., ser. 3, vol. xxvi (1898), p. 140. 

Sur les Couches u Rudistes du Texas. Ibid., ser. 3, vol. xxvi (1898), p. 387. 

Sur quelques Rudistes americains. Ibid., ser. o, vol. xxviii (1900), p. 205. 

Sur la distribution geograpliique des Rudistes, des Orbitolines et des Oi'bi- 

toides. Ibid. (1900), p. 222. 

■ Classification des Radiolites. Ibid., ser. 4, vol. ii (1902), p. 461, pi. xv. 

Sur un nouveau genre de Radiolites. Ibid. (19U2), p. 478, pi. xv. 

Sur le genre Chondrodonta, Stanton. Ibid. (1902), p. 314. 

Drescher, R. Ueber die Kreide-Bildungen der Gegend von Lowenberg. Zeitschr. 
d. deufsch. (jeol. GescUscli., vol. xv (1863), p. 291. [Lamellibranclis, 
pp. 341 — 357.] 

Drouet, C. Sur un nouveau genre de coquille [_Neithea'] de la fainille des Arcacees, 
et description d'une nouvelle espece de Modiole fossile. Mem. Soc. Linn. 
dr. Paris, vol. iii (1824), p. 183, ])1. vii. 

Dfjardin, F. ]\Iemoire sur les couches du Sol en Touraine, et description des 
coquilles de la ('raie des Faluns. Mem. Soc. geol. de France, vol. ii 
(1837), p. 211. [Lamellibranchs, pp. 223—230.] 

EiCHWALii, E. V. Ueber die Neocomschichten Russlands. Zeitschr. d. deutscli. 
aeol. (jesellsch., vol. xviii (1866), p. 245. [Lamellibranchs, pp. 259 — 203, 
270—273.] 

Letha?a Rossica ou Palcontologie de la Russie. Vol. ii (Periode moyenne). 

With Atlas. Stuttgart, 1866-9 (pp. 1—224, 1866; 225—832, 1868; 
833—1304, 1869). "[Lamellibranchs, pp. 355—797.] 

Elbert, J. Das untere Angoumien in den Osningbergketten des Teutoburger 
A\^»ldes. Vrrli. naf. Vi-r. d. preussisch. Rheinl., >'fr., vol. Iviii (1902), 
p. 77. [Lamcllilmiuchs, pp. 108 — 112.] 

Etiieripce, R. Description of the Palaeozoic and Mesozoic Fossils of Queensland. 
[x\ppendix 1 to h'. Daintree's Notes on the Geology of the Colony of 
Queensland.] Quart. Journ. G'eol. Soc, vol. xxviii (1872), p. 317. 
[Lamellil)ranchs, pp. 338 — 344.] 

c 



xvni 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE 



Etheridge, R. In Penning, W. H., and Jukes-Browne, A. J. The Geology of 
the Neighbourhood of Cambridge. With a Palfeontological Appendix by 
R. Etheridge. Mem. Geol. Suroey, 1881. [Lamellibranchs, pp. 1-il — 

147.] 

Etheridge, R., jun. A Catalogue of Australian Fossils (including Tasmania and 
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The Cretaceous Mollusca of South Australia and the Northern Territory. 

Mem. Boy. Sue. South Australia, vol. ii, pt. i (1902). [Lamellibranchs, 
pp. 8—39.] 

See Jack, R. L. 



Budes-Deslongschamps, J. A. Essai sur les Plicatules fossiles des Terrains du 
Calvados, at sur quelques autres genres voisins on demembres de ces 
coquilles. Mem. Soc. Linn, de Normaiul., vol. xi (1858), p. 1. 

Evans, J., and Shujiakd, B. F. On some New Species of Fossils from the 
Cretaceous Formation of Nebraska Territory. Trans. Acad. Sci. St. 
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Ewald, J. Ueber die Grenze zwischen Neocomien und Gault. Zeitschr. d. deutsch. 
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Exogyra columha. Ibid., vol. ix (1857), p. 12. 

Ueber die Fossile Fauna des unteren Gault bei Ahaus in AYestphalen. 

Monatshericlde d. l: preuss. Akad. d. Wissensch. ::u Berlin, 1860 (1861), 
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Faujas-Saint-Fond, B. Histoire naturelle de la Montagne de Saint-Pierre de 
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Favre, E. Description des Mollusques fossiles de la Craie des Environs de Lem- 
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Also published in Felix and Lenk's Beitr. z. Geol. u. Pal. Repuhl. d. Mexico, 
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FiTTON, W. H., see J. de C. Soweeby. 

Forbes, E. Report on the Fossils from Santa Fe de Bogota, presented to the 
Geological Society by Evan Hopkins. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. i 
. (1845), ]). 174. [Lamellibranchs, p. 179.] 

On the Fossil Shells collected by Mr. Lyell from the Cretaceous Formations 

of New Jersey. Ibid., vol. i (1845), p. 61. 

Catalogue of Lower Greensand Fossils in the Museum of the Geological 

Society. Part I. Acephala Lamellibranchiata. Ibid., vol. i (1845), p. 237. 

Report on the Fossil Invertebrata from Southern India, collected by 

Mr. Kaye and Mr. Cunliffe. Trans. Geol. Soc, ser. 2, vol. vii, pt. 3 
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CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. xix 

Fbaas, 0. Geologisclies aus dem Orient. Jalirfsh. Ver. vat. Natiirl: in JFiirtL, 
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Geologisclies aus dem Libaiion. Ihid., vol. xx.xiv (187S), p. 2'>7. [Lamelli- 

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Aus dem Orient. I. Geologisclie Beobaclitungen am Nil, auf der Sinai- 

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Fkanchis, F. dk. MoUusclii della Creta media del Lecesse. Boll. Soc. yeul. Ital., 
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Fkech, F. Die Versteinerungen der unter-senonen Thonlager zwischen Suderode 
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FiMTScii, A. Studien im Geliiete der b()hmischen Kreideformation. II. Die "NVeis- 
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Ihid. III. Die Iserschichten. {Ihkh, vol. v, 1883.) [Lamellibranchs, 

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Ihid. IV. Die Teplitzer Schichten. {Ihid., vol. vii, 1889.) [Lamellibranchs, 

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Wul. V. Priesener Schichten. {Ihid., vol. ix, 1893.) [Lamellibranchs, 

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Ihid. \l. Die Chlomeker Schichten. {Ihid., vol. x, 1897.) [Lamelliliranchs, 

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• and Bayec, E. Ihid. VII. Perucer Schichten. (//>/J., vol. xi, 1901.) 

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FuTTERER, K. Die Oberen Kreidebildungen der Umgebung des Lago di Santa 
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— — Ucber einige Versteinerungen aus der Kreideformation der Karnischen 
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Gabb, AV. M. Descriptions of some New Species of Cretaceous Fossils. Journ. 
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Descriptions of Ncav Species of American Tertiary and Cretaceous Fossils. 

Ihid., ser. 2, vol. iv, pt. iv (1860), p. 375. [Lamellibranchs, pp. 393— 
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— — Synopsis of the Mollusca of the Cretaceous Formation, including the 
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XX BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE 

Gabb, W. M. Descriptions of New Species of Cretaceous Fossils from New Jersey, 
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Notes on Cretaceous Fossils, with descriptions of a few additional new species. 

Ihid., p. 3G3. [Lamellibranclis, pp. 304 — 307.] 

Geological Survey of California. Palmoutoloi/i/. 

Vol. I, sect. iv. Description of tbe Cretaceous Fossils (18G4-), p. 57. 
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Vol. II, sect. ii. Cretaceous Fossils (18011). [Lamellibranchs, pp. 175 — 
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Notes on American Fossils, with descriptions of some new species. Ibid., 

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Description of a Collection of Fossils made by Dr. Antonio Raimondi in 

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Ihid. Pt. 2 (1840). [Lamellibranchs, pp. 49—00.] 

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(1873). 



CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRAXCHIA. xxi 

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Beitriige zur Paliiontologie. Berlin, 1853. IT. Beitrag zur Paliiontologio 

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xxn 



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et Toucas, a. Materiaux pour servir a la description du Terrain Cretacu 

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Heili'KIN, a. The Geology and Pala?ontology of the Cretaceous Deposits of 
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Hennig, a. Om Ahussandstenen. Geol. Furen. i Stockholm Furlumdl., vol. xvi 
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Revision af Lamellibranchiaterna i Nilsson's " Petrificata Suecana Forma- 

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Faunan i Skanes Yngre Krita. II. Lamellil)ranchiaterna. Bill. K. SvensJra 

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Hilbee, V. Pironeea slaconica. Jahrh. d. Ic. k. geol. Beichsanst. (Wien), vol. Ii 
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CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRAXCHIA. xxiii 

Hill, R. T. PalEeontology of the Cretaceous Formations of Texas. Parti. {Univ. 
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TlnJ. The Invertebrate Pateontology of the Trinity Division. Proc. 

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oo go I 

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HisiNGEK, W. Letha^a Suecica sen Petrificata Suecite iconil)us ct characteribus 
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HoLZAPFEL, E. Die ]\Iollusken der Aachener Kreide. III. Lamellibranchiata. 
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HoMMAiRE DE Hell, X., see h'Orbiony. 

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Further Notes on some Mollusca from South Australia. Ibid. (1890), p. 241 

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Imkeller, H. Die Kreidcbildungen und ihre Kauna am Stallauer Eck und 
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Jack, R. L., and R. EriiKiiiunt:, jun. The Geology and Paleontology of Queens- 
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Jim no, K. Beitriige /,ur Kenntniss der Fauna der Kreideformation von Hokkaido. 
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xxiv BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE 

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CRP^TAC'EOUS LAMELLIBRAXCHIA. xxv 

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Ka:xKX, A. vox. Uljer Fossilien der nnteivii Krcide am Ufer des Mnngo in 
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Kk.\use, p. Ct. tlljer Tertiiire, Cretaceische und Altere Ablagerungen ans West 
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KiiAi'SS, F. Ueber die geologisclien Verliiiltnisse der ostlichen Kiiste des Kap- 
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Ueber einige Petrefacten aus der nntern Kreide des Kaplandes. Nov. Act. 

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KuxTH, A. L^eber die Kreidemulde bei Liilm in Nieder-Schlesien. Zeitschr. d. 
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Lahusen, J. Die Lioceranien-Scliicliten an dem Olenek und der Lena. Mnn. 
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d 



xxvi BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE 

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IjEA, I. Descriptions of Xew Fossil Mollusca from the Cretaceous Formation at 
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Descriptions of UnionidEe from the Lower Cretaceous Formation of New 

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LENbiY, F. A List of the Type, Figured, and Described Fossils in the Norwich 
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Leonhaed, R. Die Fauna der Kreideformation in Oberschlesien. Paleeonto- 
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Letmerie, a. Suite du Memoire sur le Terrain Cretace du Departement de I'Aube. 
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CRETACEOT'S EAMELLIBRANCHIA. xxvii 

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xxvau 



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(.'RETACEOUS l,.\:\IELLIBRAX('HIA. xxix 

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XXX BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE 

Morton, S. G. Two ne^x species of Fossils from tlie Lower Ci-etaceous Strata of 
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Description of some new species of Organic Remains of tlie Cretaceous 

Group of the United States, etc. Joimi. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., ser. 1 , 
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jMoulins, C. Des. Essai sur les Sphernlites, et considerations sur la famille 

a laqnelle ces fossiles appartiennent. Bull, delist, i^nt. Soc. Linn, de 
Bordeaux, etc., vol. i, 182(). 

MuLLEK, G. Beitrag ziir Kenntniss der ol)eren Kreide am ntirdlichen Harzrande. 
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Die IMoUiiskenfauna des Untersenon von Braunsclnveig i;nd Ilsede. 

I. Lamellibrancliiaten nnd Glossophoren. Ahhandl. d. h. 2^^'(i^^^sisch. 
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Versteinerungen des Jura und der Kreide. In AY. Bornliardt ' Zur Ober- 

flachengest. n. Geol. Deutsch-Ostafrikas.' Dentt<ch-Ost-Afri!:a, vol. vii 
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IMi'LLEK, J. Monograpbie der Petrefacten der Aacliener Kreideformation. Bonn. 
Part 1, 1847; jiart 2, 1851. Supplement, Aachen, 1859. 

Muxiee-Chalmas, E. Prodrome d'une classification des Rudistes. Jovrn. de 
ConchjL, ser. 3, vol. xiii (1873), p. 71. 

Etudes critiques sur les Rudistes. BvU. Soc. qftd. di- France, ser. 3, vol. x 

(1882), p. 473. 

Note sur les Rudistes. Ibid., ser. :!, vol. xvi (1888), p. 819. 

MuECHTSON, DE Yehneuil, and Keyseklino, see d'Okbigny. 

Neumate, M., and Holdb, E. LTeber einige Fossilien aus der LTiteuhage-Formation 
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Newton, E. T., and Ethekidcje, R. A Catalogue of the Cretaceous Fossils in the 
Museum of Practical Geology. London, 1878. [Laniellibranchs, pp. 
11—21, 28—32, 39—42, 52—60, 67, 68, 73, 74, 78, 83, 84, 97—99.] 

Newton, R. B. Notes on Fossils from ]\Iadagascar, with descriptions of two New- 
Species of Jurassic Pelecypoda from that island. [Appendix to Notes on 
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On the Occurrence of Alectryonia tingtilata in' S.E. Africa, -with a notice of 

previous researches on the Cretaceous Conchology of Southern Africa. 
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An account of the Albian Fossils lately discovered at Okeford Fitzpaine, 

Dorset. Proc. Dor.^et Nat. Hi.^t. and Antiq. Field Cluh, vol. xviii (1897), 
p. 66. [Laniellibranchs, pp. 71-74, 84—97.] 



CRETACEOUS LAMELIJBRANCHIA. xxxi 

Nkwtox, R. B. On some Cretaceous .Shells from l^uypt. (ieol. Mcuj. (18'.'^), 
p. -.VM-. [Lamellibrtiuclis, pp. ;V.)0— 4Uo.] 

NiKiTix, S. Les Vestiges de la IVriodo cretace dans la Russie ceiitrale. Mem. da 
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NiLSSOX, S. Petrificata Suecana Forinationis (,'retacete, desci-ipta et iconibus 
illnstrata. l.niid, 1827. 

X6Tr,iN(;, F. Die Fauna der l)altisclieu Cenoman-Gescliiebe. Palseont. AhhandL, 
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Eutwurf einer (jliedeniug dcr Xreidefoi'iiiation in Svrieii und Palastina. 

Zeitschr. il. ih'utsch. i/eol. Gesellsch., vol. xxxviii (188()), p. 824. 
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Fauna of Baluchistan. Vol. i, pt. 2. The Fauna of the (Xeoconiian) Behui- 

nites Beds. Falanont. Indica, 1897. [Lamellibranchs, j)p. 1, 2.] 

Ihid., pt. o. Fauna of the Upper Cretaceous (Miiestrichtien) Beds of the 

Mari Hills. IhUl, 18'.>7. [Lamellibranchs, pp. 37—53.] 

Xyst, H. p. Tableau synopti(pie et synouymique des especes vivantes et fossiles de 
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OoSTEE, AY. A. Beitrag zar Kenntniss der Fanna der obcrstcn Kreideschicht am 
Xord-ufer des Thuner-See's (Berner-Alpen). I'rofozoe Helvetica, vol. ii 
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Die organischen Rester der L'teropodeuschicht einer L^nterlage der Kreide- 

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Oppenhedi, p. Ueber einige Brackwasser- und Binnen-]\lollusken aus der Kreide 
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Ueber ein iil)errasc!uMi(k's Auftreten von Exoqi/ra colaialm, Lk., bei Crespano 

Veneto. d-iilralhl. fiir Miu., ftr. (1902), p. 500. 

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Okbigny, a. ii'. (^uelques considerations zoologiques et geologiques sur les 
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and Atlas.] 



xxxii BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE 

Oebigny, a. J)'. Paleontologie Fran9aise. Description ties MoUusques et Rajonnes 
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Pp. 1—288, 1844; 289—448, 1845; 449—520, 1S4G; 521—807, 1847. 

In MuRCHisoN, R. I., Verneuil, E. he, and Keyserling, A. de. Geologie cle la 

Russie de I'Europe, etc. Vol. ii, Paleontologie. London and Paris 
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Zelee. Atlas Geol. (1847). [Cretaceons Lamellibranchs, pis. v, vii, viii.] 
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Prodrome de Paleontologie stratigrapliiqne nniverselle, etc. Paris. Vol. ii 

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OwKX, D. D. Second Report of a Geological Reconnaisance of tlie Middle and 
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Pai.I'Y, M. \. Die oberen Kreideschichten in der L^mgel:)ung von Alvincz. Mitflwil. 
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Paquiee, V. Sm- quelques Rudistes nouveaux de I'Urgonien. Coviptes Eendus 
Ara<l. Sci. Paris, vol. cxxii (1890), p. 1223. 

Sm- la presence de Gaprinines dans I'Urgonien. Ibid. (189(5), p. 1434. 

Sm- (juelques Rudistes nouveaux de I'LTrgonien. Ji^ilJ. Soc. Sfafist. Iscre, 

ser. 4, vol. iv (1899), p. 93. 

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Sci. Paris, yoI. cxxxii (1901), p. 229. 

Sur la Faune et I'age des Calcaires a Rudistes de la Dobrogea. Bull. Soc. 

(jcol. de Fro lice, ser. 4, vol. i (1901), p. 473. 

Sur les relations du Groupe Inverse avec le Gronpe normale chez les 

Chamacees. Bid. (1901), p. 474. 

Parkinson, J. Organic Remains of a Former World. An Examination of the 
mineralised remains of Vegetal)les and Animals of the Antediluvian 
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Pakona, C. F. Sopra alcune Rudiste Senoniane dell' Appeunino meridionale. 
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Le Rudiste e le Camacee di S. Polo Matese. Ibid. (19()1), p. 197. 

and Bonarem.i, G. Fossili Albiani d'Escragnolles, del Nizzardo e della 

Liguria Occidentale. Palseont. Bal., vol. ii (1897), p. 53. [Lamelli- 
branchs, p. 67.] 



CIJKTACKOrS LAMKIJJBRAXCHIA. xxxiii 

Passv, a. Description geologiciuo <lii Departement de la Seiiie-Infeneure. 
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P.wi.iiw, A. P. Oil the Classification of tlie Strata between tlie Kimeridg-ian and 
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PiONNiXfi and .Iukes-Bkowxi:, see K. Kthkimik;!-:. 

Peuox, a. 01)servations sui- l;i I'ainie des Calcaires a Echinides de Rennes-les- 
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Notes pour servir a I'liistoii'c du Terrain de Craie dans le sud-est dii Hassin 

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Description des Molluscpies Fossiles des Terrains Cretaces de la Region Sud 

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Pktiios, J. Ueber das voi'komnien von Ilipjniritrs (Fivoiuva) jx/li/sfi/lKS in den 
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Pi;ti;as( iiKCK, W. Ueber Inoceranien aus dei- Kreide Bohmens nnd Sachsens. 
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I'uii.ini, K. A. Los Fosiles Secondarios de Cliile : Santiago de Chile. Santiago 
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Pill 1,1.1 1'S, J. Illustrations of the (ieology of Yorkshire; or a description of the 
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— — • and Cami'Ichk, (i. Description des Fossiles du Tei'rain Cretace des Environs 
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Ibid., [nwt iv. {Iliid., ser. 5.) 1808-71. 



xxxiv BIBLI0(J11APHY OF THE 

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and REXEViiii;, E. Description des Fossiles dn Terrain Aptien de la Perte 

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Plackktko, S. Das Becken von Lemberg. Ein Beitrag zur Geognosie und 
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PoCTA, P. Vorliiufiger Bericht iilier die Rudisten der bohmischen Kreideformation. 
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PoMPBCKJ, J. F. Ueber Aucellen und Aucellen-iihnliche Formen. Neues Jalirh. 
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Popovice-Hatzec;, V. Contribution a Tetude de la Faune du Cretace supcrieur de 
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Qr\ AS, A. Beitrag zur Kenntniss der Fauna der obersten Kreidebildungen in der 
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Ueber zwei lunic Hudistcn-species aus dcii Al|mi('ii Kreidcscliicliteu drv 

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Beitriige ziir Cliaraktcristik der Kreide.'Jcliicliteu in den O.^talpeii besonders 

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Geologie von Oberschlesien. Breslan, l87<l. [Iiani('lli1)ranclis, ])p. "1 5 — 317, 

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• Ueber eine durch die Haufigkeit Hippuriten-Artigen Clianiitleii ausgezeichneto 

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Die (^)uadralen Ki'eide ilrr^ Suduierherges bei (ioslai'. I'alxontographlca, 

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RveKiioi.T, P. hi:. ]\r('langes Palcontologicpics. Part i {Mi'ni. cour. et Mnn.des i<av. 
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xxxvi BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE 

S.t:>iaxn, L. Observations sur (juelfiues coquilles de la faniille des Rudistes. BnJl. 
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S.vi.TEK, J. AV. On tlie Cretaceous Fossils of Aberdeenshire. Quart. Jonrn. Geo]. 
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ScHLOTHEOi, E. T. \. Beitriige znr Xaturgescbiclite der Versteinernngen in 
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■ Die Petrefactenkunde, etc. (Totlia, 1820. [LamelHln-anchs, pp. 175 — 245.] 

Naclitriige, 1823. 

ScHr.iJTER, C. Bericht uber eine geognostiscli-palaontologisclie Reise in siidlicheu 
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Znr Clattung Inoceramns. FalseontograjMca , vol. xxiv, 1877. 

ScH^riDT, F. Wissenscliaftliche Resultateder znr Aufsucbung eines angeliiindigten 
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Ueber die Petrefakten der Kreideformation von der Insel Saclxalin. Ibid., 

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ScHNARKENBKEUER, C. Ueber die Kreideformation der Monte d'Ocre-Kette in den 
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ScHRODKE, H. Ueber senone Kreidegeschiebe der Provinzen Ost- und West- 
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Schubert, R. J. Ueber einige Bivalven des istrodalmatisclien Rudistenkalkes . 

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SiiEiEY, H. G. Notes on Cambridge Palaeontology. I. Some new Upper 
Greensand Bivalves. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 3, vol. vii (1861), 
p. 1 16, pis. V, vi. 

Mytilus spatliulatus, a new Cretaceous species. Geologist, vol. vii (1864), 

p. 53. 

Seguenza, G. Studi geologici e paleontologici sul cretaceo medio dell' Italia 
meridionale. Atti d. R. Arrad. dei Liueci (ser. 3). j\[i'in. d. CI. di Hcim. 
Fls. Math. nat. Roma, vol. xii (1882), p. 65. [Lamellibranchs, pp. 123 
—184.] 

Shatter, N. S. On the Occurrence of Fossils of the Cretaceous Age on the Island 
of Martha's Vineyard, Mass. Bull. Mas. CuntjK Zmd. llarrard, \o\. xvi 
(1889), p. 89. [Lamellibranchs on pi. ii.] 

Shakpe, D. On the Age of the Fossiliferous Sands and Gravels of Faringilon 
and its Neighbourhood. Quart. Jouru. Geol. Boc, vol. x (1853), p, 176. 
[Lamellibranchs, pp. 197, 198.] 



CRETACEOUS LA-MELEIBKAXClilA. xxxvii 

SiiAiii'i:, D. Description of Fossils from the Secoudary Rocks of Sunday River and 
Zwartkop River, Soutli Africa, collected by Dr. Atlierstone and A. G. 
Bain, Esq. Trmis. (J''(il. Sor., ser. 2, vol. vii (180(i), p. 193. [Lainelli- 
branchs, pp. 193— liX), 198, 199.] 

8iii\i\i;ii, 15. I''. Descriptions of Xew ('retaceous F^ossils from Texas. Trati(>. 
Arail. Sri. SI. Lnnh, vol. i (isiio), p. .")0(>. [Lamellibranclis, pp. 598 — 

(i09.] 

Descri])tious of New Ci'etaceous Fossils from 'L'exas. Proc. Bosfon Soc. Nat. 

Hist, vol. viii (1861), p. 188. [Lamellibranclis, pp. 199—205.] 

tSi.MioNKsi'U, J. I'ebei" die ()l)ercretacisclie Fauna von Urmos (Siebenbiirgen). 
Verlmndl. d. k. /,-. (jeol. L'('ich>:an>>f. (1899), p. 227. [Lamellibranclis, 
pp. 229—231.] 

■ La Faune Xeocomienne du Bassin de Diiubovicioara. Ann. Scicnt. Unir. 

Jasai/, vol. i (19UU), p. 187. [Lamellibranclis, pp. 199, 200.] 

Skkat, E. (i., and .M auskx, V. On Jurassic, Xeocomian, and (iault Boulders 
found in Denmark. Daiimo.rls i/eol. Undersorjelse., vol. ii, .\o. 8 (1898), 
pp. Kit) — 191. 

S("iiii,i:, V. (leologisclie Aufnalime des Labero-ebirges l)ei ()l)eranimergan, etc. 
(!eo[iii. Jaliresh'jte (LS90j, 1897. [Lamellibranclis, pj). 31 — 11.] 

SowEHJJV, •)., and Sowehby, J. ue C. The Mineral Coucholog}' of (Jreat Britain; 
or colonred figures and descriptions of tho.se remains oi testaceons 
animals or shells which have lieen preserved at various times and depths 
in the earth. 7 vols. London, 1812 — 181-0. 

SowEKiiY, J. DE C. In Fni'ox, W. H. Ol^servations on some of the Strata between 
the Chalk and the Oxford Oolite in the South-east of England. Trans. 
Geol. Soc, ser. 2, vol. iv (1836), p. 103. [Lamellibranclis, pp. 3:55-342, 
353_8(;i.] 

In Dixon, F. The (ieologyand Fossils of the Tertiary and Cretaceous Forma- 

tions of Sussex London, 1850.' [Lamellibranchs, pp. 346 — 348, 354 — 
357.] Second Edition, 1878. [Lamellibranchs, pji. 382, 383, 385, 386.] 

Stanton, T. W. The Colorado Foi'mation and its Invertebrate Fauna. Bidl. U. S. 
(Jeol. iSnrvei/, Xo. 106 (1893). [Lamellibranchs, pp. 54—127, pis. i — 
xxvii.] 

Contrilmtions to the Cretaceous Palaeontology of the Pacific Coast. The 

Fauna of the Knoxville Beds. Tbid., Xo. 133 (1895). [Lamellibranchs, 
]ip. 34 — <)2, pis. ii — -xii.] 

On the Genus Remondia, a grou[) of Cretaceous Bivalve MoUusks. I'roc. 

U. S. National Mns., vol. xix (1897), p. 299, pi. xxvi. 

Geology of the Yellowstone Xational Park (by Hague, hidings, etc.). 

Mon. U. S. (Jeol. Surcei/, vol. xx.xii, pt. 2 (1899). [Cretaceous Lamelli- 
branchs, ])p. 633 — 639.] 

' The date on the title-pafre is 1850. Morri.s gives the date of jniblicatiou as 1852, aii<l 
Mr. Sherboni believes that the work was iiot issued before that vear. 



xxxviii BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE 

Stanton, T. W. Reiiorts of the Princeton University Ex])e(litions to Patagonia, 
181)6 — 181><.». Vol. IV, Pala?ontolooT ; part' i, The Marine Cretaceous 
Invertebrates, 1901. [Lamellibranchs, pp. 11 — 28.] 

— Ghoiidroiloiifd, a new genus of Ostreiforni Molhisks from the Cretaceous, 

with descriptions of the genotype and a new species. Proc. Z7.N. 
National Mvs., vol xxiv {VMyl), p. :]0]. 

Stathei;, J. "W. Teredo arii2:>hi><IicVria at South Ferriby. 7'rans. Hull (tcoJ. Soc, 
vol. V (1902), p. 41. 

Stei'ani, C. i>k. Studi paleozoologici sulla creta superiore e media dell' Apenninc) 
settentrionale. Jffi (h li. An-ad. dci Lined (Roma), ser. 4, vol. i (1884 
— 5), p. 7o. [Lamellibranchs, pp. 103 — 107.] 

Stefano, G. di. Studj Stratigrafici e Paleontologici sul Sistcma Cretaceo della 
Sicilia. I. Gli Strati con Caprotii/a di Tcrmiui-Imerese. Afti d. L'. 
yicrad. di Sci., Lrff., >■ Ilrlh- Arti di Fah'rviu, n. s., vol. x (1889). [Lamelli- 
branchs, pp. 1 — 44.] 

Studi Stratigraphica e Paleontologia sid Sistema Cretaceo della Sicilia. 

PaicVOiifofjirqihia Ifaliat, vol. iv (1898), p. 1. [Lamellibranchs, pp. 23 — 40.] 

Steinmann, G. Ueber Titlion nnd Kreide in den peruanischen Anden. Nencs- 
Jahrh. fiir Mia., rfr. (1881), vol. ii, pp. 144—149. Ibid. (1882), vol. i, 
p. 1(36.' 

Die Gruppe der Trir/oniic pseiido-quadrafiv. Ibid. (1882), vol. i, p. 219. 

see MoRiCKE. 

Stoliczka, F. Cretaceous Fauna of Southern India. Vol. Ill, The Pelecypoda. 
Pa],Tontolo(/ia Iiidica, 1870-71. 

Stoi.ley, E, Die Kreide Schleswig-Holsteins. Mitfheil. a. d. Mineraloq. Iiisfif. d. 
TJniversit. Kiel, vol. i (1892), p. 191. [Lamellibranchs, pp. 235—244.] 

Stkombkck, a. von. Ueber die Kreide am Zeltl)erg bei Liineburg. Zeitschr. d. 
deufsch. qeol. ('<eseUsch., vol. xv (1863), }). 97. [Lamellibranchs, pp. 
104—110, 119-123, 124—127, 143—157.] 

Stuk, D. Bericlit iiber die geologische LTebersichtsaufnahme des siidwestlichen 
Siebenbiirgen .im Sommer 1860. Ja.hrli. d. Ic. h. geol. Reichsanst., vol. 
xiii (1803), p. 33. [Lamellibranchs, ])]>. 54 — 56.] 

Stukm, F. Der Sandstein von Kieslingswalde in der Grafschaft Glatz und seine 
Fauna. Jahrh. d. Jc. preussiscii. (jeol. LandesavHt.ii'w 1900, vol. xxi (1901), 
pt. '■], p. ;i9. [Lamellibranchs, p]). 73 — 96.] 

Tate, R. On the Correlation of the Cretaceous Formations of the North-east of 
Ireland. Quart. Jonvn. Geol. Soe., vol. xxi (1866), p. 15. [Lamelli- 
branchs, pp. 39 — 41.] 

On some Secondary Fossils from South Africa. Ibid., vol. xxiii (1867), 

p. 139. [Lamellibranchs, pp. 154^162.] 

On Two New Cretaceous Bivalves. Trans. Poi/. S(m'. S. AvatraVta, vol. xxii 

(1898), p. 17. 



CRETArKOUS LA:\rEL]JBRAX('ll I A. xxxix 

Tausch, L. Uel)er die I'-auna der iiiclit iiuiriiieii Ablagerungen dor oberen Kreide 
des Csiiigvrtliales ])ei Ajkii im Bakony (Verszprimer Coiuitat, TJngani), 
luid nebor eiiiige ("oucliylieu dor (xosaumero-el voii Aigen bci Sal/.berg. 
AhliaHill. (I L L <jrnl. Rnrhsausf. IFi>-», vol. xii (188G),'p. 1. [Lamelli- 
bi'aiiclis, p]). "2 1 — 'JC).] 

'ri:xis(iN-W(ii)i)s, .J. K. Oil some Mesozoic Fossils from Central Australia. Pror. 
Linn. Snr. X. S. fFnlrs, vol. viii, 188:5 (188I-), ]). 2:V") (? Cretaceous). 
I Jjamellibrauclis, pp. 2:37 — 241.] 

Tkiiiji i;m, O. Observations sur les etudes criti(pies des ]\IolliiS([ues fossiles com- 
pi-euaut la Mouograpliie des ]\[yaires de ^\. Agassiz. Mem. dc V Acad. 
iniprr. (Ic Mrf::, Auiie(> 18.5I--55 (18o-")), ]i. 2."')o, pis. i — -v. 

TiKssMX, E. Die subliereyne Tourtia und ihre Braeliiopodeii- uud Mollusken- 
Famia. Zfilsclir. il. dcatsch. (jeol. Gcxelheh., vol. xlvii (1895), p. 4-2o. 
[Lamellibranclis, pp. 1(12 — 487.] 

'roll \s, A. Xote sur le Seiioiiieii, et eu partieulier sur I'Age des Couches a 
Ffippurites. //;///. Sm-. iji'nl. (h- Fnim-i', ser. :!, vol. xix (18!»1), p. 50'). 
[Lamellilirauclis {lliyparitrs), pp. .")27 — o-")2.] 

Sur revolution i\i}^ Ilippurites. Il>hl., ser. 4, vol. i (I'.»")l), p. 1 -Vk 

- Sur IVirigiue et la classification des Ilippurites. /A/'/., vol. ii (^l'.in2), p. ;>:>7. 

'^i'oii.v, V. Beselircibting mesozoisclier Versteineruiigen vou der Kuhn-Insel. 
Die zn-i'iti- denhrltr Nonljxilf. in ISnil n. I870, vol. ii (1<^7I), p. I'.t7. 
[Lamellibranclis, ])[). -502 — 50.5.] 

Xeuer luoceraiiK'nFund ini Wienersandsteiu des Eeopoldsberges bei \Vieu. 

Vrrhandl. d. I:. I: ^jml. L'rirlisaiisf. (1886), Xo. 0, p. 127. 

"^P^'Aia ceo, G. Fossili, Stratigratia ed Kta della Creta Superiore ilel Baciuo di 
Fireiize. Bnll. Sar'. i/eol. Ifnl., vol. xx (1001), ]). 270. [Laiiiellil)ranclis, 
p]). 28<)— 2'.»2.] 

Ti;a( TsruoLU, 1:1. Leber die Kreide-Ablageruugeu im Gouveruemeut Moskau. 
Bull. Sor. Imp. Nat. de Mot^coii, vol. xxxiv (18G1), p. 432. [Lamelli- 

branelis on ])1. xii.] 

TuoMuv, M. Description of some Xew Fossils from the Cretaceous Rocks of the 
Southern States. I'roc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phihul, vol. vii (1854), p. 167. 
[Lamellibranclis, |ip. 170 — 172.] 

Vackk, M. Ueber \%)i'ailberger Kreide. Jahrh. d. k. k. i/eol. ReiehsanKl., vol. xxix 
(]S70), p. (i5'.». ( Lamellibranclis, pp. 712— 7 li, 7 I'i, 750—752, 75:5.] 

Vii.ANiiVA V l'ii:i;\, .). .Memoria geoguostico-agricolo .sobre la Froviucia de Cas- 
tellon. Mem. de la Real Acad, de Ciencias, vol. iv (1859), p. 1. 
[Lamellibranclis, pis. ii and iii.] 

\'ii;i.iiio, !•'. UChfrra .Toannx ChofFat in Provincia di 15ari (Fuglie). Boll. Soc. 
<ieol. Jtal., vol. XX (1001), p. xxxi. 

Voi;i;i., F. Das Ober-Senon von Iniicli am Xordraud der Eifel. VerJiandl. nat. 
Vi reins d. preus.-<isch. Rlicial., \o\. xlix (1892), p. 1. [Lamelliljranchs, 

pp. 51—87.] 



xl BIBLIOGEAPHY OF THE 

VoGEL, F. Beitriige zur Kenntniss der holliiiKlischen Kreide. I. Lauielliliraiicliiaten 
aiis der Oberen Mucronatenkreide von hollJindiscli. Liniljurg. II. Die 
Fossilien des Neocoinsandsteins von Losser und Gildehaus. Leiden 
and Berlin, ]80"). 

"Waaoen, L. Der Formenkreis des Oxykma inai'Cimralrc, 8owerl)y. Jahrh. d. 1-. k. 
f/eol. Beichsansi., vol. li (1901), j). 1. 

WAHLBNBKE(i, G. Petrificata Telhiris Suecanae. iV^. Acta B. S. Scieiit. IJpsal., 
vol. viii, Stockholm, 1821. [Lamelliljranclis, pp. 56 — 59.] 

Walkek, J. F. On a Phospliatic Deposit in the Lower Greensand of Bedfordshire. 
Anv. McK/. Kat. HUf., ser. 8, vol. xviii (18(56), p. 381. [Lamellibranchs, 
p. 386.] ■ 

Wannee, J. Die Fauna der obersten weissen Kreide der liljyschen "Wiiste. 
Palpeontor/nqihica, vol. xxx, pt. 3 (1902), p. 91. [Lamellibranchs, pp. 
114—123.] 

Wi!)EETH, O. Die Fauna des Keocomsandsteins ini Teutobnrger "\Yalde. Palseoid. 
AhltiindL, vol. ii, Heft 1, Berlin, 1884. [Lamellibranchs, pp. 34 — 59.] 

"Wellee, S. The Stokes Collection of Antarctic Fossils. Jourv. Gml., vol. xi 
(1903), p. 413. [Lamellibranch, p. 415.] 

White, C. A. Descriptions of New Cretaceous luA-ertebrate Fossils from Kansas 
and Texas. Fun: U. S. Nafimial Mns., vol. ii (1880), p. 292. [Lamelli- 
branchs, pp. 293—298.] 

Contributions to Invertebrate Palreontology, No. 2. Cretaceous Fossils of 

the Western States and Territories. Twelfth Ami. I?ep. U.S. GcoL and 
Groi/r. Snrv. of tlw Trrritorirs for 1878. Piirt I (1883), p. 5. [Lamelli- 
branchs, pp. 9 — 23.] 

A Review of the Non-marine Fossil Mollusca of North America. Tlnrd Ann. 

Brp. U. S. Geol. Surv., 1881-2 (Washington, 1883), p. 403. [Lamelli- 
liranchs, pp. 420—443.] 

A Review of the Fossil Ostreidfe of North America, and a comparison of the 

fossil with living forms. Fourth Ann. Bep. U. S. Grol. Siirn'i/, 1882-3 
(Washington, 1884), p. 273. [Cretaceous, pp. 290—308.] 

On Mesozoic Fossils. Description of cei'tain aberrant forms of the Chamidfe 

from the Cretaceous Rocks of Texas, ]). 5. Mesozoic Fossils collected in 
Alaska, p. 10 [Aurrlla, p. 13; Gyirrinn, p. 14]. Bull. JL S. Geol. Si(rrci/^ 
No. 4, 1884. 

On New Cretaceous Fossils from California. ////(/., No. 22, 1885. [Lamelli- 
branchs, pp. 9 — 12.] 

On the Mesozoic and Cenozoic Paleontology of California. ////(/., No. 15 

(1885). [Lamellibranchs, p. 29.] 

■ On New Generic Forms of Cretaceous Mollusca and their Relation to other 

Forms. Froc. Acad. Nat. Sri. Fhihid. (1887), pp. 32—37. 



CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRAJs'CHIA. xli 

"WiiiTK, C. A. Contributions to the PalEeontology of Brazil, comprising descriptions 
of Cretaceous Invcrteljrate Fossils from Sergipe, Peruam])uco, Para, and 
Baliia, 1888. (Also puljlislied in Archiv. M^is. Nacioiial ilv Rio de Janeiro, 
vol. vii, 1887.) [Lamelliln-anclis, pp. 2G— 113.] 

• Auc(Jh(, with special reference to its occurrence in California. Mon. U. S. 

Geol. Si'.rr., vol. xiii (1888), pp. 226—233, pis. iii, iv. 

On Invertebrate Fossils from tlie Pacific Coast. Bull. U. S. Geol. Survey, 

Xo. ol, 188!). [Laniellibranclis, pp. 30 — Ik] 

Notes on the Inverteljrate Fauna of the Dakota Formation, with descriptions 

of new Molluscan forms. Proc. U. S. Natloiuil Mus., vol. xvii (1895), 
p. 131, pi. viii. 

Whiteaves, J. F. Notes on the Cretaceous Fossils collected by Mr. James Richard- 
son at Vancouver and the adjacent Islands. Geol. Sarv. Canada : Report 
of Progrrss, 1873-74 (1874), p. 2()0. [Lamellibranchs, pp. 261, 262, 263, 
264, 265—268.] 

Mesozoic Fossils. Vol. I, Part I. Invertebrates from the Coal-bearing 

Rocks of the Queen Charlotte Islands. {Geol. Snrceij of Canada, 1876.) 
[Lamellibranchs, pp. 54 — 83.] 

Ibid. Part II. On the Fossils of the Cretaceous Rocks of Vancouver and 

adjacent Islands in the Strait Georgia (187i'). [Lamellibranchs, pp. 
135—177.] 

Ibid. Part III. On the Fossils of the Coal-bearing Deposits of the Queen 

Charlotte Islands (1884). [Lamellibranchs, pp. 193, 218—245, 250, 251.] 

Ibid. Part IV, On some additional or imperfectly understood Fossils from 

the Cretaceous Rocks of the Queen Charlotte Islands, with a revised 
list of the species from these rocks (1900). [Lamellibranchs, pp. 

288—301.] 

— — Ibid. Part V. On some additional Fossils from the Vancouver Cretaceous 
(1903). [Lamellil)ranchs, pp. 372—402.] 

• Contributions to Canadian Palgeontology. Vol. I, Part I. Report on the 

Invertebrata of the Laramie and Cretaceous Rocks of the vicinity of the 
Bow and Belly Rivers and adjacent localities in the Xorth-west Territory. 
{Geol. and Nat. Hist. Siirvei/ Canada, ISSb.) [Lamellibranchs, pp.3 — 13, 
26, 27, 30—45, 56—62, 64—69, 78—80, 83—85.] 

Ibid. "\^ol. I, Part II. On some Cretaceous Fossils from British Cohunbia, 

the Xorth-west Territory and Manitoba (1889), p. 151. [Lamcllil)rauchs, 
pp. 151-155, 160, 165—170, 171—180, 186—189.] 

Notes on some of the Cretaceous Fossils collected during Captain Palliser's 

Explorations in British North America in 1857-60. Trans. Roy. Soc. 
Canada, ser. 2, vol. i, sect, iv (1895), p. 101. [Lamellibranchs, pp. 103 — 
108, 110—115.] 

On some Fossils from the Nanaimo group of the ^'ancouver Cretaceous. 

Ibid. (1895), p. 119. [Lamellibranchs, pp. 120—126 ] 

/ 



xiii BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE 

"Whiteaves, J. F. Description of a new species of Unio from the Cretaceous 
Rocks of tlie Nanaimo Coal Field. Ottawa Naturalist, vol. xiv (1901), 
p. 177. 

Description of a Fossil Cijreaa from Alberta. Ottawa Naturalist, vol. xvi 

(1903), p. 231. 

Whitfield, R. P. Bracliiopocla and Lamellibranchiata of tlie Raritan Clay and 
Greensand Marls of New Jersey. Mon. U. 8. Geol. Sicri;ei/,Yo\. ix (1885). 
[Lamellibranclis, pp. 19—221.] 

Descriptions of Species of Rudista3 from the Cretaceous Rocks of Jamaica. 

Ball. Amer. Mas. Nat. Hist., vol. ix (1897), p. 185, pis. vi — xxii. 

Description of a new Teredo-like Shell from the Laramie Group. Ibid., 

vol. xvi (1902), p. 73. 

Wilson, E. Fossil Types in the Bristol Museum. Geol. Mag. (1890), pp. 371, 
372, 411, 412, 414. 

AYiLTSHiRE, T. On the Red Chalk of England. (Printed for the Geologists' 
Association. London, 1859.) [Lamellil^ranchs on plates i and ii.] 

Wjndmoller, R. Die Entwickelung des Pliiners im nordwestlichen Tlieile des 
Teutoburger Waldos bei Langerich. Jahrb. d. k. preussisch. geol. Landes- 
anst. fiir 1881. (Berlin, 1882.) [Lamellibranclis, pp. 21, 24, 29, 34, 43.] 

WoLLEMANN, A. Kurze Uebersicht liber die Bivalven und Gastropoden des Hils- 
conglomerats bei Braunschweig. Zeitschr. d. deutsch. geol. Gesellsck., 
vol. xlviii (189(3), p. 830. 

Fimhria corrugata (Sow.) aus dem Hilsconglomerat von Schandelah. Ibid., 

vol. li (1899), p. 592. 

Die Bivalven und Gastropoden des deutschen und hollandischen Neocoms. 

Abhandl. d. Ic. preussisch. geol. Landesanst., N. F., Heft 31. 1900. 

Die Fauna des Senons von Biewende bei Wolfenbiittel. Jahrb. d. Jr. preus- 
sisch. geol. Landesanst. fiir 1900, vol. xxi (1901), pt. iii, p. 1. [LamelU- 
branchs, pp. 13 — 23.] 

Einige Bemerkungen liber die Dicke der Schale der Aucella Keyserlingi. 

Gentralbl. fiir Min., etc. (1901), p. 497. 

Aufschliisse und Versteinerungen im Turon des Kreises Braunschweig und 

Wolfenbiittel einschliesslich des Oderwaldes. Jahrexher. Verei)ts Natur- 
^oiss. Braunschweig, vol. xii (1901), p. 50. [Lamellibranchs, pp. 55, 56.] 

Die Fauna der Limeburger Kreide. Abhandl. d. /.•. jjreussisch. geol. Landes- 

anst., N. F., Heft 37. 1902. [Lamellibranchs, pp. 49—80.] 

Woods, H. Catalogue of the Type Fossils in the Woodwardian JMuseum, Cam- 
bridge. 1891. [Lamellibranchs, pp. 68 — 93.] 

The MoUusca of the Chalk Rock. Part ii. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. liii 

(1897), p. 377. 



C11ETACE0U8 LAMELLIBRAXCHIA. xliii 

Woodward, 8. An Outline of the Geology of Norfolk. Xorwicli, 1833. [Lamelli- 

l)i'aiiclis, pis. V and vi.] 

■WoomvAiMi, 8. P. On the Structure and AfHnitie.s of the Hippuritidte. (^unrf. 
■loam. Geo}. Soc, vol. xi (ISS-")), p. 10. 

■ Xote on Plicdfnla sigiUiun, an undescribed fossil of the Upper Chalk and 

Cambridge Phosphate-bed. ilmJ. Maij., vol. i (18C4), p. 112. 

■^'oKovAMA, ]\I. Ver.steinerimgen aus der japanischen Kreide. PaJseontograpltica, 
vol. xxxvi (1^90), p. \-)\). [La'niellil^ranchs, pp. 171— 17(), 19^ — ir»7, 

108—200.] 

/iTTKi., K. A. Die Bivalven der Gosaugebilde in den Xordostlichen Alpen. 
1. Diniyaria. Denlcschr. d. h: Alcad. d. Wissensch. Wieii, Math.-nat. Clnsse, 
vol. xxiv, pt. i (1865). IT. ^Mononiyaria. Ibid., vol. xxv, ])t. ii (1806). 



THE 



PALiEONTOGRAPHlCAL SOClE'rY, 



INSTITUTED MDCCCXLVII. 



VOLUME FOR 189f». 



LONDON: 

MDCCCXCIX. 



A MONOGRAPH 



OF THE 



CEETACEOrS LAMELULRANCIITA 



ENGLAND. 



HENRY 'WOODS, M.A., 

ST. John's college. CAiiBRiDiiE. 



PART I. 
NUCULANID^, KUCULID^E, ANOMIID^, and ARCID^E. 

Pages 1 — 7:2 ; Tlates I— XIV. 



L U .\ D U .\ : 
FEINTED FOR THE PAL.EONTOGKAPHICAL SOCIETY. 

1890. 



TMNTED BY ADLAED AND SON, 
BAKTHOLOMEW CLOSE, E.C., AND 20, HANOVER SQUARE, W. 



DESCRIPTION OF SPECIES. 

C/«ss— LAMELLIBEANCHIA, BlainviUe. 

Fcm;hj—-^JJCVLAm'DJE,Sto1!c:d-a? 

Genus — Nuculana, H. F. Linlr, 1807. 

(' Besebreib. dcr Katuralien-Samuil. der Universitiit zu Eostock,' vol. iii, p. 155.) 

1. Loxver Cretaceous 8i)ecies, 

NucDLANA SPATHULATA (Fovhes), 1845. Plate I, figs. 1, 2 a — c, 3. 

1843. NrcuLA spatiivlata, jE". Forles. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. i, p. 245, 

pi. iii, fig. 4. 
1854. Leda SPATHULATA, J. Morris. Cat. Brit. Foss., ed. 2, p. 205. 
1S6G. — — F. J. Pictet and G. CanqncJie. Foss. du Terr. Crut. 

de Ste. Croix (Mater. Pal. Suisse, ser. 4), 
pt. .3, p. 401. 
1884. — — J. S. Gardner. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xl, p. 130 

(pariim), pi. v, fig. 30 ? (non 31—34), 

Description. — Shell tliiu, compressed, elongate, very inequilateral; short and 

rounded anteriorly ; long and rapidly tapering posteriorly, witli a faint carina 

extending from the umbo to the postero-ventral extremity, and cutting off a 

flattened area, which is ornamented witli lines of growth only. Posterior 

extremity truncated and somewhat rounded. Antero-dorsal border slightly 

convex ; postero-dorsal border nearly straight, with a slight ventral slope. 

Urabones small. Surface (except the postero-dorsal part) ornamented with 

numerous fine concentric ribs. 

Measurements : 

(i)_ (2) 

Leno'th . . . 1 1'-j . . IGM) mm. 

Height . . . 0-5 . . G-0 ,, 

(1) la the Wiltshire Collection, Woodwai-diau Museum, PI. I, figs. 2, 3. 

(2) The type (a cast), PI. I, fig. 1. 

* For accounts of the classification of the Nnciilanidie see G. Seguenza, " Nuculidi terziare 
d' Italia," ' Atti della E. Accad. dci Lincei,' ser. 3a, vol. i (1877), p. 1163 ; and A. E. Yerrill and 
K. J. Bush, ' Anier. Journ. Sci.,' ser. 4, vol. iii (1897), p. 51. Owing to the imperfect preservation 
of the interiors of many of the Cretaceous forms of this group, Xuculana is here used in the 
extended sense. 

1 



2 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 

Affi,7iities. — D'Orbigny^ considered tliafc this species was identical with his 
]Sf. Ungulata ;"■ but that form was founded on a cast, so that an exact comparison 
cannot be made. N. lingulata, however, appears to be more pointed posteriorly 
and to taper more regularly than N, sitathulata ; it is also shorter anteriorly. 
J\^. spatliulata is distinguished from A^. solea (d'Orbigny) by its ornamentation 
and less elongate form. 

BemarJiS. — This appears to be a rare species ; I have seen only six examples 
of it. Several of the specimens recorded by Gai'dner do not belong to this 
species, but to JSf. sca])lia (d'Orbigny) (see p. 4). The example from Speeton 
which he figures may be N. sj^athnlafa, but it is in the form of a cast, and the 
posterior part is not perfect. 

Tyiies. — The type (PI. I, fig. 1) is an internal mould, but shows indications of 
the ribbing ; it comes from the Atherfield Clay, and is in the collection of the 
Geological Society of London (No. 2112). 

Distribution. — Crackers of Atherfield ; Atherfield Clay of Atherfield ; 
? Speeton Clay of SiDceton. 

NucuLANA SUBRECUEVA (PMlUps), 1829. Plate I, figs. 4ft — (', 5 a, h. 

1829. NrcuLA subhecukva, J. Phillips. Geol. Torks., pt. 1, p. 122, pi. ii, 

fig. 11. 
1854. — —J. Morris. Cat. Brit. Foss., ed. 2, p. 217. 

1866. — — F. J. Pictet and G. Campiche. Foss. du Terr. 

Civ't. des Envir. de Ste. Croix 
(]MatLT. Pal. Suisse, ser. 4), pt. 3, 
p. -101. 
1884. Leda SUBRECUEVA, J. 8. Gardner. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. si, 

p. 135, pi. V, figs. 24, 25. 
Non 1844. Nucula subeecueva, A. d'Orbigny. Pal. Frauf. Terr. Cret., vol. iii, 

p. 170, pi. ccci.figs. 7—11. 

— 1850. Leda subeecueva, d'Orhigny. Prod, de Pal., vol. ii, p. 136. 

— 1867. — — O. Fraas. Aus dem Orient, pt. i, p. 92. 

Bescr'iption. — Shell inflated, elongate, inequilateral, the j^osterior part being 
much longer than the anterior ; ventral margin gently curved ; extremities 
rounded; posterior part wedge-shaped ; anterior part narrow. Lunule depressed, 
not distinctly limited. Surface with concentric grooves and concentric striae. 

Measurements : 

(1) (2) 

Length . . . 18 . . 18 mm. 

Height . . . 10 . . 11 „ 

Thickness . . . 10 . . 11 ,, 

1 'Prodr. de Pal.,' vol. ii (1850), p. 117. 

2 'Pal. Fran?. Terr. Cret.,' vol. iii (1844), p. 16S, pi. ccciv, figs. 1—3. 



NUCULANA. 3 

Affinities. — The shell in "N. s^ilremrva is more inequilateral, and more pointed 
at the extremities, than in K. lyliascoJina (d'Orbigny), and the latter is ornamented 
with concentric ribs. 

Remarhs. — Phillips gave no description of this species, and his figure is an 
outline onl\', Init is sufficiently characteristic to enable us to identify the form. 

Tijpei<. — I have not seen the type of A", siihrecnrva. An internal cast from 
Speeton (8 mm. in length) in the York Museum is labelled as such, but it does not 
belong to this species. The specimens figured by Gardner are in the Leckenby 
Collection, Woodwardian Museum. 

Distribution. — Speeton Clay (D 3 and D 4) of Speeton. 

NUCDLANA SPEETONENSIS, sp. nov. Plate I, figs. C rt, L, 7 u, h. 

? NucuLA JEOTIILATEEALIS, Beaji MS., rou F. A. Bomer. Die Verstein. d. 
Xorddeutsch. Oolithgcb. (1&3G), p. 101, pi. vi, fig. 13. 

Descrijyt ion . — Valves almost equilateral, about twice as long as high, convex, 
anterior and 230Sterior extremities almost equally rounded. Ventral margin 
slightly curved, almost pai'allel to the dorsal. Umbones nearly central, close 
together, of moderate size, with a depression in front and behind. Surface 
ornamented with numerous fine concentric striae. 

Measurements : 

(!_) (2) 

Length . . . 17 . . 18 mm. 

Height . . . 10 . . 9-5 „ 

Affinities. — This species resembles Leda Neclceriana, Pictet and Rous, from 
the Gault ; but in that form the umbones are larger and more widely separated, 
and the shell appears to be less equilateral. 

N. i)liaseolina, Michelin, is smaller than N. speetonensis ; it is also more 
angular posteriorly, not quite so equilateral, and apparently more coarsely 
ornamented. 

Types. — In the British Museum, and the Museum of Practical' Geology, 
Jermyn Street. 

Distribution. — Speeton Clay of Speeton. 

NucuLAX.\ [? YoLDi.v] SCAPHA (iV Orbigny), 1844. Plate I, figs. Sa—c, 9—14. 

1S44. NucuLA SCAPIIA, A. d'Orhigny. Pal. Fran(,'. Terr. Cret., vol. iii, p. 1G7, 

pi. ccci, figs. 1 — 3. 

1845. — — E. Forbes. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. i, p. 245. 

1854. Leda scapha, J. Morris. Cat. Brit. Foss., ed. 2, p. 205. 

1S6G. — — F. J. Fictet and G. Campiche. Foss. du Terr. Cret. de Ste. 

Croix (Mator. Pal. Suisse, ser. 4), pt. 3, 
pp. 395, 400, pi. cxxix, fig. 2. 



4 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 

1881. ToLBiA (Xuctjla) scapha, K. a. Zittel. Handb. d. Palreout., vol. ii, p. 5J. 
1884. LisDA SCAPHA, J. S. Gardner. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xl, p. 138 

(parfim), pi. v, fig. 23 ? (non 21, 22). 
1884. — SPATHULATA, Gardner. Ibid., p. 139 (partim), pi. v, figs. 31 — 34. 
? 1884. ■ — ■ SCAPHA, 0. Weerth. Die Fauna des Neocom. iin Teutoberg. "Walde 

(Palfeout. Abliaudl., vol. ii), p. 46. 
? 1898. — — ? A. J. Juices-Browne. Geol. ISIag., dec. 4, vol. v, p. 29. 

Non 1867. — (Nucula) scapha, O. Fraas. Aus dem Orient, pt. i, p. 92. 

Description. — Shell elongate, oval, compressed, a little inequilateral; ventral 
margin nearly parallel to the dorsal ; rounded anteriorly, tapering slightly and 
more compressed and pointed posteriorly. Postero-dorsal margin concave ; antero- 
dorsal straight or slightly convex. Lunule linear. Surface ornamented, except 
near the anterior and posterior ends, with fine concentric strife. 

Measurements : 

(1) (2) (3) 

Length . . 15 . 13 . . 9 mm. 

Height , . 7'5 . 6'5 . . 5 ,, 

Affinities. — The form of the shell in this species is similar to that of N. Ilneata 
(Sowerby), but it is more compressed and generally larger ; the ornamentation 
also is much finer. 

JV. scapha differs from iV^. Marise (d'Orbigny) in being relatively longer, less 
convex, and less pointed posteriorly. It appears to differ from N. scaphoides 
(Pictet and Oampiche) in its greater relative length, in having the postero-dorsal 
margin less concave, in the finer ornamentation, and its smaller size. 

The form of the shell in N. scapha is suggestive of the genus Yoldia, to 
which it was referred by Stoliczka.^ I am unable to give a definite opinion on 
this point, since the specimens which I have examined do not show the interior of 
the shell. 

Remarks. — Some of the examples considered by Gardner (pi. v, figs. 31 — 34) 
to be Leda spathulata, Forbes, certainly belong to this species. 

Specimens in the British Museum (Gardner Collection, No. L 5109), from 
Atherfield, were referred to N. scapha by Gardner (pi. v, figs. 21, 22, vide supra), 
but are moi-e convex than that species, and probably belong to N. Ilneata (Sowerby) 
(see p. 8). 

Types. — I have not seen the type; it is not preserved in the d'Orbigny 

Collection at Paris. Of the specimens figured by Gardner as Leda scapha, the 

original of his figs. 21 and 22 is preserved in the British Museum; the original of 

fig. 23 is stated to be in the Woodwardian Museum, but is now missing. Of 

the examples figured by tlie same author as Leda spathxdata, the original of fig. 32 

» 

1 ".Palseont. ladica," ' Cret. Tauna S. India,' vol. iii (1871), p. 324. 



NUCULANA. 5 

is in the Woodvvavdian Museum, and the original of fig. 3o in Mr. Meyer's 
Collection; the originals of figs. 31 and 34 are missing. 

Specimens from the Atherfield Clay of Hythe and Atherfield, which Forbes 
states were identified by d'Orbigny, are in the nniseum of the Geological Society 
of London (Xos. 2107, 2115). 

Distribution. — Atherfield Clay of Atherfield, Sevenoaks, and Hythe ; Perna bed 
of East Slialford; Lower G-reensand near Devizes; Speeton Chiy (C 3) of Specton. 



NucDLANA Seeleyi {Gardner), 1884. Plate I, figs. 15 a, h, 16 a, h, 17 a, h. 

1SS4. Leda Seeleyi, J. S. Gardner. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. .\1, p. 137, 

pi. V, figs. 17—19 (non 20). 

Description. — Shell oval, nearly equilateral, high and rounded at the 
extremities ; moderately convex ; somewhat flattened. Veutral margin gently 
curved. Umbones rather small, almost median. Surface smooth. 

Measurements : 

(1) (2) 

Length ... 7 . . 10 mm. 

Height ... 5 . . 7 „ 

Thickness ... 3 . . 5-5 „ 

Affinities. — X. Seelei/i is distinguished from iV. Vihrai/eaiia (d'Orbigny) by the 
higher and more evenly rounded extremities, by the larger apical angle, by the 
gentler curve of the ventral margin, and by the central part of the valves being 
somewhat flatter. 

Tyjjes. — In the Woodwardian Museum (figs. 17, IS of Gardner) and the British 
Museum (figs. 19, 20). 

Distribution. — Speeton Beds (C 3 and C 9) of Speeton. 



2. Ganlt and Upper Greensand Species. 
NucuLANA SOLEA {d'Orbifjnij), 1844. Plate I, figs. 18 — 24. 

ISli. NrcuL.s. SOLEA, A. d'Orbiff/ii/. Pal. Pram;. Terr. CrcC, vol. iii, p. 170, 

pi. ceciv, figs. 4 — 6. 
1S50. Leda solea, A. d'Orhigmj. Prodr. de Pal., vol. ii, p. 13G. 
1866. — — F. '/. Pictet and G. Cavipiche. Foss. Terr. Crut. de Ste. 

Croix (Mater. Pal. Suisse, ser. 4), 
pt. 3, p. 401. 
1884. — — .7. S. Gardner. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc., vol. si. p. 139, 



pi. iii, fig. 30. 



6 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 

Description. — Shell thin, greatly elongated, compressed ; the anterior part 
short and rounded ; the posterior part very long and tapering, with a slight carina 
extending from the umbo to the postero-ventral angle, cutting off a flattened 
area. Umbones small. Ventral margin slightly sinuous posteriorly (except in 
young specimens, in which the posterior part of the valve is less produced) ; 
postero-dorsal nearly straight. Posterior mai-gin truncated. Surface glossy, with 
very fine concentric lines. Margin entu'e. Teeth very numerous, minute, short. 
Adductor impressions faintly marked. 

Measureincnts : 

(1) (2) (3) (4.) 

Length . 26 . 20 . 14 . 10 mm. 

Height . 9 . 7 . 5 . 4 ,, 

Affinities. — N. solea is more elongated than any other Cretaceous species here 
described (see page 1). 

Tij'pes. — I have not seen the type ; it appears to be missing from the 
d'Orbigny Collection in the Museum of Natural History, Paris. Gardner's 
specimens are in the British Museum. 

Distribution. — Lower Gault (zones ii, iii, v, vii) of Folkestone ; Gault of 
Black Ven ; Cambridge Greensand (/c^e Price). 

NucuLANA Uarim {cV Orhlgnij), 1844. Plate I, figs. 25 a—c, 26 a, h, 27. 

1844. NucTLA MAEiiE, A. crOrhir/ny. Pal. Franf. Terr. Cret., vol. iii, p. 169, 

pi. ccci, figs. 4 — 6. 
1850. Leda Maeia;, A. d'Orbigny. Prodr. de Pal., vol. ii, p. 13G. 
1866. — — F. J. Fictet and G. Campiclie. Foss. du Terr. Cret. de Ste. 

Croix (Mater. Pal. Suisse, ser. 4), pt. 3, 
pp. 397, 401. 
1884. — — J. S. Gardner. Quart. Jouru. Geol. Soc, vol. xl, p. 138, 

pi. iii, figs. 28, 29. 

Description. — Shell elongated, inequilateral. Ventral margin considerably and 
evenly curved ; antero-dorsal straight or slightly convex, postero-dorsal slightly 
concave, both with a considerable ventral slope. Anterior end blunt and rounded ; 
posterior end pointed. Posterior part of shell more compressed than the median 
and anterior portions. Umbones pointed. Surface ornamented with numerous 
fine, concentric ribs, which are absent or indistinct on the anterior and posterior 
parts of the valves. Anterior teeth about thirteen, posterior more. 

Measurements : 



Leno-th 


(1) 

8 


(2) 

7 


(3) 

. 4 mm 


Height 


5 


4 


. 3 „ 


Tbickness 


3-5 . 


— 


• !) 



NUCULANA. 7 

Affinities. — This species is much smaller and less inequilateral than N. sca- 
plioides (Pictet and Campiche). For its relations to .V. xraplm (d'Oi'bigny), 
N. lineata (Sowerby), and N. awjulata (Sowerby), see pp. 4, 7, 8. 

Types. — I have not seen the type. The specimens figured by Gardner ai'e in 
the British Museum. 

D 1st rib uf ion. — Lower Gault (zones ii, and iv to vii) of Folkestone. Gardner 
records it also from the Folkestone Beds and the Upper Ganlt. 



NucuLANA LiNKATA (Sowerhi/) , 183(3. Plate I, figs. 28 a, h, 29, 30, 31 a—d, 32 a—c 

1836. JS'uccLA LiNE.vTA, J. cle C. Sowerbij. Traus. Geol. Soc, ser. 2, vol. iv, 

p. :U2, pi. xvii, fig. 0. 
ISoO. Leda lineata, A. (VOrhignt/. Prodr. de Pal., vol. ii, p. 159. 
1854. NucDLA LINEATA, J. Mom's. Cat. Brit. Foss., ed. 2, p. 217. 
1S68. Leda lineata, A. Briart and F. L. Cornet. Descript. Mineralog., Geol., 

et Pal. de la Meule de Braequegnies (Mem. 
Cour. et Mem. des Sav. etrangers, vol. xxxiv), 
p. 63, pi. vi, figs. 8, 9. 
188J,. — — ,/. ,S'. Gardner. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. si, p. 136, 

pi. iv.figs. 13-16 (?U). 
1884. — SCAPIIA, Gardner. Tbid., p. 138 (partim), pi. v, figs. 21, 22 ? 
Non 1S37. NccULA Li.NEATA, A. GoJdfuss. Petref. Germ., vol. ii, p. 153, pi. exxlv, 

fig. 17 (from the St. Cassian Beds). 

— 1811. — — G. Milnsier. Petrefactenkunde, pt. iv, p. S3, pl.viii,fig. 9. 

— 1875. Leda lineata, J. F. Blake. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc., vol. xxxi, p. 228, 

pi. xii, fig. 12 (from tbe Kimmeridgiau) ; 
vol. xxxvi (ISSO), p. 235. 

Description. — Shell small, oval, elongate, somewhat compressed, rounded 
anteriorly, pointed posteriorly ; posterior part a little longer than the anterior. 
Ventral margin slightly curved. Umljones not very prominent. Lunule often 
indistinct. Escutcheon lanceolate. Surface ornamented with well-marked con- 
centric ribs, which disappear or become indistinct near the postero-dorsal and 
antero-dorsal extremities : some of the ribs cut the ventral margin obliquely near 
its posterior end. Margins smooth.^ Teeth numerous, slightly bent. 

Measurements : 

(1) (2) (3) 

Length . . 12 . . 10 . .8 mm. 

Height . . 7 . . 6 . . 4-.") „ 

Thickness . — . . — . . 3 ,, 

Affinities. — In this species the ribs are coarser and fewer, and the posterior 
part of the shell is less sharply pointed and less compressed, than in X. Marix 

' Gardner says " the lip is strongly creuated internally." I li:ive seen no indication of this in 
any specimen. 



8 CRETACEOUS LAMELLlBRANCIilA. 

(d'Orbigny). For the relation of this to N. scajjha (d'Orbigny) and Is. iihaseolina 
(Miclielin), see pp. 4, 9. 

■ it!emar/^s.— Specimens referred to N. scaplia (d'Orbigny) by Gardner {vide 
ante, p. 4), and stated to come from tlie Lower Greeusand of Atlierfield, 
probably belong to tliis species. One example is figured on PI. I, fig. 32. 

Types. — The types, and also the specimens figured by Gardner, are in the 
Bristol Museum, 

Distribution. — Blackdown Greensand (zone x ) ; Green sand of Haldon {Jide 
Downes) ; Grey Chalk of Dover {fide Gardner). 



NucuLANA ANGULATA {Sowerhj), 1824. Plate I, figs. Soa—c, 34 «, b, Soa—d. 

1824. NrcuLA akgulata, /. de C. Sowerhy. Min. Couch., vol. v, p. 120, 

pi. cccclxxvi, fig. 5. 
1850. Leda ANGULATA, A. d'Orbigny, Prodr. de PaL, vol. ii, p. 159. 
18.34. — — J". Ilorris. Cat. Brit. Foss., ed. 2, p. 205. 

1866. — — F. J. Pictet and G. CampicJie. Poss. du Terr. Cret. de 

Ste. Croix (Mater. Pal. Suisse, ser. 4), 
pt. 3, p. 401. 
1884. — — J. S. Gardner. Quart. Joum. Geol. Soc, vol. xl, p. 138, 

pi. iv, figs. 17—19. 

Description. — Shell small, more or less oval or triangular, moderately convex; 
somewhat rounded anteriorly, pointed posteriorly. Ventral margin regularly 
curved, but slightly sinuous posteriorly. TJmbones prominent, incurved; a ridge 
extends from each umbo both anteriorly and posteriorly, limiting two depressed 
areas. Ornamentation consists of fine concentric ribs. Anterior and posterior 
portions of the hinge-line of nearly equal length ; teeth narrow, elongate. 

Measurements : 

(1) (2) (3) 

Leno'th . . 5"5 .5 .4 mm. 

Height . . 4 . 3-5 . 3 „ 

Thickness . 3 . 3 . 2-2 „ 

(2) is one of Sowerby's types. 

Affinities. — This species is similar to N. Marias (d'Orbigny), but is smaller, 
more convex, with the posterior part of the shell usually less elongated, and 
the umbones more prominent. 

Types. — In the British Museum. The specimens figured by Gardner are in 
the Bristol Museum. 

Distribution. — Blackdown Greensand. 



NUCULANA. 



NUCULANA PHASEOLINA (Micheli)i), 1836. Plate II, figs. 1 a—d, 2 a, b, i. 

1836. NucuLA PHASEOLINA, H. Michelin. Mem. Soc. Gcol. France, vol. iii, 

p. 102, pi. sii, fit;. 0. 
184:4. — suBRECTJnVA, A. d'Orligny (non I'liilUps). TaJ. Frani;. Terr. 

Cret., vol. iii, p. 170, pi. ccci, liga. 7 — 11. 
1850. Leda subeecurta, A. d'Orbigny. Prodr. de Pal., vol. ii, p. 136. 
1866. — PHASEOLINA, F. J. Pictet and O. Campiche. Foss. du Terr. Cret. 

dea Envir. de Ste. Croix (Mater. Pa). 
Suisse, ser. 4), pt. 3, p. 401. 
1884. — — J. S. Gardner. Quart. Jourii. Geol. Soc, vol. \\, 

p. 135, pi. iii, figs. 22—24 (pi. v, 
figs. 26—29?). 

Description. — Shell oval, rather high, convex, nearly equilateral; anterior 
extremity broadly rounded ; posterior somewhat pointed and slightly compressed ; 
ventral margin nearly parallel to the dorsal. Umboues prominent. Lunule 
indistinctly defined. Escutcheon oval, deep, not sharply limited posteriorly. 
Surface ornamented with numerous fine, close-set, concentric ril)s, which are 
indistinct or absent on the posterior part of the shell ; a few of the later ribs cut 
the postero-ventral margin obliquely. 
Measurements : 

Length ...... lO'-j mm. 

Height ...... 7 ,, 

Thickness ...... 7 ,, 

Affinities. — This species is similar to N. lineata (Sowerby), but is more equi- 
lateral, relatively shorter, more rounded at the extremities, and the ornamentation 
is finer. 

Nuculana NecJcericnia (Pictet and Roux) is larger and more convex than 
N. phaseolina, and is apparently ornamented with lines of growth only. 

Eemar/i;.s. — Michelin's figure and description are very unsatisfactory, and the 
characters of his species can only l)e determined from the works of later writers 
and from specimens in French collections. The average size of the French speci- 
mens appears to be greater than that of the English. 

Types. — I have not seen the type. D'Orbigny's specimens are in tlie Museum 
of Natural History, Paris. Gardner's specimens are in the British Museum. 
Distribution. — Lower Gault of Folkestone. 



10 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 



NuoDLANA ViBRATEANA (d'Orbignij), 1844. Plate II, figs. 4 a—c, 5 a, h, 6—9. 

1844. NucuLA ViBEATEANA, A. d'OrMffny. Pal. Fran9. Terr. Cret., vol. iii, 

p. 172, pi. ccci, figs. 12—14. 
1850. Leda ViBRATEANA, A. d'OrUgny. Prodr. de Pal., vol. ii, p. 136. 
1852. NucuLA ViBEATEANA, F. J. Pictet and W. Boux. Moll. foss. Gres vert 

de Geneve, p. 471, pi. xxxis, fig. 2. 
1861. — srBEi.LiPTiCA, H. G. Seelei/. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 3, 

vol. vii, p. 120, pi. vi, fig. 4. 
1861. — EHOMBOIDEA, Seelei/. Ibid., p. 120, pi. vi, fig. 5. 
1866. Leda Vibeateana, F. J. Pictet and G. Gampiche. Foss. Terr. Cret. de 

Ste. Croix (Mate'r. Pal. Suisse, ser. 4), 

pt. 3, pp. 399, 401, pi. cxxix, figs. 5, 6. 

1884. — — J. S. Gardner. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xl, 

p. 137, pi. iii, figs. 17, 18, 25 ; pi. iv, figs. 
26, 27. 

Description. — Shell oval, rounded, convex centrally, compressed at the extre- 
mities, nearly equilateral, but with the posterior part slightly longer than the 
anterior ; extremities rounded. Ventral margin considerably curved at the median 
part. Anfcero-dorsal and postero-dorsal margins with a considerable ventral 
slope from the umbo. Umbones not prominent. Lunule indistinct. Escutcheon 
lanceolate. Surface smooth. Margins smooth. Anterior adductor impression 
somewhat quadrate ; the posterior a little smaller and more rounded. Pallial 
line slightly sinuous posteriorly. 



Measurements : 
















Length 


(1) 
15 . 


(2) 

. 13 . 


(3) 
11 . 


(4) 
11 . 


(5) 

10 


(6) 

. 9 . 


(7) 

6'5 mm 


Height 


12 . 


, 10 . 


, 8 . 


9 . 


8 , 


. 7 


5-5 „ 


Thickness . 


8 


. 6 


. 6 , 


, 5-5. 


5 


. 4-5 . 


3 „ 



Affinities. — See under N. Seeleiji, Gardner (p. 5). 

Bemarks. — As was pointed out by Gardner, Seeley's N. suhelliiJtiea (PI. II, 
fig. 9), and iV. rhomboidea from the Cambridge Greensand, are simply internal 
casts of N. Vibrayeana. 

Types. — I was unable to find the type in the d'Orbigny Collection at the 
Museum of Natural History, Paris. The types of N. subelliptica, Seeley, and 
N. rhomboidea, Seeley, are in the Woodwardian Museum, Cambridge. The 
examples figured by Gardner are in the British Museum. 

Distribution. — Lower Gault (zones v, vii, and viii) of Folkestone; Cambridge 
Greensand (derived). 



NUCULANA. 11 



3. Chalk Species. 

NuCULANA, Sp., Cf. SILIQUA (GohJfuSs). Plate II, figs. lOrt, h. 

1837. NucuLA SILIQUA, A. Goldfuss. Petref. Germ., vol. ii, p. 156, pi. cxxv, fig. 13. 
1816. — — A. E. Reuss. Die Versteiu. der btlliin. Kreideformat., 

pt. ii, p. 7, pi. xxxiv, lig. 11. 
1850. Leda SILIQUA, A. d'Orbigni/. Prodr. de Pal., vol. ii, p. 236. 
1877. — — A. Fritsch. Stud, im Gebiete der bohm. Kreideformat. 

ii. Die Weissenberger und Malnitzer Scliicliteu, 
p. 117, fig. 18. 
1885. NucULAJfA SILIQUA, F. Xotliny. Die Faiiua der baltisch. Cenoman.- 

Geschiebe (Pala;ont. Abhaudl., vol. ii, pt. iv). p. 27, 
pi. iv, tig. 15. 
1889. NucuLA SILIQUA, O. Oriepenkerl. Die Versteiu. der Senon. Kreide vou 

Kouigslutter (Pahcoiit. Abhaudi., vol. iv), p. 57. 
1889. Leda siliqua, E. Rolzapfel. Die Molluskeii dor Aai-heiier Kreide (Palfe- 

ontographica, vol. xxxv), p. 203. 

1892. — — F. Vo(jel. Verhandl. der naturh. Ver der [ireuss. Rlieiiil., 

Ac, vol. slix, p. 73. 

1893. — — A. Fritsch. Stud, iin Gebiete der bohm. Kreideformat. v. 

Priesener Schichten, ]). 92. 
1895. — — F. Vofjel. Die Holland. Kreide, p. 37. 

1897. NucuLANA, cf. SILIQUA, H. Woods. Quart. Jouru. Geol. Soc, vol. lili, 

p. 378. 

Non 1842. Nucula siliqua, K. B. Gclnitz. Char. d. Sciiiehten u. Petref. d. siicbs.- 

bohni. Kreidegeb., pt. iii, p. 77, pi. xs, figs. 28, 29. 

Eeynarks. — There are two specimens in the Montagu Smith Collection (Wood- 
wardian Museum), which agree well with the figures of jV^. sUiqna given by 
Goldfuss and Reuss — especially the latter ; but since, like the figured specimens, 
they are in the form of casts, it is diOicult to be sure of their identity. This 
form may perhaps belong to the sub-genus Ferrisonota, Conrad.^ 

Measurements : 

Length . . . . . .16 mm. (approximate). 

Height . . . . . . 6 ,, 

TiJiJe. — The type comes from the Aachen Greensand. 

Distribution. — Chalk Rock {Reussianum-zoue) of Cuckhamsley. 

1 'American Journal of Conchology,' vol. v (1809), j). 98, pi. ix, fig. 24. 



12 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCIilA. 



i^a?«.////— NUCULID^, Gray. 

Genus — NtrcuLA, Lamarch, 1799.' 
(' Mem. Soc. Hist. Nat. Paris,' p. 87.) 

1. Lower Cretaceous Species. 

NucULA PLANA TA, DesJuii/es, 1842. Plate II, figs. 11 a, b, 12 a, b, 13, 14 a, b, 15. 

1829. NucuLA OVATA, J. Phillips (aon Mantell). Geol. Torks., pt. 1, pi. ii, 

fig. 10, p. 122. 
1842. — PLANATA, G. P. BesJiayes. In A. Leymerie, Mem. Soc. Greol. de 

France, vol. v, p. 7, pi. ix, figs. 3, 4. 
1844. — OBTUSA, A. d'Orbigny. Pal. rran9. Terr. Cret., vol. iii, p. 163, 

pi. ccc, figs. 1 — 5 (named N. plaiiata 
on pi. ccc). 
1858. — liiPEESSA, F. J. Pictet and E. Renevier. Foss. du Terr. Aptien 

de la Perte du Ehone, &c. (Mater. 
Pal. Suisse, ser. 1), p. 108, pi. xv, 
figs. 5, 6. 
1866. — PLANATA, F. J. Pictet and G. Campiclie. Moll. Foss. du Terr. 

Cret. de Ste. Croix (Mater. P.il. 
Suisse, ser. 4), pt. 3, pp. 404, 417, 
pi. cxxix, fig. 7. 
1884. — — J. S. Gardner. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xl, p. 126, 

pi. V, figs. 1 — 4. 

Description. — Shell oval ; short and angular posteriorly, high and rounded 
anteriorly; ventral margin considei'ably curved. Postero-dorsal margin nearly 
straight. Lunule elongate, bounded by a blunt carina. Shell depressed in front 
of the umbones. A faint ridge extends from the umbones anteriorly. Surface 
with lines of growth only. 

Measurements : 





(1) 


(2) 


(3) 


(i) 


(5) 


Length 


. 27 


. 20 . 


14-5 . 


. 16-5 , 


, IG mm 


Height . 


. 17-5 


. 14 . 


9 


. 11-5 . 


•5 „ 


Thickness 


— 


— 


6-5 . 




S9 



1 — 3 are from Speeton ; 4 and 5 from Atherfield. 

1 In the genus Nucula I regard i\\e: posterior dorsal area as tbe lunule, and the anterior dorsal as 
the escutcheon, since, except in position, they agree precisely with the lunule and escutcheon of other 
genera. In this matter I am in accord with Sylvanus Hanley (Mon. " Nuculid»," in Sowerby's 
'Thesaurus Conchyliorum,' vol. iii [1866], p. 147, foot-note). 



NIJCULA. 13 

Affinities. — The cliaracters in wliicli tiiis species differs from N. ovafa, Maiitell, 
are — (i) the greater curvature of the ventral margin, (ii) the angular form of 
the posterior end of the shell, (iii) the absence of the constriction at the ventral 
margin, (iv) the absence of thesinuosity at the postero-ventral angle, (v) the usually 
more distinctly limited lunule. The characters i, ii, and v also serve to separate 
N. planata from N. obtusa, Sowerby. lu N. impressa, Sowerby, the shell is 
smaller and relatively shorter, and the lunule more depressed and relatively wider 
than in N. j)lanata. N. GornueUana, d'Orbigny, ^ appears to me to be very closely 
allied to, if not identical with, JV^. planata, and is regarded by Pictet and Campiche 
as simply a variety of N. planata ; they state that it differs from the latter in being 
proportionately thicker, and in having the anterior part of the shell shorter, so 
that the apical angle is a little smaller. In N. simplex, Deshayes, the posterior 
part is much shorter than in N. planata. 

Types. — I have not seen the type. There are examples in the d'Orbigny 
Collection in the Museum of Natural History, Paris. Specimens figured by 
Gardner are in the Woodwardian Museum, and in Mr. Meyer's Collection. A 
specimen which is regarded as the original of Phillips's N. ovata is preserved in 
the York Museum. 

Distribution. — Speeton Clay (C 8 and D 4) ; Crackers of Atherfield; Perna bed 
of RedclifF, Isle of Wight. 



NocuLA, sp. Plate II, figs. 16 a, b, 17. 

1884. NucuLA CoKNUELTANA, J. S. Gardner (iion d'Orhir/ny). Quart. Journ. 

Geol. Soc, vol. xl, p. 129, pi. v, figs. 5, 6 (won S— 10). 

Description. — Shell oval, rather convex, smooth except for growth-lines. Pos- 
terior part short. Anterior extremity rounded. Postero-dorsal margin nearly 
straight, forming with the ventral margin almost a right angle. Ventral margin 
slightly curved. Lunule distinct, elongate. 
Measurements : 

Length . . . . 17 mm. 

Height . . . . 12 „ 

Thickness (approximate) . . , 12 ,, 

» D'Orbigny, ' Pal. Fran?. Terr. Cret.,' vol. iii (1844), p. 165, pi. ccc, figs. G— 10. De Loriol, ' Atiim. 
Invert. Foss. du Mte. Saleve ' (18G1), p. 84, pi. x, fig. 6. Pictet and Campiche, " Fobs, du Terr. Cret. 
Stc. Croi.x " (' Mater. Pal. Suisse,' t^er. 4), pt. iii, p. 406, pi. csxix, fig. 8. Non J. S. Gardner, ' Quart. 
Journ. Ueol. Soc.,' vol. xl (1884), p. 129, pi. v, figs. 5—10. 



14 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 

Affinities. — This form was referred by Gardner to N. Gornueliana, d'Orbigny, 
but it differs from that in (1) the lesser curvature of the ventral margin; (2) the 
longer postero-dorsal margin ; (3) the greater ventral slope of the antero-dorsal 
margin. It appears to me to be allied to N. sim2^le^r, Deshayes/ but at present I 
am unable to speak definitely of its affinities. 

Distribution. — Claxby Ironstone (zone of Bel. lateralis) of Beuniworth Haven ; 
Lower Greensand of Pottou. 



NucuLA LampluCtHI, sp. nov. Plate II, figs. 18 a,b, 19. 

Description. — Shell oval, relatively short, rather convex in the umbonal region, 
but somewhat compressed and tapering anteriorly ; extremities rounded. Ventral 
margin gently curved. Umbones of moderate size. Lunule oval, not sharjDly 
limited. Surface of shell smooth except for lines of growth. 

Measurements : 

(1) (2) 

Length . . 22 . . 17 mm. 

Height . . 16 . . 13 „ 

Thickness . . 11 . . 9 ,, 

Affinities. — This species is relatively shorter, more rounded posteriorly, and has 
its lunule less distinctly limited than N. lAanata, Deshayes. It is relatively higher 
in the umbonal region and tapers more anteriorly than N. ovata, Mantell. 
Types. — In Mr. Lamplugh's Collection. 
Distribution. — Speeton Clay (D 4) of Speeton. 



Ntjcula, sp. Plate II, figs. 20 a — d. 

1S84. NucTJLA SIMPLEX, J. S. Gardner. Quart. Joui-u. Geo). Soc.,vol.sl, p. 129, 

pi. V, figs. 11 — 13. 

Description. — Shell small, triangular, smooth, somewhat compressed. Um- 
bones small. Apical angle small. Luuule distinct. Posterior part of shell very 

1 ' Mem. Soc. Geol. de Franc,' vol. v (1812), pi. ix, fig. 5, p. 7. D'Orbiguy, ' Pal. Fran9. Terr. 
Cret.,' vol. iii (1843), p. 166, pi. ccc, figs. 11—15. Pictet and Campiche," Poss. du Terr. Cret. de Ste. 
Croix " (' Mater. Pal. Suisse,' ser. 4), pt. iii, p. 407. Non Gardner, ' Quart. Jouro. Geol. Soc.,' vol. si 
(1884), p. 129, pi. V, figs. 11—13. 



NUCULA. 15 

short. Anterior extremity rounded. Antero-dorsal margin slightly curved. 
Postero-dorsal margin short, nearly straight. Ventral margin gently curved. 
Measurements : 

Length . . . . .7 mm. 

Height ..... 5"5 ,, 
Thickness ..... 3-25 „ 
Bemarls. — There are a few specimens of this small species in the British 
Museum and one or two in Mr. Meyer's Collection. One in the British Museum 
was figured by Gardner as N. simplex, Deshayes, but it seems to me to be distinct 
from that form — it is smaller, much more triangular, and has a smaller apical 
angle. Until a larger series of specimens has been obtained I do not feel 
justified in giving this form a distinctive name. 

Distribution. — Lower Greensand of Atherfield and Shanklin. 



NucuLA Meyeri, Gardner, 1884. Plate II, figs. 21 a — c 

1884- NrcuLA Meyeri, /. S. Gardner. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol.xl, ]>. 130, 

pi. V, figs. 14 — 16. 

BemarJcs. — This form is at present very imperfectly known. It is small, 
triangular, and high; with lines of growth, and a large lunule. Gardner states 
that "it is most nearly allied to N. impressa of Blackdown," but it seems to be 
almost indistinguishable from N. antiquata, Sowerby. 

Measurements : 

(1) (2) 

Length . . 8'0 . . 8'o mm. 

Height . .8 . . 7 „ 

1 is the type specimen ; 2 is from Redcliff. 

Types. — In the British Museum. 

Distribution. — Lower Greensand of Atherfield ; Perna-bed of Redcliff. 



16 CRETACEOUS LAMKLLIBR AXCHIA. 



2. Gault and Upper Greeibsand Species. 

NucuLA PECTINATA, Sou'erhy, 1818. Plate II, figs. 22, 23 a—c, 24—26, 27 a—c; 

Plate III, figs. 13 a, h. 

1818. NtrcuLA PECTINATA, J. Sowerhy. Min. Conch., vol. ii, p. 209, pi. cxcii, 

figs. G, 7. 
1822. — — G. Mantell. Foss. S. Downs, p. 9J', pi. xis, figs. 5, 

0,9. 
1838. — — H. Michelin. Mem. Soc. Geol. de France, vol. iii, 

p. 102. 
1844.. — — A. d'Orhigny. Pal. rrau9. Terr. Crct., vol. iii, p. 177, 

pi. ecciii, figs. 8 — 14. 
1850. _ _ _ Prodr. de Pal, vol. ii, p. 138. 

1852. — — F.J.FicteiondW.Eovx. Moll. foss. des Gres verts 

de Geneve, p. 472, pi. x.\.\ix, fig. 3. 

1854. — —J. Morris. Cat. Brit. Foss., ed. 2, p. 217. 

1855. — — G. Cotteau. Moll. Foss. de I'Yonne, p. 84. 

1862. PoHTiANDiA PECTINATA, J. G. Cheiui. Man. de Conchyl., &e., vol. ii, p. 180, 

fig. 907. 
1860. NucuLA PECTINATA, F. J. Fictet and G. Campiche. Foss. du Terr. Cret. 

de Ste. Croix (Mater. Pal. Suisse, ser. 
4), pt. 3, pp. 413, 418, pi. cxxix, 
fig. 13. 
1884. — — J. S. Gardner. Quart. Jouru. Geol. Soc, vol. xl, 

p. 132, pi. iii, figs. 15, 16. 
1897. — — B. B. Newton. Proc. Dorset Nat. Hist, and Antiq. 

Field Club, vol. xviii, p. 90. 

Non 1846. - — A. F. Beicss. Die Versteiii. der bohm Kreideformat., 

pt. 2, p. 5, pi. xxxiv, figs. 1 — 5. 

— 1850. — — I£. B. Geinitz. Das Quadersandstgeb. oder Kreidegeb. 

ill Deutschlaud, p. 160. 

— 1850. — — A. AUh. Geog.-pal. Besohrieb. der nilcbst. TJnigeb. 

von Leruberg. Haidinger's Naturw. Ab- 
handl., vol. iii, pt. 2, p. 171. 

— ? 1868. — — E. Eichwald. Lethaja Bossica, vol. ii, p. 586, pi. xxii, 

fig. 17. 

— 1S72. — — F. Schmidt. Resultate du Manitnuthexpedition.^ Jleni. 

de I'Acad. Imp. des Sci. de .St. Petersb., ser. 7, 
vol. xviii, No. 1, p. 152, pi. ii, fig. 6. 

— 1873. — — H. B. Geinitz. Das Elbthalgeb. in Saehsen (Palteonto- 

graphica, vol. xx), pt. 2, p. 57, pi. xvii, figs. 3 — 5. 
■ — 1877. — — A. Fritsch. Stud, im Geb. der bohm Kreideformat. 

ii. Die Weissenberg. und ^Malnitz. Scliichteu, p. 117, 

fitr. 79. 



NUCULA. 17 

?NonlS32. XcccLA PECTIN-ATA, /?. A'//er. Denkschr. d. k. Akad. Wissenscli. Matli.- 

uat. C]., vol. iii, p. 312. 

— 1.SS5. — — F. XiJtling. Die Fauna der baltiscli. Cenomange- 

scliiebe (Paltcont. Abhaudl., vol. ii, 
pt. 4), p. 27, pi. iv, fig. 12. 

— 1889. — — A. Fritsch. Stud, im Geb. der bohm. Kreideformat. 

iii. Die Teplitzer Sehicliten, p. 78. 

— I>s93. — — — Ibid. V. Priesener Schichteu, p. 91. 

— 1897. — — A. llennuj. Revis. af Lamellibr. i Nilsson's ' Petrif. 

Suecaiia,' p. oS, pi. iii, fig. 30. 

Description. — Shell thick, triangular oi- soinewliat rhomboidal ; convex, slightly 
compressed anteriorly; aiitero-dorsal border long, slightly convex; postero-dorsal 
mucli shorter and concave; ventral margin cnrved, the arc of the cnrve often 
increasing towards the anterior extremity. Posterior extremity angnlar; anterior 
rounded or slightly angular. Urabones prominent, curved inwards and po.steriorly ; 
usually placed rather near the posterior end of the shell. Lunule deeply depressed, 
broad, cordate, flattened, smooth except for growth-lines ; escutcheon loug, nearly 
smooth except for growth-lines. Surface ornamented with numerous (usuall}"- 
50 to o2j radiating and rounded ril)s, separated by narrower grooves; the 
grooves, and sometimes also the ribs (especially on the earlier portion of the 
shell), are crossed by numerous growth-lines. There are often also a few distant 
concentric depi'essions. A small rib is placed in the grooves of some of the larger 
specimens. Teeth : anterior about 22, posterior about 9. Adductor impressions 
deep, near the margins; the anterior a little larger than the posterior. Margins 
of valves rather coarsely crenulated. 

Measurements : 

Length .... 

Postero-dorsal margin 

Antero-dorsal margin 

Height .... 

Thickness 

Affinities. — This species is distinguished from N. te)iera, Miiller,^ and .\. j)!'!- 
villus, Midler," of the Aachen Greensand by its coarser ornamentation, its gi'eater 
length, broader lunule, &c. From N. ardtiennensis, d'Orbiguy, it is said to differ 
in the deep lunule and the strong ribs. 

Eemarks. — The specimens from the Planerkalk of Hundorf, &c., luid the 
Pliinerraergel of Luschitz, &c., which are referred to this species by Reuss, are 
relatively shorter, and the umbones more acute; the examples figured by that 

' J. Miiller, ' Muu. der Petrefact. der Aachen Kreidef.,* pt. i (lS47), p. 17, pi. ii, fij;. 1. E. 

Holzai)£el, " jNIoH. der Aaebeu Kreide " (' Pahcontographica,' xxxv, 1880), p. 200, pi. xxi, figs. 9 — 12. 

- Miiller, ibid.. Supplement (1859), p. 11, pi. vii, fig. 11. Holzapfel, ibid., p. 201, pi. xxi, tigs. 7, 8. 

3 



(1) 

29 


(2) 

. 27 


(3) 

. 26-5 


(0 
. 20 


(5) 

17 nun. 


12-5 


. 13 


. 12 


. 9 , 


7-5 „ 


22 


. 23 . 


19 


, 14 . 


13 „ 


18 


. 19 , 


, 17-.-) . 


, 15 . 


11 „ 






, 15 


, 11 . 


. 8-5 „ 



18 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 

author are apparently all casts, so that an exact comparison cannot be made. 
Geinitz considers that specimens which he obtained from the Planerkalk of 
Strehlen and Weiubohla, and from the Planermergel of Walkmiihle near Pirna, 
belong to N. pecAinata ; but they appear to differ from the English specimens in 
that the posterior part of the shell is rounded and relatively longer. 

The variations seen in different examples of this species are chiefly in the 
proportions of length and breadth, and in the form of the curve of the ventral 
margin, the latter giving to the shell a triangular or a rhomboidal outline. 

N. striatula, Romer,^ N. truncata, Nilsson,^ and i\^. Blochmanni, Geinitz,^ have 
been regarded by Geinitz and Reuss as identical with K pectinata, Sowerby. 

Types. — The types, now in the British Museum, are labelled " Sussex." The 
specimens figured by Mantell (except fig. 5) and those figured by Gardner are 
likewise preserved in the British Museum. 

Distribution. — Through all the zones of the Gault at Folkestone ; Gault of 
Burham, Aylesford, Black Ven, Devizes, Campton (East Bedfordshire), Ely and 
Haddenham (Cambs.) ; Marls with Bel. minimus at Speeton ; Upper Greensand 
of Warminster (cast only seen). 



NncuLA PECTiNATA, Soioevhij, var. cket^, Gardner, 1884. Plate III, figs. 14 a, b, 15. 

1884. NircuLA pectinata, var. CEETiE, J. S. Gardner. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, 

vol. xl, p. 132. 

BemarJiS. — This form appears to differ from N. pedinata, Sowerby, only in 

being proportionately shorter. The surface of the shell, in the two specimens 

which I have seen, is somewhat abraded, but I do not think that the ornamentation 

differs from that of N. pectinata. 

Without more examples I am unable to say whether this form is really distinct 

from N. 2)ectinata. 

Measurements : 

Length 15 mm. 

Height 12 „ 

Thickness ....... 9 ,, 

Types.— In the Museum of Practical Geology (Nos. 6449, 6450). 

Distribution. — Blackdown Greensand.* 

' 'Die Verdtein. der norddeutsch. Kreidegeb.' (1841), p. 68, pi. viii, 6g. 26 (the type comes 
from the Planerkalk of Strehlen). 

2 'Petrif. Suecaua' (1827), p. 16, pi. v, fig. 6. 

3 ' Char, der Schicht. u. Petref. d. saeha. Kreidegeb.,' pt. ii (1810), p. 50, pi. x, fig. 8. 
* Erroneously stated by Gardner to come from the Grey Chalk of Devon. 



NUCULA. 19 



Sub-(/enns — Acila, H. and A. Adams, 1858. 
(' Genera of Recent MoUusca,' vol. ii, p. 545.) 

NucuLA (Acila) BiviuGATA, Soicevh)/, 183G. Plate III, figs. 1, 2 a— c, 3, 4, b a—c, 

G— 12. 

1836. NucuLA uivinciATA, J. de C. Sowerli/. Trans. Geol. Soc, ser. 2, vol. iv, 

p. 335, pi. xi, fig. 8. 
18 M. — — A. d'Orhiffni/. Pal. Fran9. Terr. Cret., vol. iii, p. 176. 

pi. ccciii, figs. 1 — 7. 
1814. — OEXATissiMA, d'Orhigny. Ibid., p. 175, jtl. cccii, figs. 9 — 12. 
1854. — BIVIUGATA, ./. Morris. Cat. Brit. Foss., ed. 2, p. 217. 

1854. — OKNATissntA, Morris. Ibid., p. 217. 

1855. — Bivin(i.\TA, G. Cotteau. Moll. Foss. de I'Yonne, p. 84. 

ISGG. — — F. J. Pietct and G. Campiche. Foss. du Terr. Cret. 

de Sic. Croix (Mater. Pal. Suisse, ser. 4), pt. 3, 
p. 418. 
1S6(!. — OENATissiMA, Pictet and Campiche. Ibid., p. 418. 
1875. — BiTiEG.VTA, A. J. Jukes-Broivne. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc., vol. 

xxxi, p. 299, pi. XV, figs. 4 — 8. 
1884. — — J. S. Gardner. Quart. .Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xl, 

p. 132, pi. iii,fig8. 12—14 ; pi. iv, 
tigs. 20—22. 

Description. — Shell oval, convex, angular posteriorly, rounded anteriorly. 
Antero-dorsal margin slightly convex, postcro-dorsal concave. Ventral margin 
evenly cui'ved. Lunule cordate, depressed, ornamented with transverse ribs; 
central part elevated. Escutcheon narrow, elongate, not sharply limited, orna- 
mented with ribs. Surface of shell ornamented with nunierou.s fine radiating ribs 
crossed by delicate lamellts ; the ribs diverge at an acute angle from a line 
extending from the umbo in an autero-ventral direction. In some cases the ribs 
diverge from two lines near together, forming an inverted W, thus /\A. New 
ribs may become intercalated between the others, especially near the margins of 
the valves of larger specimens. Margins of valves crenulated. Teeth : posterior 
about six, anterior about twelve. Adductor impressions distinct, rounded, near 
the margins ; the anterior larger than the posterior. 

Measurements : 

Length 
Height 

Antero-dorsal margin 
Postero-dorsal margin 
Thickness 



(1) 


(2) 


(3) 


(4) 


(5) 


(6) 


(7) 


111 


IG 


14 


15 


18-5 


23 


18 mm 


13 


12 


1(1 


12 


1;'. 


15-5 


13 „ 


IG 


11 


11 


11-5 


IG 


20 


15 „ 


9 


8 


1 


( 


8 


11 


s „ 








— 


— . 


11 


— 


12-5 „ 



20 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 

6 and 7 are Gardner's figured specimens of N. oniatissimu and N. hicirgata 
respectively. 

Affinities. — The forms in which the ribs diverge from two lines (thus M) were 
regarded by d'Orbigny as constituting a distinct species — ^V. ornatissima ; the 
only difference being in the form of the ornamentation, and this feature is not 
constant : in some cases the ribs on the earlier part of the shell diverge from one 
line, whereas on the later part they diverge from two lines, or the reverse may 
be the case. The adductor impressions are not so deep in N. hivirgata as they 
are in N. pectinata. 

N. Detoalquei, Briart and Cornet,^ from the Meule de Bracquegnies, is very 
closely related to iV^. hivirgata, but in the former the line from which the ribs 
diverge is directed more anteriorly than it is in the latter species. N. Deivalqiiei 
is stated by the writers mentioned to be longer in proportion to its width than 
N. hivirgata; I have seen no examples of the former. 

N. ficturata, Yokoyama," from the Upper Cretaceous of Poronai (Japan), is 
also allied to N. hivirgata ; I have seen no specimen of that form, and the figures 
do not enaljle me to make an exact comparison. 

lieviarJcs. — The variation in the proportions of length and breadth is fairly 
considerable. In some cases the line from which the two sets of ribs diverge 
cuts the ventral border of the valve near its middle jDoiut, but in others more 
anteriorly, the position varying in different examples. 

Types. — I have not seen the type; it is apparently lost. The specimens 
figured by Gardner (except figs. 20 — 22) are in the British Museum ; one 
of those figured by Jukes-Browne (fig. 6) is in the Woodwardiau Museum, 
Cambridge. 

Distribution. — Lower Gault (zones v and vii) of Folkestone; also, jjerhaps, 
Upper Gault, according to Gardner (?). Gault of Black Ven. Cambridge 
Greensand. 

^ " Descript. Miu., Geo!., et Paleont. de la Meule de Bracquegnies" ('Mem. courou. et Mem. 
des Sav. etrang. Acad. Eoy. Belg.,' vol. xxiv, 1868), p. 62, pl.v, figs. 26—28. 

2 "Verstein. aus der japauiscb. Kreide," ' Palieontograpliiea,' vol. xxsvi (1889), p. 18, pi. xxv, 
figs. 1, 2, 



NUCULA. 21 

NucuLA OVATA, Mantell, 1822. Plate III, figs. IG— 18, V.)a, l>, 20, 21 a, h; Plate 

IV, figs. 1 a, b. 

1822. XucULA OVATA, G. Man/elL Foss. S. Downs, p. 04, pi. xis, figs. 2U, 27. 
1838. — CAPSiEFOHiiis, H. Michelin. Mem. Soe. Geol. de France, vol. iii, 

pi. xii, fig. 8, p. 102. 
1841. — OVATA, A. (VOrhiqtii/. Pal. Frant;. Terr. Crc't., vol. iii, p. 173, 

pi. cccii, figs. 1 — 3. 
1850. — _ _ Pi-odr. de Pal., vol. ii, p. 137. 

1852. — — F. J. Fictet and W. Roux. Moll, t'oss'. des Grts verts de 

Geijove, p. 173, pi. xx.xix, fig. 4. 
1854. — — J. Mori- is. Cat. 13rit. Foss., ed. 2, p. 217. 

1S(>G. — — F. J. Pictet and G. Campiche. Foss. du Terr. Cret. des 

Envir. de Ste. Croix (Matt'r. Pal. Suisse , s-er. 4), pt. 3 
pp. 409, 417, pi. cxxix, fig. 0. 
1874. — Deeancei, F. G. U. Price. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xxx, 

p. 358, pi. XXV, fig. 7. 
1874. — OVATA, Price, ibid., p. 357, pi. xxv, fig. G. 
P1878. — — O. Fraas. Aus dem Orient, pt. ii, p. 81. 

1884. — — J. S. Gardner. Quart. Jouru. Geol. Soc, vol. xl, p. 125, 

pi. iii, figs. 1—3; pi. iv, figs. 28—30. 
1884. — capsjEFOrmis, Gardner. Ibid., p. 127, pi. iii, figs. 4, 5. 

Kon 1827. NucuLA ovata, i:^. JS^ilsson. Petrif. Siiecaua, ]). 1(5, pi. v, fig. 5. 

— 1829. — — J. Phillies. Geol. Torks., pt. 1, pi. li, fig. 10, p. 122. 

— 1837. — — W. Hisiufjer. Lethsea Suecica, p. 59, pi. xviii, fig. 7. 

— 1840. — — A. F. Seus.s. Die Verstein. der boliui. Kreideforniat, pt. 2, 

(). 8, pi. xxxiv, fig. 25. 

— 18S9. — — O. Griepenkerl. Die Verstein. der Senou. Kreide von 

Kouigslutter (PaUeont. Abliandl., 
vol. iv), p. 50. 

— 1893. — — A. FritscJi. Stud, im Geb. der bohin. Kreidetbrmat. 

V. Priesener Schichten, p. 92, fig. 103. 

— 1807. — — A. Ilcnnif/. Revision at' Lamellibr. i Nilssou's ' Petrifacta 

Suecana,' ]>. 03, pi. iii, fig. 21. 

Description. — Shell oblong or ovate-oblong, short postei'iorly, compressed, 
witli a slight constriction near the margin opposite the umbo; central part of the 
ventral margin straight and nearly parallel to the dorsal ; anterior margin 
rounded, forming an obtuse angle with the dorsal; posterior margin slightly 
angular, but sometimes somewhat rounded. Umbones not much curved. A 
slight depression usually extends from near the umbo to just below the posterior 
angle, giving a slight sinuosity to the margin at that point. Lunule ovate, not 
much depressed, sometimes ill-defined. Surface smooth, but with lines of 
growth ; and in a few cases faint indications of radial ribs, seen chiefly near the 
middle of the valve. Margins smooth. Adductor impressions shallow. 



(5) 


(6) 


(7) (8) 


22-5 


21 


19 18 


13 


15 


13-5 12-5 




11 


9 9-5 



22 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 

Measurements : 

(1) (2) (3) (4) 

Lengtli . , . 33 29 27 26 zz-Q r^i ly i» mm. 
Height . . . 21 20 17 15 
Thickness ... 14 12 — — 

Affinities. — The larger forms of this species, described by Micheliu as 
N, capsssformis , and subsequently named N, Derancei by Price, have been regarded 
by some authors as distinct from Mantell's N. ovata, but practically the only 
difference is in size : in France a perfect gradation has been traced between 
these two types ; and a similar passage, although it is stated by Gardner not 
to exist, can be seen in English specimens. In England the lai'ger forms are 
recorded by Price from zones i and ii only of the Lower Gault. N. ovata 
is related to N. obtusa, Sowerby ; the points which distinguish the two are 
given on p. 23. 

Remarks. — The variations in the relative proportions of the length, height, 
and thickness are fairly great, as will be seen from the table of measurements. 
The antero-dorsal border may be parallel to the ventral, or may slope more or 
less obliquely to it. The posterior extremity is commonly somewhat angular, 
but may be rounded. 

Types, — I have not been able to trace Mantell's specimens. The examples 
figured by Gardner and referred to alcove (except, perhaps, figs. 28 to 30) are in 
the British Museum. 

Dlstrihution. — Through all the zones (except vii) of the Gault at Folkestone ; 
Gault of Black Ven ; Cambridge Greensaud (derived) ; Upper Greeusaud of 
Devizes. 



NucuLA OBTUSA, Sowerhj, 1836. Plate IV, figs. 2 a, h, 3, 4 a — d. 

1836. NucuLA OBTrsA, J. de C. Soiverly. Trans. Geol. Soc, ser. 2, vol. iv, 

p. 342, pi. xvii, fig. 11. 
1850. — — A.cVOrhigny. Prodr. de Pal., vol. ii, p. 163. 

1854. — —J. Morris. Cat. Brit. Foss., ed. 2, p. 217. 

? ISGG. — — F. J. Pictet and G. Gampiche. Foas. du Terr. Crct. de 

Ste. Croi.^ (Mater. Pal. Suisse, ser. 4), pt. 3, pp. 415, 
418, pi. cxxix, fig. 15. 
1884. — — J. S. Gardner. Quart. Journ. Geol. 8oc., vol. xl, p. 126, 

pi. iv, figs. 1, 2. 

Non 1844. — —A. d'Orbigny. Pal. Fran?. Terr. Cret., vol. iii, p. 163, 

pi. ccc, figs. 1 — 5 (uamed N. planata 
on pi. ccc). 



NUCULA. 23 

Bescrii^tion. — Shell oval or ovate-oblong, moderately convex, rounded an- 
teriorly and posteriorly ; ventral margin evenly curved. Umboncs not prominent, 
l^laced posteriorly. Lunule indistinctly defined. Surface smooth, but with growth- 
lines. Hinge with numerous small teeth — about eighteen on the anterior part, 
and nine on the posterior, — the two parts forming an obtuse angle (about 133°). 

Measurements : (i) (2) 

Length . . . .21 . .20 mm. 

Height . . . .13 . . U „ 
Thickness . . .13 . . — ,, 

Affinities. — N. oldiisa is closely allied to N. ocata, Mantell; it differs from the 
latter (1) in being more oval, (2) in having the ventral margin more regularly 
curved, (3) in the umbones being usually placed more posteriorly, (4) in the 
absence of a constriction near the ventral margin, and (5) in the indistinct lunule. 
Types. — The type is in the Bristol Museum. The specimen figured by 
Gardner is in the Museum of Practical Geology, Jermyn Street. 

Distribution. — Blackdown Greensaud (zones vii to x) ; Greensand of Haldon 
{fide Downes) ; Upper Greensand of Devizes and Warminster. 



NucuL.v IMPRESSA, Soioerbij, 1824. Plate IV, figs, o, 6 a — r, 7, ?8 a, h. 

1S24. NucuLA IMPEESSA, J. lie C. Sowerbi/. Min. Conch., vol. v, p. US, pi. 

cccclxiv, fig. 3. 
? 183G. — APICULATA, J. lie C. Sowerby. Trans. Geol. Soc, ser. 2, vol. iv, 

p. 342, pi. xvii, fig. 10. 
1850. — IMPUESSA, A. iVOrhigny. Prodr. de Pal., vol. ii, p. 163. 
18.54. — — J. Morris. Cat. Brit. Foss., ed. 2, p. 217. 

? 1854. — APICULATA, Morris. Ibid., p. 217. 
1866. — IMPEES8A, F. J. Pictet and G. Campiche. Foss. du Terr. CriH. de 

Ste. Croix (Mater. Pal. Suisse, ser. 4), pt. 3, p. 418, 
pi. cxxix, fig. 16. 
1884. — — J. S. Gardner. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xl, 

p. 128, pi. iv, figs. 9—12. 

Non 1846. NucULA impbessa, A. E. Reuss. Die Verstein. der bciliii). Kreideformat., 

pt. 2, p. 6, pi. xxxiv, figs. 6, 7. 

— 1867. — — E. Gtti'ranger. Album Paleont. du Dep. de la Sarthe, 

p. 15, pi. XX, tig. 16. 

— 1897. — — A. Fritsch. Stud, im Gebiete der bohui. Kreideformat. 

vi. Die Chloraeker Schiehten, p. 56, 
tig. 61. 

Description. — Shell oval, rounded anteriorly, angular posteriorly ; ventral 
margin evenly curved, postero-dorsal margin slightly concave. Umbones placed 





(1) 


Length . 


. 13-5 


Height . 


. 10 


Thickness 





(3) 


W 


(5) 


11 


. 10 


. 9 mm 


8 


. 7 


. 6 „ 


5-5 , 


. 4-75 


• 4-5 „ 



24 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 

very near the posterior end. Luuule elongate, much depressed, sharply limited. 
Surface with lines of growth. Margins entire. Anterior part of hinge-line with 
about eighteen teeth, posterior part with seven. 

Measurements : 

(2) 

11-5 

8-5 

Affinities. — This species is distinguished from N. ohtusa, Sowerby, and N. ovata, 
Mantell, by the sharply defined lunule and the angular posterior extremity; it is 
also a smaller form. 

N. apiculntd, Sowerby (Plate IV, fig. 8), from Blackdown, appears to me 
to be only a variety^ of N. impressa ; it is somewhat shorter in proportion to its 
height than the ordinary forms of N. impressa, and consequently has a more 
rounded outline. Sowerby's diagnosis of N. aficidata^ is " Convex, smooth, trans- 
versely obovate; posterior extremity pointed." A specimen in the Miiseum of 
the Geological Society of London (No. 1564, Fitton Collection) is, I beheve, the 
type, but is a little smaller than Sowerby's figure. The only other example known 
to me is in Mr. Meyer's Collection. The late Rev. W. Downes^ considered iV. 
apicidata to be a synonym of N. antiquata, Sowerby; but that species is more 
triangular in outline, the valves are much more convex, and the nmbones more 
prominent. 

Types.— One of the types (Sowerb^^'s lower figure) is in the British Museum. 
One of the specimens figured by Gardner (fig. 12) is in the Bristol Museum; I 
have not seen the others ; the}^ are stated to be in the Rev. W. Downes' Collection, 
now in the Exeter Museum. 

Dtsfriliution. — Blackdown Greensand. 

NucuLA ALBENsis, d'OrUguy, 1844. Plate IV, figs. 9 a, b, 10, 11, 12 a, h, 13 a, h, 

Ua, b, 15 a, b, 16, ? 17. 

1844. NucULA. ALBEiisis, A. d'Orbiffii^. Pal. Franc,-. Terr. Cret., vol. iii, p. 172, 

pi. ccei, figs. 15 — 17. 
1850. — — — Prodr. de Pal., vol, ii, p. 137. 

1866. — — F. J. Pictet and G. Campiche. Foss. du Terr. Cret. de 

iSte. Croix (Mater. Pal. Suisse, ser. 4),pt. 3, pp. 411, 
417, pi. cxxix, fig. 11. 
1884. — — tT. S. Gardner. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xl, p. 128, 

jil. iii, figs. 6—8 ; pi. iv, figs. 24, 25. 

1 'Trans. Dev. Assoc.,' vol. iii (1880), p. 436; and 'Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc.,' vol. xxxviii 

(1882), p. 88. 



(3) 


(4) 


(5) 


15 


. U-o 


12 mm. 


11 


. 10 


. 10 „ 


S 


. 6 


5 1 



NUCULA. 25 

Description. — Shell subtriaiigular or more or less oval, compressed ; posterior 
part very short and somewhat auguLar; anterior part usually tapering rapidly, 
with the extremity rounded. Ventral margin curved evenly. Antero-dorsal 
margin curved ; postero-dorsal nearly straight or slightly concave. Umbones not 
prominent, curved. Lunule shallow, cordate, often not sharply defined. Anterior 
area limited by a faint ridge. Surface smooth, but with lines of growth. Margin 
smooth. Adductor impressions shallow. 

Measurements : 

(1) (2) 

Length . . . 22 . 17 
Height . . . 15-5 . 12 
Thickness . . — . — 

Affinities. — V. Tirnothenna, Pictet and Roux,^ is shorter, and apparently more 
compressed than is .V. albensis ; N. ovata, Mantell, is less compressed and more 
rounded in outline; N. impressa, Sowerby, is more oval, and has a more depressed 
and better defined lunule. 

Bemarlis. — This species varies considerably in the proportions of length and 
height — the shorter examples being more triangular, the longer more oval in out- 
line. A form found in the Blackdown Greensand (Plate IV, fig. 17), of which 
I have seen only a few specimens, approaches very closely the shorter types of 
N. albensis, but I have not sufficient material to allow me to speak of its affinities 
with certainty. 

Tijpes. — I have not seen the type; it appears to be missing from the d'Orl)igny 
Collection in the Museum of Natural History, Paris. Some of the specimens 
figured by Gardner (figs. 6 — 8) are in the British Museum. 

Distribution. — Lower Gault (zone vi) of Folkestone; Gault of Black Veu ; 
Cambridge Greensand (derived). ? Grey Chalk {fide Gardner). 



NuGDLA GAULTiNA, Gardner, 1884. Plate IV, figs. 18 «— c, 10, 20, 21 a — c. 

1884. Ntjcui.a gaulti>-.\, J. S. Gardner. Quart. Jourii. Geol. Soc, vol. xl, 

p. 134, pi. iii, fij,'?. 9—11. 2G, 27. 

Description. — Shell small, triangular, rather convex ; pointed anteriorly and 
posteriorly. Ventral and antero-dorsal margins gently curved ; postero-dorsal 
margin slightly concave. Umbones pointed, curved, placed very posteriorly. 
Lunule cordate, sharply defined. Anterior area bounded by a ridge passing from 
the umbo to the anterior extremity. Surface nearly smooth, but with lines of 

^ Moll. Foss. Gres verts de Geneve (1852), p. 17G, pi. xxxix, tig. 7. 

4 



26 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 

growth, crossed by very indistinct radial ribs. Margin creuulate. Hinge and 
adductor impressions not seen. 
Measurements : 

(1) (2) (3) 

Length ... 10 . 9 . 8 mm. 

Height ...8.7.6,, 
Affiuities. — This species is distinguished from N. impressa, Sowerbj', by its 
more triangular outline and larger lunule. It is less convex and proportionately 
longer than N. antitjnata, Sowerby, and has less prominent umbones. It is 
smaller, more pointed at the extremities, and has a deeper and more sharply 
limited lunule than K. albensis, d'Orbigny. 
Types. — In the British Museum. 
Distribution. — -Lower Gault (zones v, vi, and vii) of Folkestone. 



NucuLA ANTiQUATA, Soicerhj, 1824. Plate IV, figs. 22 a—c, 23 a, h, 2-4 «, b, 25, 26. 

1824. NrcuLA ANTIQTATA, J. tlc C. Soivcibi/. Mill. Coiich., vol. V, p. 118, 

pi. cccelxxv, fig. i. 
18.34. — —J. Morris. Cat. Brit. Foss., ed. 2, p. 217. 

180(5. — — F. J. Picfet and G. Campiche. Foss. du Terr. Cret. de 

!Ste. Croix (Mater. Pal. Suisse, ser. 4),pt. 3, p. 418. 
1884. — — J. S. Gardner. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xl, 

p. 134, pi. iv, figs. 3—8. 

Description. — Shell very convex, triangular, posterior angle rounded, anterior 
somewhat pointed ; ventral margin curved. Umbones prom.inent, curved, placed 
very posteriorly. Lunule very broad, cordate, smooth, depressed, sharply 
defined. An anterior area is cut off by a ridge passing from the umbones to the 
anterior margin. Surface ornamented with fine, slight, radiating ribs crossed by 
well-marked concentric growth-lines. Margins crenulate. Anterior part of the 
hinge-line has about twenty teeth, and is bent almost at right angles to the 
posterior part, which has about nine teeth ; the anterior part is more than twice 
the length of the posterior part. Adductor impressions rounded, the anterior 
being the larger. 



Measurements : 






Length 


^ , 




Antero-dorsal 


margin 




Postero-dorsal 


margin 




Height . 


, 




Thickness 





(1) 


(2) 


(3) 


(i) 


13 . 


11 


10 . 


12 mm 


12-5 . 


10 


9-5 . 


11 „ 


6 . 


4-5 


4-5 . 


5 „ 


11-5 . 


8-5 


8 . 


9 „ 


9 . 


7'5 


— 


J) 



ANOMIA. ;.'7 

Affinities. — This siJecies is distinguished by the convexity and triangular form 
of the valves, and by the broad and deep liinule. X apiculata, Sowerby, was 
regarded by the late Rev. W. Dou'nes as a synonym of JV. antiqnala (see p. 24). 

Types. — In the British Museum. The specimens figured by Gardner (e.xcept 
fig. 6, which is in the Downes Collection) are in the Bristol Museum. 

Distribution. — Blackdown Greensand (zones vii to x). 



3. Chalk Species. 
NucoLA, sp. Plate IV, figs. 27, 28. 

1897. Nucui-A, sp., II. Woods. Quart. .Jourii. Geol. Soc, vol. liii, p. 37S, 

pi. xxvii, figs. 1, 2. 

Ttcmarhs. — A species of Nnrida is represented in the Montagu Smith Collection 
(Woodwardian Museum, Cambridge) by eleven specimens ; it approaches closely 
in form d'Orbigny's iV^. Renauxiana^ found in the Turonian of Uchau.x, but 
unfortunately all the specimens are internal casts, so tliat an exact determination 
is impossible. 

Measurements : 

Length . . . . .13 mm. 

Height . . . . . 10 „ 

Distribution. — Chalk Rock {l\eussianu)n-zone) of Cuckhamsley. 



i^flmi///— ANOMIID.^, Gra>/. 
Genus — Anomia, Linnsens, 17-5S. 

('Syst. Nat.,' ed. 10, p. 700.) 
1. Lower Cretaceous Species. 

Anomia pseudoradiata, (TOrbign;/, 1850. Plate V, figs. 1 a — c, 2, 3. 

1S36. Anomi.v u.vuiat.v, J. de C. Sowerli/ (non RUso). Trans. Geol. Soc , ser. 2. 

vol. iv, p. 338, pi. xiv, fig. 5. 



' ' Pal. Fran9. Terr. Cret.,' vol. iii (1844), p. 170, pi. ccciv, figs. 7 — 0. This is regarded by Pictet 
and Campiehe (' Foss. Terr. Crot. Ste. Croix,' pt. iii [186G], p. 4l8) as a synonym of N. impressa, 
Sowerbv. 



28 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 

1S50. Anomia rsEUDOEADiATA, A. (VOrhif/ny. Prodr. de Pal., vol. ii, p. 84. 
1854. — RADIATA, J. Harris. Cat. Brit. Foss., ed. 2, p. ICl. 

Nod ? 18-46. — — A. E. Setiss. Die Versteia. der boliin. Kreideformat., 

pt. ii, p. 45. 
— 1877. — — ? A. Fritsch. Stud, im Gebiete der buhm. Kriedef. ii. Die 

Weissenb. und Malmtz. Schichten, p. 142, fig. 142. 

Description. — Shell oval, a little irregular, higher than long. Left valve 
moderately convex, ornamented with numerous radial ribs, which on the adult 
shell are more distinct and more wav_y than on the younger part of the shell, and 
of two sizes, the larger being distinctly granular. The radial ribs are some- 
times crossed by concentric growth-lines. Umbo near the margin. 

Measurements : 

(1) (2) (3) 

Length . . 22 . . 20 . .21 mm. 

Height . . 23 . . 22 . . 2-1 „ 

Ajjinities. — This species appears to be similar to A. snhtruncata, d'Orbigny,' 
from the Planerkalk of Strehlen, &c., but in that form the shell is much more 
regularly oval than in A. j^seiuloradiata. 

Types. — In the Museum of the Geological Society (Xo. 2029), from the Hythe 
Beds, near Sandgate. 

Distribution. — Crackers, &c., of Atherfield ; Ferruginous Sands (upper beds) of 
Shanklin ; Hythe Beds, near Sandgate; Atherfield Beds of East Shalford, 
Sevenoaks, and Redhill. 



Anomia, sp. Plate V, figs. 4, 5 a, h. 

Description. — Shell more or less orbicular or oval, and rather inequilateral. 
Left valve moderately convex with a rather prominent umbo at the margin ; 
ornamented with radial ribs, which are slender, widely separated, only a little 
elevated, and rather irregular. 

Measurements : 

(I) (-') 

Length . . . 17 . . '.' mm. 

Height . . . IG . . SS ,, 

Affinities. — Li A. -costnlata, Romer,'^ the umbo is not at the margin and is 
somewhat spiral, and the ribs are more numerous ; the last is also the case in 

' A. truncata, Geiuitz {non LiuuKus), ' Cliar. d. Sebicbt. und Petref. saehs.-bohm. Kreidegeb.,' 
pt. iii (1842), p. 87, pi. xix, figs. 4, 5; and "Das Elbtlalgeb. in Sacbsen " (' Palseontograpliica,' 
vol. xx), pt. 2 (1872), p. 30, pi. viii, figs. 22, 23. A. suhlruncafa, A. d'Orbigiiy, ' Prodr. de Pal.,' vol. ii 
(1550), p. 171. 

= 'Die Versteiu. Nord-deutsch. Ool-geb. Naehtrag ' (1839), p. 21, pi. xvii', Cg. ». 



AXOMIA. 29 

A. intercodata, Zittel.' The ornamentation in this form resembles that of A. sub- 
radiata, Reuss/ but in that species the shell appears to be less inequilateral. 

Ttemarlcs. — I have seen only two examples of this form; it appears to be quite 
distinct from the other English species, and to resemble most A. snhradiata, 
Reuss, from the Planermerarel of Luschitz. 

Distribution. — Crackers of Atherfield. 



Anomia l.I'VIGata, Soxi-erby, 1836. Plate \, figs. G, 7 a, l>, 8 a, b, 9. 

1S36. Anomia i,.i:tigata, ./. de C. Sowerhy. Trans. Geol. .Soc, ser. 2, vol. iv, 

p. 33S, pi. xiv, figs. 6 a, h. 
? 1847. — — A. d'Orh'ujiiy. Pal. Franc;. Terr. Cret., vol. iii, p. 755, 

pi. cct'clxxxi.<, figs. 4 — 6. 

1850. — — — Prodr. dc Pal, vol. ii, p. 84. 

1851. — —J. Morris. Cat. Brit. Foss., ed. 2, p. 161. 

Description. — Shell regular, nearlj- orbicular ; surface smooth except for lines 
of growth. Left valve moderatel}- convex; umbo small, at or near the margin. 
Measurements : 

(1) (2) (3) 

Length . . 36 . . 22 . .14 mm. 

Height . . 32 . . 21 . . LJ „ 
Types. — One of the t^pes (PI. V, fig. 0, and Sowerby's fig. C «), f rom theHythe 
Beds of Lympne, is in the Museum of Practical Geology (No. 6414) ; I have not 
seen the other. 

Distribution. — Ferruginous Sands (upper beds) of Shankliu ; Atherfield Beds 
of Peasmarsh ; Hythe Beds of Lympne; Lower Greensand of Punfield. 



Anomia conve.xa, Sowerby, 1836. Plate V, figs. 10 a, !>. 

1836. Anomia convkxa, .T. de C. Sowerhy. Trail;-. Geol. Soc, ser. 2, vol. iv, 

p. 338, pi. xiv, fig. 7. 
1854. — —J. Morris. Cat. Brit. Foss., ed. 2, p. 161. 

Description. — Shell rather small, more or less orbicular or quadrate ; surface 
smooth, or with fine ribs. Left valve very much inflated, with a rather prominent 
umbo. 

^ ' Die Bivalven der Gosaugeb.,' pt. ii (1866), p. 51, pi. xii, fig. 10. 

- 'Die Yerstein. der bohm. Kreideforniat.,' ]>t. ii (1846), p. 45, pi. xxxi, figs. IS, 19. 



30 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 

Measurements : 

Length . . . . . 1-4 mm. 

Height . . . . . 13 „ 

Ueinarls. — This species is imperfectly known at present. The only specimens 
I have seen are in the Museum of the Geological Society, and in Mr. Meyer's 
Collection. With regard to the type specimen, Sowerby remarks, " The furrows 
ai'e produced by a Terebratala \_? Rliijnchonella~\ to which this specimen was 
attached, and to which it consequently bears a great resemblance." 

Types. — The type, from the Lower Greensand of Shanklin, is in the Museum 
of the Geological Society (No. 2032). 

Distribution. — Lower Greensand of Redhill (Reigate) and Atherfield ; Ferru- 
ginous Sands (upper beds) of Shanklin. 



2. Gault and Upper Greensand Species. 
Anomia, sp. ; cf. PSECiDORADiATA, d'Orbign)/. Plate V, figs. 11 a, b. 

Remarks. — This form appears to differ from A. pseudoradiata, d'Orbiguy, 
only in having finer and less distinct ribs; the difi"erence may pei'hajjs be due to 
the mode of preservation. At present I have seen only two specimens. 

Distribution. — Gault of Black Ven (Museum of Practical Geology, No. 6440) 
and Folkestone. 

Anomia, spp. 

In the Museum of Practical Geology, Jermyn Street, there are several speci- 
mens from the Upper Greensand of Devizes and Warminster ; some appear to be 
closely related to A. leevigata, Sowerby, others to A. pseudoradiata, d'Orbigny, 
but they are not sufliciently well preserved to allow of exact determination. 

3. Chalk Species. 
Anomia ? teansversa, Seeleij, 1861. Plate V, figs. 12 a, b. 

1861. Anomia? tuanstersa, H. G. Seelej/. Aun. M.ig. Nat. Hist., ser. 3, 

vol. vii, p. 12.3, p). vi, fig. 8. 

Description.—^' Shell ovate, elongated, inflated. LTmbo large, prominent, 
inclining to the posterior end rather than central" (Seeley). 



ANOMIA. 31 

Measurements : 

Length . . . . .17 laiu. 

Height . . . . . 12 „ 

Remarlcs. — This form may perhaps be related to A. lytpyracca, d'Orbigny, but 
witliout better specimens I am unable to make any definite statement con- 
cerning it. 

Ttjpes. — I have not seen the specimen figured by Seeley, but other examples to 
which he refers are preserved in the Woodwardian [Museum. Cambridge. 
Distrihatlon. — Cambridge Greensand. 



Anomia rAPYKACEA, iV Orhir/Hij, 1817. Plate V, figs. 13 — 1(J. 

ISiT. AxoMiA I'APYitACEA, A. d'Oihigiuj. P;il. Fran(,-. Terr. Crot., vol.iii, p. 755, 

pi. cceelxxxix, figs. 7 — 10. 

1S50. AxOMYA PAPTHACEA, A. (f Orbiffiii/. Prodr. de Pal., vol. ii, p. 171. 

18S1. AxoMfA PAPiEACEA, A. d' Orhigiiy, var. nrEWELLEXSis, i?. £tlieri(l</e. In 

Penning and Jukes-Browne, Geo). Neighbourhood 
of Cambridge (Mem. Geol. Survey), p. 145, pi. iii, 
figs. 3, 4. 

Description. — Shell more or less oval, longer than high, nearly smooth, but 
sometimes with faintly marked concentric ribs. Left valve slightly convex j 
umbo small, near the margin. Right valve flat or slightlj' concave. 

Meas2ireinents : 

(1) (2) (3) 

Length . . :33 . . 35 . . 28 mm. 
Height . . 23 . . 25 . . 21 „ 
Affinities. — This species is distinguished from A. laicigata, Sowerby, by its 
oval form and lesser convexity. 

Types. — The type is not in the d'Orbigny Collection. The specimens figured 
by Etheridge are in the Woodwardian Museum, Cambridge. 

Distribution. — Totternhoe Stone (zone of Holnster subglobosits) of Burwell and 
Reach. 



32 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 



Famllij — ARCID^, Lamarck. 
Genus — Arca, Linneeiis, 1758 (sensu strido). 

(' Syst. Nat.,' ed. 10, p. 693.) 
1. Lower Cretaceous Sj^ecies. 
Arca Dufiniana, (VOrhlgnij, 1844. Plate VI, figs. 1 a, h, 2, 3. 

1844. Ahca Dupiniana, A. d' Orhigny. Pal. Franf. Terr. Cret., vol. iii, p. 207, 

pi. cccs, figs. 9, 10. 

1845. — ~ E. Forbes. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. i, p. 240. 
1850. — — A. d'Orhifjnij. Prodr. de Pal., vol. ii, p. SO. 

1854. — — /. Morris. Cat. Brit. Foss., ed. 2, p. 185. 

1855. — — G. Cotteaa. Moll. Foss. de rYonne, p. 86. 

18G6. — — F. J. Pictet and Q. Campiche. Foss. du Terr. Cret. 

Ste. Croix (Mater. Pal. Suisse, ser. 4), pt. 3, 
pp. 438, 468. 
1867. — — P. de Loriol. In A. Favre, Eecberch. geol. dans 

Savoie, &c., vol. i, p. 381. 
1871. — — F. Stoliczka. Pal»ont. Indies, Cret. Fauna S. India, 

vol. iii, p. 342 {Barhatia). 

Descrijition. — Shell elongate, very inequilateral, convex. Anterior margin 
rounded. Ventral margin sinuous, roughly parallel to the hinge-line. Posterior 
margin very oblique, nearly straight, forming sharply marked obtuse and acute 
angles with the dorsal and ventral margins respectively. Umbones prominent, 
moderately distant, with a prominent toothed carina extending to the postero- 
ventral angle, and cutting off a depressed postero-dorsal area. Hinge-line long. 
Hinge-area rather large. Ornamentation consists of numerous fine radial ribs — 
more prominent at the anterior end — crossed by concentric growth-lines. Pos- 
tero-dorsal area with four strong radial ribs which project posteriorly, giving a 
toothed margin. Teeth numerous, small, transverse, the terminal teeth slightly 
oblique. 

Measurenieats : 

Length ......... 25 mm. 

Height 12-5 „ 

Thickness . . . . . . . . 13 ,, 



ARCA. 33 

Affinities.— This species is distiuguisbed by its prominent toothed carina and 
strong postero-dorsal ribs. Its form is somewhat similar to that of -rl. Sanctae- 
Cnicis, Pictet and Campiche (see p. 34), but its posterior margin is more oblique. 

It also appears to be related to Area Dufrenoyi, d'Archiac,' but in that form 
the antero-dorsal extremity is rectangular. The hinge of A. Dufrenoyi seems to 
be unknown. 

Tijpes. — I have not seen the type; it came from the Neocomian of Marolles 
(Aube). 

Dti^tribution. — Perna-hed of Athertield ; Atherfield Beds of East Shalford and 
Peasmarsh ; Ferruginous Sands (upper beds) of Shanklin. 



Arca Cakteroxi, (VOiiiiijnii, 18-44. Plate VI, figs. 4« — c, 5 a — c. 

1844. Anc.v Caeteeom, ^. d'Orhiijiiy. Pal. Fran9. Terr. Crut., vol. iii, p. 202, 

pi. cccix, figs. 4 — 8. 

1845. — — E. Forbes. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. i, p. 246. 
1854. — — J. Morris. Cat. Brit. Foss., ed. 2, p. 185. 

18UG. — — F. J. Pictet and O. Campiche. Foss. du Terr. Cret. de 

Ste. Croix (Mater. Pal. Suisse, ser. 4), pt. 3, pp. 436. 
4G8, pi. cxxx, fig. 9. 

18S3. — — W. Keepiwj. Foss., &c., of Neoc. of Upware and Brick- 

hill, p. 114, pi. V, fig. 7. 

Bescription. — Shell oblong, very elongate and thick. Dorsal and ventral 
margins straight and nearly parallel. Hiuge-line extends to tlic most anterior 
part of the shell, and forms with the anterior margin a right angle ; the anterior 
margin curves ventrally from the hinge-line. Posterior margin a little oblique. 
Umbones of moderate size, widely separated, only slightly curved, with a low 
rounded carina extending to the postero-ventral angle; between the carina and 
the hinge-line is a second indistinct carina. Hinge-area very broad and large, 
lozenge-shaped, witli several (about seven) ligament-grooves. Ornamentation 
consists of fine radial ribs. Hinge : the teeth near the umbo are small and 
transverse, but towards the extremities they become more oblique and longer. 



Measurements : 




(1) 


(2) 


Length 


• 


. 40 


28 mm 


Height . 


, . 


. 16 


. 13 „ 


Thickness 


, , 


. 20 


») 


(1) From 


Upware. 


(2) From East Shalford. 



' ' Bull. Soc. Geol. de France," ser. 2, vol. xi (1854), p. 214, pi. iii, fig. 9. 

5 



34 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 

Affinities. — See A. Sancfas-Crucis (below). The external teeth are more oblique 
in this than in most forms of Area, in which respect it may be compared with 
A. etjuidens, Tate.^ 

Distribution. — Lower Greensand of Upware. Atherfield Beds of East Shalford 
and Peasmarsh. ? Perna-hedi of Redcliff. 



Arca Sanct.e-Crucis, Pidet and Gampiche, 1866. Plate VI, figs. 6 a — c, 7 a — c. 

1SG6. Ahca Sa>-ct^-Cbucis, F. J. Pictet and G. Campiche. Foss. du Terr. Cret. 

de Ste. Croix (Mater. Pal. Suisse, ser. 4), pt. 3, 
p. 437, pi. cxxx, figs. 10, 11. 

Description. — Shell elongate, very convex in the umbonal region ; wedge-like 
posteriorly. Anterior margin rounded, more or less perpendicular to the hinge- 
line. Ventral mai'gin a little sinuous, more or less parallel to the dorsal. Poste- 
rior margin nearly straight, and either at right angles or slightly oblique to the 
hinge-line. Umboues jjrominent, incurved, placed near the anterior third of the 
shell. Carina rounded ; postero-dorsal area depressed, sometimes slightly con- 
cave, with one or two faint broad ridges. Hinge-area long and broad. Orna- 
mentation consists of numerous fine radial ribs crossed by lines of growth. 
Inteiior not seen. 

Measurements : 

(1) (2) 

Length . . . .31 . .25 mm. 

Height . . . .17 . . 14 „ 
Thickness . . . 16'5 . . 18 ,, 

(1) aud (2) are from Upware. 

Affinities. — This form agrees in many respects with A. Carteroni, d'Orbigny, 
and it is likely that a large series of specimens would show a passage between the 
two. At present I have seen only three or four examples of each. Area 
Sanctse-Crncis appears to differ from A. Carteroni in being proportionately 
shorter, in having the ventral margin sinuous and less parallel to the dorsal, aud 
in the umbones being more prominent and incurved. 

It also appears to be similar to Arca autissiodorensis, Cotteau," but seems to be 
less inflated and to have the posterior margin less oblique. 

1 ' Trans. Eoy. Soe. S. Australia,' vol. viii (18S6), p. 139, pi. si, fig. 9 ; G. F. Harris, ' Cat. Tert. 
Mollusca' (Brit. Mus.), part i (1897), p. 331. 

" 'Moll. Foss. de I'Tonne ' (1855), p. 86 ; de Loriol aud Cotteau, 'Mou, Pal. Geol. de Port- 
landien de I'Toniie ' (18G8), p. 179, pi. x, figs. 6, 7. 



BARBATIA. 35 

Type. — From the Valangiau of Sainte Croix. 

Dlstrihvfion. — Lower Greensand of Upware. Atherfiekl Beds of East Shal- 
ford. 



2. Upper Cretaceous Species. 
Arca pholadiformis, d'Orhupiy, 1844. 

ISi-l-. Arca rnoLADiFOUMis, A. d'Orbiijuy. Pal. Fracf. Terr. Crut., vol. iii, 

p. 219, pi. eccxv, figs. 1 — 3. 
1S50. _ _ _ Prodr. de P.il, vol. ii, p. 164. 

186G. — — F. J. Pictct and G. Campiche. Foss. du Terr. 

Cret. Ste. Croix (Mater. Pal. Suisse, ser. 4), 
pt. 3, p. 473. 
1SG7. — — E. Gueraiiger. Album Palcont. Sarthe, p. 16, pi. 

ssi, fl'gs. 5, 11. 
1871. — — F. Stoliczka. Palieont. Indica, Cret. Fauna S. 

India, vol. iii, p. 343. 
? ? 1883. — cf. — A. Fiitsch. Stud, im Geb. der bobm. Kreide- 

format. iii. Die Iser Scliicbteu, p. 104, fig. 69. 

liemarls. — An internal mould of a right valve from the Upper Greensand of 
Devizes, which almost certainly belongs to this species, is preserved in the 
Museum of Practical Geolog}- (Xo. 6454) ; its length is 28 mm., and its height 
11 mm. I have seen no other specimen. The hinge is apparently unknown. 



Genus — Bakbatia, ./. E. Gray, 1847. 

['SvD. Brit. Mas.,' 1840, p. 151 {novi. mid.); ' Proe. Zool. Soc.,' 1847, p. 197.] 

1. Loiver Cretaceous Species. 
Bakbatia .m-iiensis {Pictct and Campiche), 1SG6. Plate VI, figs. 8 a — e, 9 a, h. 

1S45. Arc. E.vuLiNr, E. Forbes. Quart. Jouru. Geo). Soc, vol. i, p. 245 

(partitn). 
1850. — —A. d'Orligny. Prodr. de Pal., vol. ii, p. SO (partim). 

1854. — — J. Morris. Cat. Brit. Foss., ed. 2, p. 185. 

1857. — — F. ,T. Ficfet and E. Renevier. Foss. du Terr. Ajtiien 

(Mater. Pal. Suisse, ser. 1), p. 106, pi. sv, figs. 1—3. 
f 1865. — cvjroDOCE, I£. Coquand. Mon. de I'etage Aptien de I'Espagne, 

p. 140, pi. xii, figs. 7. 8, 



36 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 

1866. Aeca APTIENSI3, F. J. Pictet and G. Campiclte. Foss. du Terr. Cret. de 

Ste. Croix (Mater. Pal. Suisse, ser. 4), pt. 3, pp. 454. 
471. 
1S71. — — F. Stoliczka. Paljeont. ludica, Cret. Fauna S. India, 

vol. iii, p. 343 {Trigonoarca?). 
? 1S71. — CTMODOCE, Stolicika. Ibid., p. 345. 

? 1884. — Raulini, O. Weerth. Die Fauna Neocom. Teutoburg. "Walde. 

(PalsBont. Abhaud., vol. ii), p. 47. 

Description. — Shell oblong, a little higher near the posterior part of the hinge- 
line than elsewhere, very inequilateral. Anterior margin forming a sharp angle 
(often about 90°) with the hinge-line, and curving evenly to join the ventral 
margin, which is slightly curved, and has a general slope posteriorly. Posterior 
margin oblique, slightly convex, forming obtuse and acute angles with the dorsal 
and ventral margins respectively — the acute angle being somewhat rounded. 
Umbones not prominent, close together, with a rounded carina extending in a 
double curve to the postero-ventral angle, and cutting off a concave triangular 
area. Shell compressed in front of the umbones. Hinge-line about three 
quarters of the length of the shell. Hinge-area narrow, elongate. Ornamenta- 
tion consists of well-marked concentric ribs, and numerous fine radial ribs. On 
the anterior part of the shell, at intervals, some of the radial ribs become more 
prominent, and curve anterioi'ly. On the postero-dorsal area, and also near the 
carina, at intervals, some of the radial ribs are more elevated than the others, and 
here the concentric ribs are less distinct than elsewhere. Central teeth small and 
transverse, lateral teeth oblique.^ 

Measurements : 

(1) (2) 

Length 28 . . 37 ram. 

Height 14 . . 21 „ 

Thickness .... . — . . 16 ,, 

Affinities. — By most authors this species has been referred to Guculisea- Baulini, 
Leymerie,* to which it is certainly closely related ; in fact, a larger collection of 
French specimens than I have been able to examine might well show the two forms 
to be identical. I have not seen the type of B. Baulini, nor the original of 
d'Oi'bigny's figures, but other specimens in the d'Orbigny Collection and the 
Ecole des Mines, Paris. Stoliczka remarks on the diS"erence between Leymerie's 
and d'Orbigny's figures of that species, and suggests that either one figure is 
incorrect or that they represent two distinct species. I think that the two figures 

1 The characters of the teeth are given on the autbority of Pictet and Campiclie. 

^ 'Mem. Soc. Greol. de France,' vol. v (1842), pi. x, fig. 1, p. 7; d'Orbigny, 'Pal. Fran9. Terr. 
Cret.,' vol. iii (1844), p. 204, pi. cecx, figs. 1, 2; Pictet aud Campicbe, " Foss. du Terr. Cret. de Ste. 
Croix " (' Mater. Pal. Suisse,' ser. 4), pt. 3, pp. 410, 469. 



BARB ATI A. 37 

represent the same form, but tliat Leymerie's specimen was imperfect in the 
postero-dorsal region. B. aptieufiis appears to differ from B. Raidlni in the greater 
height of the posterior part of the shell and consequent greater obliquity and 
curvature of the ventral margin, and in tlie presence of a few radial ribs, stronger 
than the others, on the anterior part of tlie shell. The average size of the English 
form appears to be greater than that of the French. B. apfAensis is also very 
similar to A. neocomiensis, d'Orbigny. Judging from the figure the latter seems 
to differ chiefly in having the posterior extremity pointed instead of obliquely 
truncate. 

Area cijmodoce, Coquand, is perhaps identical with tliis form, but its area 
appears to be shorter. 

Ti/pes. — From the Crackers of Atlierfield and the Aptian of the Perte-du-Rhone 
and Presta. 

Disfribution. — Perna-hed, Atherfield Clay, and Crackers of Athorfield ; Ferru- 
ginous Sands of Sandown ; Atherfield Beds of Ilaslemere, East Shalford, and 
Sevenoaks. 



Sub-genus — Scaphula, Benson, 1834?. 
['Proc. Zool. Soc.,' pt. ii, p. 01.] 

Barbatia (Scaphula?) Austeni (Forbes), 18-i5. Plate VII, figs. 1 a, b, 2, 3. 

1S45. Caedium (Hemicaedium) ? Austexi, F. Forbes. Quart. Journ. Geol. 

Soc, vol. i, p. 244, pi. iii, fig. 3. 
1850. AnCA. AvsTEni, A. d'Orbiffnj/. Prodr. de Pal., vol. ii, ]>. 118. 
1854. Caedium ArsTExi, J. Iforris. Cat. Brit. Foss., ed. 2, p. 192. 
18GG. Aeca Austexi, F. J. Pictet and G. Campiche. Foss. du Terr. Cret. de 

Ste. Croix (Mater. Pal. Suisse, ser. 4), pt. 3, p. 471. 

Description. — Shell oval, ver}'- oblique and inequilateral. Anterior margin 
rounded, passing gradually into the curved and oblique ventral margin. Posterior 
margin a little convex, oblique, forming an acute angle with the ventral margin. 
Umbones of moderate size, incurved, with a very sharp carina extending to the 
postero-ventral angle ; postero-dorsal area sharply depressed. Hinge-line short. 
Hinge-area small, triangular, witli several ligament-grooves. Ornamentation 
consists of slightly elevated radial ribs crossed by faintly marked lines of growth ; 
the radial ribs are sometimes indistinct, but on the postero-dorsal area they are 
more prominent than elsewhere. luterior not seen. 



38 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 

Measurements : 

(1) (2) 

Length 35 . . 21 ram. 

Height 21 . . 17 „ 

Umbo to posteio-veutral augle . 47 . . 26 ,, 

(1) Per»t<T-bed, Atherfield. (2) Crackers, Atlierfield. 

Affinities. — This differs from all other Cretaceous species with which I am 
acquainted. The form of the shell and the character of its ornamentation agree 
closely with the recent ScapJuila, but since in our species the interior is unknown, 
I refer it with considerable doubt to that sub-genus. 

Tt/2)e. — In the Museum of the Geological Society (Xo. 2152), from Peasmarsh. 

Distribution. — Atherfield Beds of Sevenoaks, Peasmarsh, East Shalford, aud 
Redcliff (Isle of "Wight). Crackers aud Perua-hed of Atherfield. 



2. Upper and Lou-er Cretaceous Species. 
Baebatia maeullensis (d'Orhigny), 1844. Plate VII, figs. 4, 5 a — d, 6 a, h, 7. 

18-44^. Akca marullensis, A. d'Orhigny. Pal. Franc. Terr. Cret., vol. iii, p. 205, 

pi. cccx, figs. 3 — 5. 
1854. — — J. Morris. Cat. Brit. Toss., ed. 2, p. 185. 

1S55. — — G. Cotteau. Moll. Toss, de I'Yonne, p. 87. 

1866. — — F. J. Pidet and G. Campiclie. Foss. Terr. Cret. de 

Ste. Croix (Mater. Pal. Suisse, ser. 4), pt. 3, 
pp. 432, 468, pi. exss, figs. 1 — 4. 

1867. — — P. de Loriol. In A. Favre, Eecherch. geol. dans 

Savoie, &c., vol. i, p. 382. 
1869. — — P. de Loriol and V. GiUie'ron. Mon. pal. et strat. de 

I'etage Urgon. inf. du Lauderon (Me'm. Soe. 

Helvet. des Sci. Nat., vol. sxiii), p. 16, pi. i, fig. 13. 

1871. — — F. Stoliczka. Palseont. Indica, Cret. Fauna S. India, 

vol. iii, p. 342 (Barbatia). 
1883. — — IV. Keeping. Fos.s., &c., Neoc. Upware and Brickhill, 

p. 114. 

l^on 1850. Byssoakca mahullexsis, J. de C. Sowerlij. In F. Dixon, Geol. Susses, 

p. 355, pi. xxviii, fig. 11. 
— 1878. — — Sowerly. Ibid., ed. 2, p. 385, pi. sxviii, fig. 11. 

Description. — Shell oblong, inequilateral, rather compressed. Anterior aud 
posterior margins rounded, the postero-dorsal somewhat oblique; ventral margin 
parallel to the dorsal. Umbones not prominent, rather close ; carina near the 



(1) 


(-2) 


(3) 


no 


25-5 


. :U 


. :10 . 


15 mm 


1--) 


. 28 . 


IG . 


„ 



BARBATIA. 39 

uraboues only, not well-marked, Postero-dorsal part of the shell sharply com- 
pressed. Hinge-area narrow, depressed, with close-set ligament-grooves. Orna- 
mentation consists of many equal-sized radial ribs, separated hy narrow grooves, 
and crossed by less distinct concentric grooves. Occasionally smaller ribs (radial) 
appear in the grooves. On the postero-dorsal area the radial ribs are broader 
and more flattened. 

Measurements : 

Length .... 
Height .... 
Thickness . . . 11 .11. — . — ,, 

(1) is from Upw.are ; (2) — (1) are iroui Folkestone. 

Affinities. — The shell is more rounded at tlie extremities and the uinbones are 
less anterior than in Barbatia BauJini (d'Orbigny). 

B. marullensis is very similar to Area Baiuloniana, Cotteau ; ^ the latter is of 
larger size, and may be onl}' an older example of the former. It is also related to 
A. aubersonensis, Pictet and Campiche.^ 

Area Evgarcliana , d'Orbigny, differs in the ventral margin being oblique, and 
in having coarser radial ribs and less distinct concentric ornament. In Area Gulli- 
ennei, d'Orbigny, the umbones are more anterior (see p. -il). 

Bemarhs. — I have seen only two examples from the Lower Greeusand, both 
from Upware, but the species has been recorded from Faringdou ; it is not 
common in the Gault. The concentric ornament is not distinctly seen in the 
Upware specimens, but that is probably due to the somewhat worn nature of the 
shell. 

Types. — Specimens which agree well with the figures are in the d'Orbigny 
Collection, but I could not identify the type with certainty. 

Distrihution. — Lower Greensand of Upware, and {fide Morris) of Faringdon. 
Gault (zones iii, vii, x, xi) of Folkestone. ? Cambridge Greensand (internal 
moulds only). 

1 'Moll. Foss. de I'Toniie' (1S55), p. SG ; Pictet aud Campiche, "Foss. Terr. Crct. de Ste. 
Croix" (' Mater. Pal. Suisse,' ser. 4), pt. 3, p. 432, pi. cxxx, fig. 5. 

2 Ibid., p. 433, pi. cxxx, fig. G. 



40 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 

3. Up2)er Cretaceous Species. 
Barbatia Hugakdiana {cVOrlngny), 184-i. 

1844. Ahca HuGAEEiANA, A. iVCili(jiiy. Pal. Trai 9. Teir. Ciet., vol. iii, p. 216, 

pi. cccxiii, figs. 4 — U. 
1850. — — — Prodr. de Pal., vol. ii, p. 138. 

1852. — — F. J. Pictet and W. Boux. Moll. Toss. Gres verts de 

Geneve, p. 457, pi. xxxvi, fig. 1. 
186G. — — F. J. Pictet and G. Campiche. Foss. du Cret. de Ste. 

Croix (Mater. Pal. Suisse, ser. 4), pt. 3, p. 460. 
1871. — — F. StoUczka. Palseont. Indica, Cret. Fauna S. India, 

vol. iii, p. 343 {Barbatia). 
1875. — — A. J. Juhes-Broivne. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. 

xxxi, p. 299 (? partim). 

Some internal casts from tlie Cam bridge Greensand (derived) may perhaps 
belong to this species. 

Baebatia eotundata {Son-erhy), 1836. Plate VII, figs. 8rt — c. 

183G. Abca eotuudata, J. de C. Soicerly. Trans. Geol. Soc, ser. 2, vol. iv, 

p. 342, pi. xvii, fig. 8. 

1848. — EOTUKDiTA, H. P. Ni/st. Tableau des Especes vivant et foss. des 

Arcacees (Mem. Acad. Hoy. Belgique, 
vol. xxii), p. 64. 

1854. — EOTUSDATA, J. Morris. Cat. Brit. Foss., ed. 2, p. 185. 

1866. — — F. J. Pictet and Q. Campiiche. Foss. du Terr. Cret. de 

Ste. Croix (Mater. Pal. Suisse, ser. 4), pt. iii, p. 473. 

1871. — — F. Stoliczl-a. Palseont. Indica, Cret. Fauna S. India, 

vol. iii, p. 343 (Barbatia). 

Descriptio7i. —Shell moderately convex, oblong, inequilateral, highest pos- 
teriorly. Anterior and posterior margins rounded; ventral oblique to the hinge- 
line, sinuous at the middle. Unibones close together, with an ill-defined posterior 
carina. Shell much compressed postero-dorsally ; also slightly compressed 
ventral to the umbones. Ornamentation consists of numerous fine radial ribs 
separated by narrow grooves, and crossed by a few distant concentric growth- 
lines. Interior not seen. 

Measurements : 

Length ......... 26 mm. 

Height (approximate) . . . . . . 15 ,, 



BARB ATI A. 41 

Affitiities. — Barbatia rotundata appears to be closely related to d'Orbigny's ^ 
Area Itaspa'dJi, but without seeing specimens of the latter, and with only one 
example of the former before me, I am unable to determine their relationship. 
B. rohmdata is much smaller than the figured forms of A. Raspailli, and seems to 
be proportionately more convex. 

B. Eugardiana (d'Orbigny) is proportionately longer and more coarsely ribbed. 
B. Galliennei (d'Orbigny) is not so high posteriorly. 

Ti/pe. — Bristol Museum. This is the only specimen I have seen. 

Distribution. — Blackdown Greensand. 



Barbatia vendinensis (d'Orbigni/), 1844. 

1844. Aeca VENDINENSI8, .4. d'Orbigny. Pal. Franc. 'J'err. C'rct., vol. iii, p. 220, 

|)1. cccxv, tigs. -1 — 7. 
1850. — — — Prodr. de Pal., vol. ii, p. 164. 

1866. — — F. J. Piclet and G. Campiche. Foss. du Terr. Cret. 

Ste. Croix (Mater. Pal. Suisse, ser. 4), pt. 3, p. 474. 
1871. — — F. Stoliczka. Palasont. Indica, Cret. Fauna S. India, 

vol. iii, p. 343 {Barbatia). 
? 1897. — — A. Fri/scJi. Stud, im Gebiete der bohin. Kreideformat. 

vi. Die Chloiiicker Sciiicliten, p. 57, 
fig. 63. 

An imperfect right valve from the Chalk Marl (Meyer's Bed 10) of Dunscombe, 
in Mr. Meyer's Collection, probably belongs to this species. 



Barbatia Galliennei (d'Orbigni/), 1844. Plate VII, figs. 9 a, b. 

1844. Akca Galliennei, A. d'Orbigni/. Pal. Fniny. Terr. Cret., vol. iii, p. 218, 

pi. eec.xiv. 
1850. - — — Prodr. de Pal., vol. ii, p. 164. 

1866. — — F. J. Piclet and G. Campiche. Foss. Terr. Cret. de 

Ste. Croix (Mater. Pal. Suisse, ser. 4), pt. 3, p. 473. 

1867. — — E. Gueranger. Album Pal., p. 16, pi. xxi, fig. 4. 
1871. — — F. Stoliczka. Palasont. Inilioa, Cret. Fauna S. India, 

vol. iii, p. 343 {Barbatia). 
1873. — — //. B. Geinitz. Das Elbtlialgeb. in Saclisen (Palsou- 

tographiea, vol. xx), ]it. 1, p. 220, pi. xlviii, figs. 
20—22. 
1895. — — E. Ticssen. Zeitscli. d. deutseh. geol. Gesellsili., vol. 

slvii, p. 482. 



1 'Pal. Fran9. Terr. Cret.,' vol. iii (1847), p. 766 {nom. viut.) ; ibid, (as ,1. Requieniana), p. 239, 
pi. cecxsvi, figs. 1,2;' Prodr. de Pal.,' vol. ii (1S50), p. 196, No. 137. 

6 



42 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 

Bemarls. — I have seen only a few specimens — all internal casts — of this 
species. 

Distribution. — Base of the Chalk Marl (zone of SchJoenbachia varians) of Lyme 
B,egis, and Titherleigh, near Chard. 



Baebatia, sp., of. Geinitzi (Beuss), 1844. Plate VII, figs. 10 a, b, 11. 

Cf. 1842. Abca badiata, H. B. Oeinifz (non Goldfuss). Char, der Schicht. und 

Petref. siiehs-bohm, Kreidegeb., pt. 3, p. 78, pi. xx, figs. 
13, 14. 

— 1844. — GrETNiTzi, A. E. Reuss. G-eogn. Skizzen, vol. ii, p. 192. 

— 1846. — — — Die Verstein. der bohm. Kreideformat., 

pt. 2, p. 11, pi. xxxiv, fig. 31. 

— 1852. — — ? iZ. Kner. Denkschr. d. k. Akad. Wissensch. Math-nat. 

CL, vol. iii, p. 314, pi. xvi, fig. 27. 

— 1869. — — E.Favre. Moll. Foss. de la Craie des Envir. de Lemberg, 

p. 125, pi. xii, figs. 15, 16. 

— 1873. — — H. B. Oeinitz. Das Elbthalgeb. in Sachsen (PalsBonto- 

graphica, vol. xx), pt. 2, p. 55, pi. xvi, figs. 7, 8. 

— 1889. — — A. Fritsch. Stud, im Grebiete der bohm. Kreideformat. 

iv. Die Teplitzer Schichten, p. 79, fig. 63. 
1897. — (Baebatia), sp., cf. G-einitzi, H. Woods. Quart. Jouru. Geol. Soe., 

vol. liii, p. 378, pi. xxvii, figs. 5, 6. 

Measurements : 

Length (approximate) ...... 23 mm. 

Height ,, ...... 11 ,, 

Bemarls. — A specimen consisting of an internal and part of an external mould 
appears to agree with A. Geinitzi in form, but seems to differ in possessing rather 
finer ribs. It is, perhaps, the form figured by J. de C. Sowerby as Byssoarca 
marullensis,^ from the Chalk of Kent. 

Distribution. — Chalk Rock (zone of Heteroceras Beussianum) of Cuckhamsley. 



Baebatia, sp. Plate VII, figs. 12 a, b. 

Ahca, sp., cf. Galliennei, H. Woods. Quart. Jouru. Geol. See, vol. liii, p. 378, 

pi. xxvii, fig. 3. 

1 Sowerby {non d'Orbigny), in F. Dixon's ' Geol. Sussex' (1850), p. 355, pi. xxviii, fig. 11. I 
have not been able to find the original of Sowerby's figure. 



BARB ATI A. 43 

Measurements : 

Length ......... 33 mm. 

Height . . . . . . . . . 19 „ 

BeniarJis. — There are two internal casts of left valves from Cuckhamsley in 
the Montagu Smith Collection, Woodwardian Museum, which, in general form, 
agree with A. Galliennei, d'Orbigny, except that they are proportionately shorter. 
Distribution. — Chalk Rock (zone of Heteroceras Reussimium) of Cuckhamsley. 



Barbatia ? sp. Plate VTI, figs. 13 a, h. 

1897. Arca, pp., H. Woods. Quart. Journ. Geo). Soc, vol. liii. p. 379, pi. xxvii, 

fia:. 1. 

Description. — Shell elongate, obhque, very inequilateral. Anterior margin 
forming an angle with the hinge-line, and curving ventrally to join the ventral 
margin, which is nearly straight, but has a considerable slope posteriorly. 
Posterior margin oblique, somewhat rounded. Umbones apparently sharp, 
pointing anteriorly ; shell compressed dorsal to a line between the umbo and the 
postero-ventral extremity. Surface with well-marked lines of growth ; radial 
ribs extend from the umbo posteriorly, and perhaps occur also on other parts of 
the shell. 

Measurements : 

Length . . . . . . . . .13 mm. 

Height ......... 6 ,, 

Eemarlis. — This form is at present known by one specimen only, an internal 
cast, but showing indications of ornament. It resembles Area strehlensis, Geinitz,' 
from the Planer-Kalk of Strehlen (Dresden), but in that species the shell is less 
ol)lique, and the surface is generally smooth except on the anterior part, which 
is marked with radial rilis. 

Distribution. — Chalk Rock (zone of Heteroceras Beussiannm) of Cuckhamsley. 

' " Das Elbthalgeb. in S;u■h^eIl " (' Pala-ontographica,' vol. xx), pt. 2, 187.3, p. 56, pi. xvi, fig. o. 



44 



CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 



Genus — Geammatodon, Meek andEayden (1860), 1864.^ 

[' Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.,' 1860, p. 419 (list uame) ; " Palseoutology of the Upper Missouri," 
' Smithsonian Contrib. to Knowledge,' vol, siv, No. 172, 1864, p. 89, pi. ii, fig. 9.] 

Gbammatodon secums (Leymerie), 1842. Plate VII, figs. 14 a, h, 15 a, b; Plate 

VIII, figs. 1, 2. 

1829. CucuLL^iA, J. Phillips. Geol. Torks., pt. 1, p. 186, pi. ii, fig. 16. 
184,2. — SECUEis, A. Leymerie. Mem. Soc. Geol. France, vol. v, p. 6, 

pi. vii, figs. 6, 7. 

1844. Aeca secueis, A. d'Orligny. Pal. Fran?. Terr. Cre't., vol. iii, p. 203, 

pi. cccix, figs. 9, 10. 

1845. — — E. Forbes. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. i, p. 246. 
1850. — — A. d'Orligny. Prodr. de Pal., vol. ii, p. 80. 

1854. — — J. Morris. Cat. Brit. Foss., ed. 2, p. 185. 

1855. _ — G. Cotteau. Moll. Foss. de TYonne, p. 87. 

1861. — — P. de Loriol. Anim. Invert. Foss. du Mont Saleve, p. 86, 

pi. X, fig. 8. 
1866. — — F. J. Pictet and G. Campiche. Foss. Terr. Cret. de Ste. 

Croix (Mater. Pal. Suisse, ser. 4), pt. 3, pp. 443, 469. 
1875. CUCULL.SA SECTJRIS, /. Phillips. Geol. Torks., pt. 1, ed. 3, p. 323, pi. ii, 

fig. 16. 
1896. Aeca secubis, A. Wollemann. Zeitschr. d. deutscb. geol. Gesellscb., 

vol. xlviii, p. 845. 

Measurements : 

Length 21 mm. 

Height 14 „ 

Thickness 12"5 „ 

Affinities. — This form, as was pointed out by de Loriol, is very similar to 
Grammatodon carinatus (Sowerby) (see p. 45), and I think it is possible that they 
may prove to be identical, but until more specimens have been obtained I shall 
regard the two as distinct. In G. securis the area appears to be broader 
than in G. carinata ; and also on the left valve of the former the ribs are more 
widely separated than in the latter, and there are small ribs in the interspaces. 
Gucullsea Schiisteri, Roemer," is perhaps an allied form, but I have seen no speci- 
men of it, 

Bemarks. — The specimen figured by d'Orbigny is proportionately longer than 

1 For the synonymy of this geuus see "Woods, 'Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist.,' ser. vii, vol. iii (1899), 
p. 47. To the names there given should he added Betishausenia, Coasmann, 'Hev. crit. Paleozool.' 
(1897), p. 93. 

2 ' Die Verstein des nord-deutsch. Kreidegeb.' (1841), p. 70, pi. ix, fig. 3. 



GRAMMATODON. 45 

the Englif?h forms, but other examples in the d'Orbigny Collection do not differ 
from ours. 

Types. — I have not seen the types ; they are stated to have come from Dienville. 
The specimen from Speeton figured by Phillips {vide supra) is in the York 
Museum. 

Distribution. — Speeton Clay (B. zone of Beh hrunsvicensis) of Speeton. 
? Sandgate Beds of Sevenoaks. 



GrRAMMATODON CAKiNATUs (Soiverbij), 1813. Plate VIII, figs. 3 a — d, 4 a — c, 5, 6, 

7 a, h, 8. 

1813. Aeca carinata, J. Soiocrbi/. Min. Concli., vol. i, p. 96, pi. sliv (lower 

figure). 
1824. CvcCLLMi. COSTELLATA, J. de C. Sowerhy. Ibid., vol. v, p. 67, pi. ccccxlvii, 

fig. 2. 
1838. — STEIATELLA, H. Michelin. Mem. See. Geol. de France, vol. iii, 

p. 102, pi. xii, fig. 11. 
1844. Aeca caeinata, A. cf Orhigny . Pal. Fran^. Terr. Cret., vol. iii, p. 214, 

pi. cccxiii, figs. 1 — 3. 
P1846. — (CucTiLLiiA) COSTELLATA, A. E. Reuss. Die Verstein. d. bohin. 

Kjeideformat., pt. 2, p. 11. 
1850. — CAEINATA, A. d'Orbigny. Prod, de Pal., vol. ii, pp. 13S, 164. 
1852. — — F. J. Pictet and W. Eoux. Moll. Foss. Grea verts de 

Geneve^ p. 462, pi. xxivii, fig. 1. 

1854. — —J. Morris. Cat. Brit. Foss., ed. 2, p. 185. 

. 1851. CccULL^A COSTELLATA, J. Morrls. Ibid., p. 197 (not from locality 

given). 

1855. Aeca caeinata, G. Coiteau. Moll. Foss. de I'Tonne, p. 87. 

1866. — — F. J. Pictet and G. Campiche. Foss. du Terr. Cret. de 

Ste. Croix (Mater. Pal. Suisse, ser. 4), pt. 3, pp. 463, 
472. 
1866. — COSTELLATA, Pictet and Campiche. Ibid., p. 471. 
1868. — CAEINATA, A. Briart and F. L. Cornet. Descript. do la Mfule de 

Bracquegnies (Mem. cour. et Mem. des Savants etrang., 
Acad. Eoy. Belg., vol. x.xxiii), p. 56, pi. v, figs. 15, 16. 
1871. — — and A. costellata, F. Stoliczka. Palajont. Indica, Cret. 

Fauna S. India, vol. iii, p. 343 {? Orammatodon). 
1873. — — H. B. Geinitz. Das Elbtbalgeb. iu Sachsen (Palseonto- 

grapbica, vol. xx), pt. 1, p. 223 (?), pi. xlix, figs. 5 (?), 
6 (from the Upper Greensand, Isle of Wight). 
? 1882, — — J. Kiesow. Sch rift. nat. Gesellsch. Danzig, N. F., vol. v, 

p. 2.39. 
p 1895_ — — E. Tiessen. Zeitsch. d. deutsch. geol. Gesell., vol. xlvii, 

p. 482. 
1897. CucuLL.a;A cauinata, B. B. Newton. Proc. Dorset Nat. Hist, and Antiq. 

Field Club, vol. xviii, pp. 72, 84, pi. ii, fig. 6. 



46 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 

Nou 1837. Aeca CAEiNATA, A. Goldfuss. Petref. Germ., vol. ii, p. 150, pi. cxxiv, 

fig. 2. 
— 1837. — — F. C. L. Koch and JV. Bunker. Norddeutsch. Oolitbgeb., 

p. 32, pi. ii, fig. 14. 

Description. — Shell elongate, trapezoidal, inflated, inequilateral, I'ather short 
anteriorly. Dorsal and ventral margins nearly ^^fii'^llel. Anterior margin joining 
the ventral in a gradual and regular curve, but forming with the hinge-line a 
sharp angle, which constitutes the anterior extremity of the valve. Posterior 
margin oblique, more or less sinuous ventrally, and forming sharply-marked 
obtuse and acute angles with the dorsal and ventral margins respectively. 
TJmbones rather prominent, much incurved, with a sharp, finely crenulate carina, 
which extends in a double curve to the postero-ventral angle, and thus cuts off 
from the rest of the shell a deeply concave postero-doi'sal area. Hinge-line nearly 
or quite equal to the length of the shell. Hinge-area fairly broad, with a varying 
number (often six or more) ligament-grooves. Surface of shell ornamented with 
numerous, distinct, rather flattened radial ribs, separated by narrower grooves, 
and sometimes crossed by concentric strige. On the anterior part of the shell the 
radial ribs become narrower, much more elevated, more widely separated, and are 
crossed by distinct ridges ; smaller ribs may be seen in the grooves. In most 
specimens well-marked growth-lines may be seen at rather distant intervals. On 
the posterodorsal area the ribs are narrow and separated by wider depressions ; 
these ribs are more or less crenulate, and are cut by fine concentric ribs, giving a 
cancellated appearance ; a central, and sometimes also two other inner radial ribs, 
are more elevated than the others. Teeth finely striated, curving obliquely 
outwards from under the umbo ; antero-laterals oblique ; posterolaterals long 
and parallel to the hinge-line. Posterior adductor impression without projecting 
edge. Margins faintly crenulate.^ 

Measurements : 

(1) (2) (3) 

Length 29 45 22 

Height 16 29 12 

Thickness . . . . — — — 

(1) is from the Upper Greensand of Devizes ; (2) aud (3) are from the Gault of Folkestone ; 
(4—6) are from the Blackdown Greensand. 

Affinities. — This species is closely related to GucuUsea secitris, Ijcymerie {vide 
siqyra). 

Remarlcs. — The form described by Sowerby as Area carinata came from the 
Upper Greensand of Devizes Canal; it has been regarded by d'Orbigny and some 
other authors as identicnl with Cncullsea costellata, Sowerby, from the Blackdown 

' Seen only in a few well-preserved specimens. 



(4) 


(5) 


(6) 


21 


24-5 


30 mm 


13-5 


17 


21 „ 


12 


15 


21-5 „ 



TRIGONOARCA. 47 

Greensand, the apparent differences between tbe two forms being explained by 
the imperfect state of preservation of the specimens from the Upper Greensand of 
Devizes. A comparison of a number of examples from these and other localities 
confirms the view of d'Orbigny. 

The specimens from the Gault are, on the average, of larger size than those 
from the Blackdown Greensand, and, owing to their different mode of preserva- 
tion, differ a little in appearance from the latter. The record of this species from 
the Lower Greensand of Kent, given by Morris, is apparently erroneous. 

Types. — The types of both Area carinata and Cucidlsea costellata are in the 
British Museum. 

Distrihution. — Greensand of Blackdown (zones viii to xii, especially x) and 
Haldon. Upper Greensand of Devizes and Ventnor. Gault of Black Ven. Zones 
of Acanthoceras mammilatuni and HopUtes interruptns at Okeford Fitzpaine. Gault 
(zones i, ii, viii — x) of Folkestone. Chalk Marl (zone of Schloenhachia varians) of 
Ventnor and Folkestone. 



Genus — Trigonoapca, T. A. Conrad, 1863. 

['Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Pliilad.' (18G2), 1863, p. 289; ibid., 1872, p. 51 ; 'Amer. Journ. Conch.,' 
vol. iii (18G7), p. 9; Appendix to W. C. Kerr's 'Rep. Geol. Surv. N. Carolina, vol. i, 1875 
(Raleigh); figured, 'Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.,' ser. 2, vol. iv (1860), p. 281, pi. xlvii, 
fig. 20.] 

Trigonoarca Passtana (d'Orhifiii)/), 1844. Plate VIII, figs. 9 a — c, 10 a, b. 

1832. CuccLLEA CAEINATA, A. Passij (non Sowerhy). Descript. Gcolog. de la 

Seine-Infer., p. 8 (of expl. of plates), pi. xiv, 
fiijs. 11, 12. 
1844'. AitCA Passtaka, A. d'Orhigny. Pal. Fran9. Terr. Crc't., vol. iii, p 241, 

pi. ccc.xxvii, figs. 1, 2. 
18.50. — — — Prodr. de Pal., vol. ii, p. 164. 

1866. — — F. J. Pictet and G. Campiche. Foss. du Terr. Cret. de 

Ste. Croix (Mater. Pal. Suisse, ser. 4), pt. 3, p. 475. 
1871. — — F. Stoliczka. Palfeont. Indica, Cret. Fauna S. India, 

vol. iii, |). 343 (^Trigonoarca). 
1896. — ^A(}VM\?.'Ss\s, A. J. Jitkes-Browtie and W. IliU. Quart. Journ. Geo!. 

Soc, vol. Iii, p. 153 (from Chard). 
? 1897. Cucui.l^a Passtana, 7?. Leonhard. Die Fauna der Kreidef. in Ober- 

schles. (Pala?ontographica, vol. xliv), p. 51. 

Description. — Shell oblong, more or less elongate, convex, inequilateral, rather 
short anteriorly. Ventral margin nearly straight, placed a little obliquely ; 



(1) 


(2) 


(3) 


(4) 


(5) 


(6) 


58 


50 


37 


57 


62 


48 mm, 


45 


37 


27 


39 


39 


33 „ 


48 


35 





39 


39 


30 „ 



48 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 

anterior margin rounded ; posterior nearly straight and very oblique, forming an 
acute angle with the ventral margin. Umbones rather prominent, with a carina 
which extends to the postero-veutral angle, and cuts off a depressed postero- 
dorsal area. Ornamentation consists of very fine radial ribs. Hinge a little 
curved ; teeth numerous, gradually becoming larger and more oblique toward 
the extremities. 
Measurements : 

Length .... 

Height .... 

Thickness .... 
(1) From the Chloritic Marl, Warminster. (2) From the base of the Chalk Marl, Chard. 
(3) Prom the Upper Greensand, Kiugskerswell. (4< — 6) From the Cenomanian, Rouen. 

Affinities. — This species is veiy similar to Trigonoarca ligeriensis (d'Orbigny),^ 
with which it may prove to be identical ; that form is said to be distinguished by 
its greater convexity and more widely separated umbones. 

It appears also to be related to d'Orbigny's Area royana,' but that form is 
only known by its cast. 

Bemarhs. — This species was founded on internal casts from the Cenomanian 
of Rouen. The only specimen I have seen with the shell preserved is a silicified 
example from the Greensand of Kingskerswell (British Museum, No. L 1853) ; an 
internal mould from the same locality and collection shows the character of the 
hinge. The internal casts from various localities agree perfectly with specimens 
obtained from Rouen. 

Types. — Some specimens from Rouen, but apparently not the type, are in the 
d'Orbigny Collection. 

Distribution. — Base of the Lower Chalk (zone of Schloenbachia varians) of 
Chard. Chloritic Marl of Maiden Bradley, Urchfont (near Devizes) and War- 
minster. Upper Greensand of Kingskerswell. 

1 ' Pal. Fran?. Terr. Cret.,' vol. iii (1844), p. 227, pi. cccxvii, figs. 1—3 (jiot 4, 5). 

2 Ibid., p. 243, pi. eccxxvii, figs. 3, 4. 



CUCULL.EA. 49 



Oenus — CucuLL.^A, Luiuard-, 1801. 
['Syst. Aniiii. sana Vert.,' p. 116.] 

1. Loiver Cretaceous S-peciea. 
CucuLLiEA FoRBKSi (Pictet mid Campiche), 1866. Plate IX. 

1845. Arca exai.tata (r"), Ji. Forbes (iioii Nihson). (^uart. Jouni. Geol. Hoc, 

vol. i, p. 245, pi. iii, fig. 5. 
1850. — GABRiEt.ia, A. d'Orhigni/. Prodr. dc Pal., vol. ii, p. 80 (parfim). 
1854. (/UCULi.^A GABUiKLis, /. Morris. Cat. Brit. Foas., ed. 2, p. 197. 
1866. Akca Foebesi, F. J. Pictet and G. Campiche. Foss. Terr. Cret. de Ste. 

Croix {^Mater. I'al. Suisse, ser. 4), pt. 3, p. 471. 

Description. — Shell stout, much iuHated, regularly convex, trapezoidal, lu- 
equilateral. Anterior margin shorter than the posterior, and forming with the 
hinge-line about a right angle. Venti^al margin slightly curved, or in part nearly 
straight, sloping posteriorly. Posterior margin nearly straight, oblique, forming 
with the hinge-line an obtuse angle, and with the ventral margin a rounded acute 
angle, which is usually the most ventral part of the shell. Umbones prominent, 
incurved, pointed, widely separated, with a sharply defined carina extending to the 
postero-ventral angle, and cutting off a flattened postero-dorsal area, wiiich is 
sharply bent with regard to the rest of the valve. Hinge-area very large, with 
numerous close-set ligament-grooves; margins curved, bounded by a ridge. 
Ornamentation consists of many .slendei", sharp, radial ribs, separated by rela- 
tively broad and shallow grooves, which are crossed at regular intervals by fine 
concentric ribs. On the anterior part of the shell the radial ribs become more 
prominent and less numerous. On the postei'o-dorsal area, except near the umbo, 
the radial ribs are much less distinct than elsewhere, but numerous radial striae 
cros.sed bylines of growth are seen, llinge-liue long, sometimes five-sixths of the 
length of the shell. Central teeth numerous, perpendicular; lateral teeth few, and 
parallel to the hinge-margin. 

Measureiueiits : 

a) 

Length ... . . 86 

Height 77 

Thickness .... SO 



(2) 


(3) 


(4) 


(5) 


79 


72 


63 


63 ram. 


7(; 


CO 


65 


58 „ 


95 


71 


70 


72 „ 



50 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 

Affi,nities. — Cacullsea Forbesi is closely related to G. Gabrielis, Leymerie,' but 
differs from it in the presence of strong radial ribs on the adult shell. In G. 
Gabrielis (of wliich I have seen three or four very perfect specimens) these ribs 
are found on the young parts only, and are but faintly marked. Gucullsea tumida, 
Matherou, is perhaps related to G. Forbesi; it was founded on an internal cast. 
G. Forbesi is distinguished from Area Moreana, d'Orbigny/ by its strong carina 
and more widely separated umbones. 

The form figured by Coquand^ as Area dilatafa (from the Aptian of Obon, 
Arcaine, &c.) is very near to G. Forbesi; but the shell is longer posteriorly, and 
the radial ribs are not seen. A. Gresslyi, de Loriol/ is, perhaps, closely allied to 
G. Forbesi, but is at present imperfectly known. 

Types. — From Atherfield. I have not seen the original of Forbes' figure 
(1845). 

Distribution. — Perna-hedi of Atherfield. Also, according to Fitton, in Beds iii, 
vi, ix, and xiii of Atherfield. 



CucuLL^A CoKNUELiANA (d'Orbigny), 1844. Plate VIII, figs. 11 — 13; Plate X, 

figs. 1 a — c, 2 a, b, 3. 

1844. Aeca Cornueliana, A. cVOrhiqni/. Pal. Fran?. Terr. Cret., vol. iii, p. 208, 

pi. cccxi, figs. 1 — 3. 

1845. — — E. Forles. Quart. JourD. Geol. Soc, vol. i, p. 246. 
1S50. — — A. d'Orbipii/. Prodr. de Pal., vol. ii, p. 80. 

1854. — — /. Morris. Cat. Brit. Foss., ed. 2, p. 185. 

1855. — — G. Cotteau. Moll. Fosb. de TYonne, p. 86. 

1861. — — P. de Lorioh Auim. Invert. Foss. du Mont Saleve, 

p. 86, pi. s, fig. 7. 

1866. — • — F. J. Pictet and G. Campiclie. Foss. Terr. Cret. de 

Ste. Croix (Mater. Pal. Suisse, ser. 4), pt. 3, 
pp. 445, 469. 

1867. — — P. de Loriol. In A. Favre, Eechereh. gc'ol. daus 

Savoie, Ac, vol. i, p. 380, pi. c, fig. 9. 
1871. — — F. &toliczha. Palasont. Indica, Cret. Fauna S. India, 

vol. iii, p. 342 (.'' Trigonoarca). 
? 1883. CircuLL.a:A subnana, W. Keeping. Foss., &c., Upvrare and Brickbill, p. 115 

pi. v, fig. 10. 



1 ' Mem. Soc. Geol. de France,' vol. v (1842), p. 6, pi. vii, fig. 5 ; d'Orbigny, ' Pal. Fran9. Terr. 
Cret.,' vol. iii (1844), p. 198, pi. c-ccviii. 

= D'Orbigny, ibid., p. 200, pi. cccix, figs. 1—3. 

^ ' Mon. de I'ctage Aptien de I'Espagne ' (1805), p. 139, pi. xxii, figs. 1, 2. 

* ' Anim. Invert, foss. Neoc. du Mt. Saleve' (1861), \). 87, pi. xi, figs. 1—3. 



CUCULL^A. 51 

1898. CncriL^A (Iboneaeca) Counueliana, E. G. Skeut and V. Madsen. Dan- 
marks geol. Uudersog., vol. ii, 
p. 1C7, pi. vi, fig. 5. 

? Non 1846. Aeca (CucuLLiEA) Cohnuei.iana, A. E. Reuss. Die Versteiu. der boliui. 

Kreidet'ormat., pt. 2, p. 13. 

Descrij)tion. — Shell more or less oblong, convex, a little inequilateral. Anterior 
border forming an angle (90° or more) with the hinge-line, gradually curving 
toward the ventral border. Ventral border carved. Posterior border nearly 
straight, oblique, forming a rounded angle with the curved ventral border. 
Umbones of moderate size, close together; no distinct carina, but the shell is 
sharply bent along a line passing from the umbo to the postero-veutral angle ; 
this flattened part is divided into two nearly equal parts by a narrow carina passing 
from the umbo posteriorly ; on the right valve the carina is thread-like and 
crenulated ; on the left valve it is less sharply defined. Ai*ea small, narrow. 
Ornamentation consists of numerous fine concentric ribs or stri«, and radial 
ribs usually less distinct than the concentric, but well marked anteriorly. Hinge- 
line relatively long. Central teeth transverse ; lateral teeth parallel to the hinge- 
margin, striated. 

Measurements : 

(1) 
Length 27 

Height 22 

Thickness 10 

Affinities. — This species is closely related to C. glabra, Parkinson (see p. 57), 
but it never attains such large size, and its average is much smaller. It varies 
considerably in the proportion of length to height ; in some cases the valves are 
only a little longer than high — in this respect differing from the type. Many forms 
are proportionately longer tlian is ever the case with C. glabra. The umbones are 
less prominent and less pointed than in the latter species. Area Robinaldina, 
d'Orbigny, differs from this species in possessing a sharply defined carina, &c. 

I am inclined to think that the three specimens from Upware (preserved in 
the Woodwardian Museum), which wore I'eferred by W. Keeping {ride supra) to 
G. subnana, Pictet and Rou.v, belong to G. Gornuelianu. 

TiJiJCS. — I did not find the types in the d'Orbigny Collection. 

Distribution. — Crackers and Lower Crioccras Group of Atherfield. Bed xiv of 
Blackgang Chine {fide Fitton). Atherfield Beds of East Shalford. r Lower 
Greensand oT Upware. 



(2) 


(3) 


W 


25-5 


38 


28 mm 


21 


32 


25 „ 


20 


. — . 


) ) 



53 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 



ClJCDLL.EA FiTTONi {Pictet and Gampiche), 1866. Plate X, figs. 4 a — d, 5 — 7. 

1857. Aeca E.OBINALDINA, -P. /. Fictet and E. Renevier (uou d'Orbigny). Foss. 

Teir. Aptien, &c. (Mater. Pal. Suisse, ser. 1), 
p. 105, pi. XV, fig. 4. 
1S66. — riTTONl, F. J. Pictet and G. Campiche. Foss. Terr. Cret. de Ste. 

Croix (Mater. Pal. Suisse, ser. 4), pt. 3, pp. 455, 471 
1871. — — F. Stoliczka. Palaeont. Indica, Cret. Fauna S. India, vol. 

iii, p. 343 {! Trirjonoarca). 

Descrijdion. — Shell more or less obloug, rather inflated, equilateral or slightly 
inequilateral. Anterior margin evenly rounded, passing gradually into the ventral, 
which is parallel to the dorsal margin, but curves toward the postero-veutral angle. 
Posterior margin nearly straight, oblique. TJmbones moderately large, nearly 
median, separated by only a small space, with a very sharp carina, curved, and 
passing to the postero-ventral angle. The postero-dorsal area is sharply de- 
pressed, and near its ventral third bears another carina. Hinge-line rather short ; 
area small, with many ligament-grooves. Ornamentation consists of many fine 
concentric grooves, and on the antero-dorsal part of the shell of a few radial ribs ; 
postero-dorsal area with many radial ribs. Central teeth (about ten) transverse ; 
lateral teeth longitudinal. Interior not seen. 

Measurements : 

(1) (2) 

Length , . . 19'5 . . 14 mm. 

Height ... 15 . . 11-5 „ 

Thickness . . 12-5 . . 9-5 „ 

Affinities. — This form is probably only a local variety of Area Bohinaldina, 
d'Orbigny ; it differs from that in being less elongate posteriorly. In d'Orbigny's 
figure of A. Bohinaldina the ventral mai-gin has a greater curvature than in any of 
the specimens which I have seen in the Paris museums. Area Gornueliana, 
d'Orbigny, is distinguished from G. Fittoni by the absence of the sharp carina. 
Area xqidlateralis, Briart and Cornet, is very similar to G. Fittoni, but it appears 
to be proportionately shorter, and to have the anterior margin less curved. 
Distribution. — Crackers of Atherfield. Atherfield Beds of Bast Shalford. 



CucuLLUA VAGANS, Keeping, 1883. Plate X, figs. 8 — 10. 

1883. CucuLLa:A vagans, 7F. Kee^nng. Foss., Ac, Keoc. Upware and Briekliill, 

p. 151, pi. viii, fig. 8. 
1S83. — EBEANS, Keeping. Ibid., pp. 33, 34, 3G, 05 {nom. niid.). 



CUCULLiEA. 53 

Description. — Shell rather stout, rounded, nearly equilateral. Anterior 
margin rounded ; posterior a little truncated ; ventral curved. Umbones promi- 
nent, incurved. Hinge-area relatively broad. Posterior part of shell sharply bent. 
Ornamentation consists of strong, equal, regular ribs, separated by broader 
grooves ; tlie grooves are crossed at regular intervals by fine concentric ribs. 
Central teeth transverse; lateral parallel to the hiugc-line. Margins of valves 
coarsely toothed. 

Measurements : 

Lenu-th ......... 20 mm. 

Height 18 „ 

Remarks. — This form, which at present is only known by a few rather 
imperfect specimens, appears to be clearly distinguished by the character of its 
ornamentation. 

CucuUxa errans, Keeping, nom. nud., I think undoubtedly refers to this 
species; the name was used in the earlier part of Keeping's work {vide supra), 
and the remarks there made concerning it agree perfectly with those given later 
in connection with C. vagans. This view is further supported by the fact that 
on the back of the tablet which bears the type-specimens of C. vagans there is 
written in Keeping's handwriting " G. errans, W. K." 

Types. — In the Woodwardian Museum, Cambridge. 

Distribution. — Lower Greensaud (black grit nodules) of Upware. ? 8pilsby 
Sandstone of Spilsby. 



8itb-geiuis — DickanodOiNTa, f>.-g. nov. 

Shell stout, subquadrate or rounded. Hinge-area broad. Hinge-plate large, 
curved ; central teeth transverse ; lateral teeth long, curved ventrally, nearly 
parallel, often bifurcating. No posterior adductor plate. 

Type. — Gucnllsea donningtonensis, Keeping (PL X, figs. 11 — 14; PI. XI, fig. 1). 
Claxby Ironstone. 

The form described by Keyserling,^ and by F. Schmidt,' as Pectunculus petsc horse 
probably belongs to this sub-genus. The latter author was inclined to regard it 
as the type of a new genus. 

' 'Eeise in das I'otsc-liora-l.aiul ' (184G), p. 306, pi. xvii, figs. 5, 6. 

- "Resiiltate der ilamimUliL'xpedit.," 'Mem. Acad. Iin|>. Sci. St. Pi'tersbourg,' ser. 7, vol. xviii, 
No. 1 (1S72), p. 151, pi. i, fig. 11; pi. iii«, fig. 17. 



54 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 



CocuLLiEA (Diceanodonta) DoNNiNOTONENSis, Keeping, 1883. Plate X, figs. 11 a — c, 

12—14; Plate XI, figs. 1 a, b, 2. 

1883. CuLTLL^A DO>NiNGTONENsis, W. KeepiiKj. Foss., <fec., Neoc. TJpwnre and 

Brickhill, p. 152, pi. viii, fig. 9. 

Bescriftion. — Shell stout, subquadrate, rounded, a little inequilateral, rather 
convex. Anterior margin rounded, uniting with the ventral in a regular curve. 
Ventral margin nearly parallel to the dorsal. Posterior truncated, slightly 
oblique, more or less curved, and forming with the ventral border a rounded angle 
usually a little less than a right angle. Umbones j^rominent, pointed, well 
separated; no distinct carina, but behind a line drawn from the umbo to the 
postero-ventral angle the shell is sharply compressed. Anteriorly the shell is 
gently compressed. Hinge-area broad, shorter than the length of the shell, 
usually three-fifths to four-fifths of the latter ; ligament-grooves numerous, 
close-set, very regular. 

Ornamentation consists of well-marked but slightly elevated radial ribs, 

which are less distinct on the posterior slope of the shell; between these ribs are 

from two to five smaller ribs ; lines of growth, usually faintly marked, occur at 

intervals. Hinge-plate large, extending ventrally along the anterior and posterior 

margins of the shell ; central teeth small, transverse, becoming a little oblique 

laterally; lateral teeth long, usually three or four at each end, curved ventrally 

so as to be nearly parallel to the inner border of the hinge-plate, and usually 

bifurcating. No posterior adductor plate. Margins coarsely crenulate. 

Measurements : 

(1) 
Length . . . . .52 

Height 49 

Thickness ..... 48 

Affinities. — This species appears to be closely allied to Area Sablieri,^ Coquand, 
from the Aptian of Josa, Obon, and Arcaine (Spain), but that form, so far as I am 
able to tell fi^om the figures and description, differs in the shell being higher and 
shorter, and in having a trellis-like ornamentation. Coquand refers the specimen 
figured by Vilanova^ as Area fibrosa, d'Orbigny, to A. Sablieri, but Vilanova's 
figure appears to represent quite a different form. 

Bemarl-s. — -This species was founded by Keeping on an external mould in a 
black grit nodule from the Lower Greensand of ITpwaro, and that author con- 

1 ' Moil, (le rjtage Aptieii de I'Espagne ' (18G5), p. 137, pi. xiv, figa. 7, 8. 

2 J. Vilaiiova y Piera, ' Mem. geog.-agric. de Castellou ' (1858), pi. ii, fig. 13. 



(2) 


(3) 


(J) 


(5) 


(6) 


51 


48 


41 


35 


19 mm 


49 


45 


38 


30 


16 „ 


42 


36 


32 


25 


12 „ 



CUCULL^A. 55 

sidered that the form which is abundant at Donnington ' was distinct. After a 
careful comparison of a larger scries of the latter with the type-specimen I am 
unable to see any real difference. The figure given by Keeping is not quite 
accurate in outline, and is drawn from a gutta-percha cast ; the mould itself is 
not perfect at the anterior and ventral margins, and near the umbo a portion of 
the shell remains in it. 

Types. — In the Woodwardiau Museum, Cambridge, from Upware. 

Vistrihution. — Lower Greensand (black grit nodules) of Upware. Claxby 
Ironstone (zone of Bel. lateralis) of Benniworth Haven, neai" Donnington. 
Spilsby Sandstone of Donnington. 



CucuLLT.A (DicKANODONTA ?) OBLiQUA {Keeping), 1883. Plate XI, figs. 3 a—c, 4. 

188.3. Pectunculus obliquus, W. Keeping. Foss., &c., Neoc. Upware and Brick- 
hill, j). 116, pi. vi, fig. 1. 

Non 1S2G. — — Defrance. Diet. Sci. Nat., vol. xx.\is, p. 224. 

— 1833. — oiJLiQUA, J. Lea. Contrib. Geol., p. 78, pi. iii, fig. 57. 

— 1835. — OBLIQTJUS, G. Minister. Neues Jahrb. fiir Min., Ac, p. 438. 

— 1843. — — L. Reeve. Conch. Icon., vol. i, pi. vi, fig. 33. 

Description. — Shell stout, ovate-oblong, inequilateral, moderately convex but 
flattened centrally. Anterior border rounded, ventral slightly curved, posterior 
oblique and slightly curved — forming with the ventral a blunt angle. Shell com- 
pressed dorsal to a line from the umbo to the postero-ventral angle. Umbones 
small, rather close together. Hinge-line short. Hinge-area narrow, with many 
ligament-grooves. Surface of shell with fine radial strige and a few fairly well- 
marked lines of growth. Central teeth few, small ; the laterals (two or three) 
long, the first parallel to the hinge-margin, but the last curving ventrally. 

Measurements : 

(1) (2) 

Length . . . . . .10 . 20 mm. 

Height 13 . 17v5 ,, 

Tliickness 10 . — „ 

Affinities. — This form was referred by Keeping to Pectwicnlus, but the character 

of the teeth sliow that, it cannot be placed in that genus. The concludino- 

remark of the author mentioned (" It approaches nearest to some Jurassic species 

from the Great OoUte and Coral Rag") seems to show that he was really thinking 

of Gitcullsea rather than Pectuncidus. The fact that tlie lateral teeth (or some of 

1 Erroneousl}' spelt Dorfi/iiigtou by Keeping (' Foss. Upware,' &c.), p. 153. 



56 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHTA. 

them) curve ventrally, and also the form of the sliell, seem to conuect this species 
with C. donningtonensis, Keeping {vide mpra, p. 5-i). 

BemarJcs. — The specific name given by Keeping is preoccupied as shown 
above, but, since the species is now removed from Pectnnatlus, the specific name 
can be retained. 

Tiipes. — The only specimens seen are the types (three in number) from Upware, 
preserved in the Woodwardiau Museum, Cambridge. 

Distribution. — Lower Greensand of Upware. 



2. Upper Cretaceous Species. 
Cdcull^a venusta, Nysf, 1848. Plate XT, figs. 5 a—c, 6 a, b, 7 a, b. 

1836. CuciTLLiEA FORMOSA, J. cle C. Sowerhi/. Trans. Geol. Soc, ser. 2, vol. iv, 

p. 3i2, pi. xvii, fig. 7. 
1848. Aeca (Cuculljia) venusta, H. P. Nyst. Tableau des Especes vivant et 

foss. des Arcacees (Mem. Acad. Eoj. Belg., 
vol. xxii), p. 76 {nom. mid.). 
1850. — sv^MO'BMOSA, A. (VOrbi(jny. Prodr. de Pal., vol. ii, p. 1G4 (ho;;;. ?;»<<.). 
1854. CucrLLjEA fokmosa, J. Morris. Cat. Brit. Foss., ed. 2, p. 197. 
1S(>6. Ahca (Cvcvi^ijJEA) fokmosa, F.J. Picfet and Q. Campiche. Foss. Terr. Cret. 

Ste. Croix (Mater. Pal. Suisse, ser. 4), pt. lii, p. 473. 
? 186S. — sVEFonuoBA, A. Briart and F. L. Co7-net. Deseript. de la Meule de 

Bracquegnies (Me'iii. Cour. et des Sav. etraiigers,Acad. 
Eo}'. Belg., vol. xxxiv), p. 54, pi. v, figs. 11, 12. 
1871. — FOBMOSA, F. Stoliczka. Pala^ont. Indica, Cret. Fauna S. India, 

vol. iii, p. 343 (.'' Trk/onoarca). 

Non 1833. CucULL.EA FoEiiosA, (t. ii. >S'o;t)e;-%. Proc. Zool. Soc., pt. i, p. 20. (Figured 

Reeve, Couch. Icon., vol. ii, 1844, pi. ii, fig. 10.) 



Measurements . 



Length 



(1) 



(2) 


(3) 


7 


4 mm. 


5-5 


3 „ 



Height .... 6-5 

Bemarhs. — I have seen only five specimens of this form — three in the Bristol 
Museum and two belonging to Mr. Meyer. The shell is not well preserved in any 
case. In form, and the character of the concentric ornamentation, it is near to 
C. Fittoid (see p. 52), but all five specimens are much smaller. 

G. venusta appears to ditFer from 0. Fittoni in being more convex; in having 
the ventral margin less curved posteriorly — so that the postero-ventral angle is 



CUCIILL^A. 57 

more acute; and the carina is perhaps less sharp. The inner carina and also the 
anterior radial ribs seem to be wanting in 0. reiinata. 

The specimen figured by Briart and Cornet from tlie Meulc de Bracquegnies is 
much more pointed posteriorly than the Blackdown examples. 

Ti/pe. — Bristol Museum. 

Distribution. — Blackdown Greensand. 



CuruLLiEA orABRA, Parkinson, 1811. Plate XI, figs. 8 a — c, 9 a, li, 10 — 12; Plate 

XII, figs. 1 a, h, 2, .3 a, h, 4, 5. 

1811. CucuLi^A GLABRA, J. Farkiiisoii. Org. Eemaiusi, vol. iii, p. 171. 
1814. — — J. Sowerby. Min. Conch., vol. i, pi. Ixvii, p. 151. 

1818. — FiBuosA, Sowerhi/. Ibid., vol. iii, p. 9, pi. ccvii, fig. 2. 

1818. — CAEiNATA, Sowerhy. Ibid., vol. iii, p. 9, pi. ccvii, fig. 1. 

1S37. Arca GLABRA,^. Goldfuss. Petref. Germ., vol. ii, \>. 149 {partim).\>\. c.x.xiv, 

figs. la,h (?lr). 
1844. — FIBB08A, A. d'Orbiffny. Pal. FraU9. Terr. Crct., vol. iii, p. 212, 

pi. ecciii. 
1850. — — — Prodr. de Pal., vol. ii, p. 138. 

1852. — — F. J. Pictet and W. Roux. Moll. Fos8. Gres Verts de 

Geneve, p. 463, pi. s.\xvii, fig. 2. 
1854. L'ucuLL.SA GLABRA, J. Morris. Cat. Brit. Foss., ed. 2, p. 197. 

1854. — FIBROSA, Morris. Ibid., p. 197. 

1855. Aeca fibrosa, G. Cotteau. Moll. Fos.s. de I'Toiine, p. 88. 

1857. — glabra, F. J. Pictet and E. Renevier. Foss. du Terr. Aptien de la 
Perte du Rl)6iie, &e. (Mater. Pal. Suisse, ser. 1), p. 104. 
1862. Idonearca fibrosa, T. A. Conrad. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Pliilad. for 

1803, p. 289. 
1866. Arca glabra, F. J. Pictet and G. Campiche. Foss. Terr. C'n't. de .Ste. 

Croix (MattT. Pal. Suisse, ser. 4), pt. 3, pp. 456, 473. 
18G8. — — A. Briart and F. L. Cornet. Deseript. de la IMeule de 

Bracquegnies (Mem. Cour. et Mem. des Sav. etrangers, 
Acad. Eoy. Belg., vol. xxxiv), p. 55, pi. v, figs. 1 — 6. 
1872. Idoneaeca glabra et I. fibrosa, T. A. Conrad. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 

Philad., p. 54. 
1875. Aeca glabra, H. B. Geinitz. Das Elbtlialgeb. in Sachsen (Pala?onto- 

graphica, vol. xx), pt. 2, pi. xlix, fig. 2 (ho« figs. 1,3). 

Non 1832. Cucull^a glabra, A. Pass;/. Deseript. gt'ol. de la Seiue-Inferieure, 

p. 8 (of explanation of plates), pi. xiv, fig. 10. 
— 1832. — CAEINATA, Passy. Ibid., p. 8, pi. xiv, figs. 11, 12. 

? — 1837. Aeca caeinata, A. Goldfuss. Petref. Germ., vol. ii, p. 150, pi. cixiv, 

fig. 2. 
? — 1840. CucuLL^A GLABRA, II. B. Geinitz. Char, der Scbichten und Petrcfacteu 

des saclisiscb. Kreidegeb., pt. '.', 
p. 49. 

8 



58 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 

Non lSi2. CucuLL.EA. glabra, P. Matheron. Catal. method, et descript. des Corps foss. 

du Bouches-du-Rhone, p. 161. 

— 1843. — — H. B. Geinitz. Die Versteiu. von Keislingswalda, 

p. 14, pi. iii, figs. 4 — 7. 
? — 1846. Aeca (CucuLL.a;A) glabka, A. E. Eeuss. Die Verstein. der bohm. Kreide- 

format., pt. 2, p. 13, pi. xxxiv, fig. 44; pi. 
XXXV, figs. 1, 2. 

— 1847. — GLABRA, J". iLTuZ/e;-. Petref. der Aachen. Kriedeformal., pt. 1, p. 18. 

— 1847. CucuLLiEA GLABRA, MiUler. Ibid., p. 19. 

— 1858. Aeca fibrosa, /. Vilanova y Piera. Mem. geog.-agrie. de Castilloii, 

pi. ii. fig. 13. 
? — 1863. CUCULL.EA GLABRA, i?. Z);-i?sc/;er. Zeit. d. deutsch. geol. Gesellsch., vol. XV, 

p. 349. 
? — 1875. .A RCA GLABRA, H. B. Geinitz. Das Elbthalgeb. in Sachsen (Palaeonto- 

graphiea, vol. xx), pt. 1, p. 221, pi. xlix, figs. 1, 3. 
? — 1881. — TiBnosA., J. Kiesow. Schrift. d. nat. Gesellsch. Daozig, N. F., vol. v, 

p. 410. 
? — 1885. CucTjLL^A GLABRA, F. NUUng. Die Fauna der baltisch. Cenoman- 

geschiebe (Palseont. Abhandl., vol. ii), p. 25. 
? — 1897. — (Ibonearca) glabra, B. Leonhm-d. Die Fauna der Kreide- 

format. in Oberschlesien. (Palaeonto- 
graphica, vol. xliv), pp. 21, 51. 

Description. — Shell subrliomboidal or more or less oval, a little inequilateral 
and oblique ; bigL, convex. Anterior margin curved, passing gradually into the 
ventral margin, and joining the hinge-line at a slightly obtuse angle. Posterior 
margin nearly straight, oblique, forming with the hinge-line an obtuse angle, and 
with the ventral margin an acute angle more or less rounded. Umbones large, 
with a rounded but usually well-marked carina extending from each to the 
postero-veutral angle of the valves. Sometimes a thread-like ridge, crenulated, 
passes from the umbo of the right valve to the middle of the posterior margin. 
Hinge-area long, but comparatively narrow; with three or four, sometimes 
more licament-arrooves on each side. Ornamentation consists of numerous I'adial 
ribs, sometimes raised and somewhat granular, crossed by concentric growth-lines. 
Hinge-line long, with from five to eight central transverse teeth, and three or four 
long lateral teeth, placed parallel or nearly parallel to the hinge-line, and striated. 
Posterior adductor plate large, 
of valves entire. 

Measurements : 

Length 
Height 
Thickness 
Hinge-line 
Affinities. — The for 



iter 


ior adductor impression .smaller. Margins 


(1) 
74 


(2) (3) (4) (5) 

55 47 37-5 36 


(6) 

22 


(7) 

21 mm. 


61 


51 41 35-5 30-5 


21 


21 „ 


62 


46 40 28 31 


21 


15 „ 


60 


44 35 27 29-5 


17 


16 „ 



ms described by Sowerby under the names Cucullaea glabra 



CUCULLyEA. 59 

and C. fibrosa liave been considered by Bi-iart and Cornet, Pictet and Campiche, 
Pictet and Renevier, Dowues, and others, to belong to the same species. Sowerby's 
glabra was a more rhoraboidal example than his fibrosa, but a large series of 
specimens shows that there is no essential difference between the two. 

One of the specimens figured by Goldfuss (fig. 1 c) as Area i/labra 
(Sowerby) was regarded by d'Orbigny as distinct from the others (figs. 1 a, h, d), 
and named ^ by him Area siibglahra. This name has been since generally adopted 
for the form found in the Aachen Greensand (Senonian). Goldfuss does not state 
from whence his figured specimens came, but gives in the text, as localities of the 
species, Quedlinburg, Coesfeld, Aachen, Kelheim, and Blackdown. J. Bohm " 
found, in the Museum of the Schloss Popplesdorf, examples labelled " England " 
which agree well with Goldfuss' figures, and lie believes that the figured 
specimens really came from Blackdown, and are the true GuciiUsea glabra, 
Sowerby. Briart and Cornet' also regard Goldfuss' glabra as identical with 
Sowerby's. The Blackdown specimens of ('. glabra, Sowerby, certainly agree 
closely with the figures of Goldfuss (except fig. 1 c, in which the lateral teeth are not 
parallel to the hinge-margin, but this may have been a worn specimen) ; speci- 
mens and figures both differ considerably from the figures of the undoulited 
Aachen form given by Holzapfel ; * the last-named author, however, does not 
appear to accept Bohm's view, but takes the glabra of Goldfuss as the type of 
Area subglabra, d'Orbigny. 

Judging from Holzapfel's figures and description, Cacullmi std>glabra of 
the Aachen Greensand differs from C. glabra, Sowerby, in the shell being more 
convex and relatively higher ; the hinge-line relatively shorter ; the lateral teeth 
shorter, somewhat curved and not quite parallel to the hinge-line ; the absence 
or indistinct nature of the radial ribs ; and perhaps also in the less distinct carina. 

The arrangement of the teeth in C. glabra is similar to that in C. Mnlleri, 
Holzapfel,^ from the Aachen Greensand ; l)ut in that form the shell is more 
rounded than in C. glabra, it is without a keel, the area is smaller, the hinge-line 
shorter, &c. 

G. Mailleana (d'Orbigny) (see jd. 63) is relatively longer, more oblique — owinor 
to the greater proportionate length of the posterior margin, and is ornamented with 
well-marked concentric grooves, the radial ribs being absent or indistinct. 

1 ' Prodr. de Pal.,' vol. ii (1850), p. 244. 

- " Der Griinsand von Aachea uud seine Molluskenfauna," ' Verhaudl. dcs naturli. Vercines der 
preussiscli. Klieinl.,' &c., vol. xliv (1885), p. 92. 

3 " Descript. de la Meule de Bracqueguies," ' M^m. Cour. et Mom. des Sav. ctrangera, Acad. 
Roy. Belg.,' vol. xxxiv (1868), p. 55. 

* " Die Mollusken der Aacliener Kreide " (' Palc'contographica,' vol. xxxv, 1SS9), p. 206, pi. xxii, 
iiga. 3, 5. 

- Ibid., vol. XXV (1889), p. 209, pi. xxiii, fig. 1. 



60 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 

G. Marceana (d'Orbigny), from the Cenomaniau of Mans, is more oval in 
outline, the area and hinge-line are relatively shorter, and the surface of the shell 
is smoother than in 0. glabra, Sowerby. 

According- to Geinitz G. glabra occurs in the Lower Quadersandstone (Ceno- 
manian) of Koschiitz, Neiderschona, and Goldeneu Hohe (Saxony). All the 
specimens obtained are apparently internal casts, so that comparison is very 
difficult, but they appear to be relatively longer and more oblique than G. glabra, 
Sowerby, and the umbo is sharper than in wax casts taken from Blackdown 
specimens. The same remarks apply to the Bohemian form referred by Reuss to 
this species. 

Gucullsea {Idonearca) Shumardi, Meek and Hayden,^ from the Fox Hill Group 
of Upper Missouri, appears to be very closely related to G. glabra, but without 
seeing specimens I am unable to state whether it is really distinct or not. 

Bemarlis. — This is one of the commonest fossils in the Blackdown Greensand. 
In old specimens the radial ribs usually become obliterated, and the shell is 
then nearljr smooth save for lines of growth. The appearance of the ornamenta- 
tion varies considerably according to the state of preservation of the shell. In 
old forms the shell becomes, as a rule, relatively longer, more convex, and more 
oblique. Before the adult state is reached the lateral teeth are placed obliquely 
to the hinge-line (PI. XI, figs. 10, 11). Two forms of this "species" may be 
recognised: — (i) in which the shell is rhomboidal in outline, rather compressed, 
and with a sharp carina (PL XII, figs. 3, -1) ; (ii) in which the shell is of more 
rounded outline, more inflated, and has only an indistinct carina (PI. XI, fig. 8). 
These two types can be seen in various stages of growth, but there are also some 
examples which seem to be intermediate in character. 

Types. — I have not seen the type, but the specimens figured by Sowerby as 
G. glabra, G. fibrosa, and G. carinata (all from Blackdown) are in the British 
Museum. 

Distribution. — Blackdown Greensand (especially zone x). Gault of Folkestone. 

1 'Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.,' vol. viii (1856), p. 86; Meek, 'Invert. Cret. and Tert. Foss. 
U. Missouri' ('Rep. U.S. Geol. Surv. Territ.,' vol. is, 1876), p. 86, pi. sxviii, ligs. 15 « — (/; 
])]. xxi.\, fig. 4. 



CUCULLiEA. 61 



CucOLLEA OBESA (Pidef and Ilonx), 1852. Plate XII, figs. C, 7 a, h, 8 a, h. 

1S52. Arca OBESA, F. J. Pictet and W. Roux (non Sowerhy). Moll. Foss. Gr«s 

rcrta de Geneve, p. 464, pi. xx.xviii, figs. 1, 2. 
ISGO". — — F. J. Pictet and G. Campiche. Foss. du Terr. Cret. de Ste. 

Croix (Mater. Pal. Suisse, ser. 4), pt. 3, p. 459. 
1S71. — — F. Stoliczka. Palseont. ludica, Cret. Fauna S. India, vol. iii, 
p. .343 {Trigonoarca ?). 

Non 1833. Aeca obesa, G. B. Sowerhy. Proc. Zool. Soc, pt. 1, p. 21 (figured Eeeve, 

Conch. Iconica, vol. ii, 1843, pi. i, fig. 3). 

Lescription. — Shell subrbomboidal, rounded, a little inequilateral and oblique, 
much inflated. Posterior border slightly convex, forming an obtuse angle witli 
the hinge-line, and joining the ventral border at an acute but rounded angle. 
Umbones prominent, well separated except in young forms. A prominent but 
rounded carina extends from the umbo to the postero-ventral angle. Hinge-area 
long, of moderate breadth, with numerous (often thirteen to eighteen) closely-set 
ligament-grooves. Ornamentation consists of faintly marked radial ribs crossed 
by lines of growth. Hinge with some central transverse teeth, and lateral teeth 
which are parallel or nearly parallel to the hinge-line. Posterior adductor plate 
well marked. 

Measurements : 

Length 
Height . 
Thickness 
Hinge-line 

Affinities. — This is related to C. ylabru, Sowerby, but can be distinguished 
from that by its more inflated form, more prominent umbones, more roimded 
outline ; the ventral margin is placed more obliquely with regard to the hinge- 
line ; the hinge-line is relatively shorter and the ligament-grooves more numerous ; 
the radial ribs are less distinctly marked. 

Remarh. — The name Arm oliesa was pre-occupicd by Sowerby for a recent 
species dredged near the coast of West Columbia ; but since the fossil form is now 
referred to the genus Cucullsea the specific name may be retained. 
Types. — The types are from the Gault of the Perte du Rhone. 
Distribution.— Ganh of Folkestone (zones viii, ix) ; and Aylesford. Cambridge 
Greensand (derived). Chloritic i\Iarl of the Isle of Wight and Warminster. 
Fpper Greensand of Devizes. 



(1) 

53 


47 


(3) 

43 


(4) 

28 


(5) 

22 mm 


48 


42-5 


40 


25-5 


18 .. 


52 


44 


37 


21 


17 „ 


39 


31 


26 


15 


14 „ 



6-2 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 



CucuLL.^iiA NANA, Leijmerie, 1842. Plate XIII, figs. 1 a — e, 2, 3. 

1842. CrcuLi^A nana, A. Leijmerie. Mem. Soc. Geol. de France, vol. v, p. 7, 

pi. ix, figs. 1 a — d. 
1844. Aeca nana, A. tVOrligny. Pal. Fran9. Terr. Cret., vol. iii, p. 210, 

pi. cccxi, figs. 8 — 12. 
1850. — — — Prodr. de Pal., vol. ii, p. 138. 

1866. — — F. J. Pictet and G. Campiche. Foss. du Terr. Cret. de Ste. 

Croix (MatcT. Pal. Suisse, ser. 4), pt. .3, p. 472. 

Description. — Shell rhomboidal, inflated, inequilateral. Anterior margin 
forming about a right angle with the dorsal, and curving ventrally. Ventral 
margin nearly parallel to the dorsal, slightly curved. Posterior margin slightly 
convex or sinuous, a little oblique. Umbones of moderate size, curving forwards, 
more or less well separated, placed near the anterior third, with a carina extending 
to the postero- ventral angle ; postero-dorsal area concave, but slightly i-aised near 
the middle. Hinge-area long, broadest just in front of the umbones ; inner part 
raised in front, with a parallel-sided groove and ridge on each side ; ligament- 
grooves numerous. Ornamentation consists of numerous slightly elevated 
concentric ribs, crossed by narrower radial I'ibs ; at the anterior end of the shell 
some of the radial ribs at intervals are more elevated and serrate. Hinge not seen. 

Measu7'ements : 

(1) 
Length . . . 15 

Height . . . . 11 

Thickness . . . 11*5 

Affinities. — This species is closely allied to Gueullsea suhnana, Pictet and Roux, 
but appears to differ in the form of the area, which is widest just in front of the 
umbones, and tapers much more rapidly anteriorly than posteriorly. 

Remarks. — In many English specimens the area is wider and the umbones 
more distant than in the example figured by d'Orbigny; but others agree exactly 
with his figure, and a series of specimens shows a gradual transition from forms 
with a comparatively narrow area to those with a wide area. 

Types. — Specimens, but probably not those figured, ai'e in the d'Orbigny 
collection. 

Distribution. — Gault (zones ii, vii, viii, ix, and x) of Folkestone. Cambridge 
Green sand (derived). 



(2) 


(3) 


(4) 


12-5 


12 


9*5 mm 


9 


9 


6-75 „ 


8 


9 


7 



CUCULLtEA. 63 



CucuLL^A Mailleana {(VOrhigwj), 184 1-. Plate XIII, figs. 4 a — c, 5 a, h. 

1832. CucULLiEA glabha, A. Pass// (non Sowerly). Geol. de la Seine-Infer., 

p. 8 (of expl. of plates), pi. xiv, fig. 10. 
1841. AnCA Mailleana, A. d'Orhigny. I'nl. Fran?. Terr. Cret., vol. iii, p. 229, 

pi. ccc.wiii, figs. 3 — 7. 
1850. — — — Prodr. de Pal., vol. ii, p. 164. 

? 1852. — — R. Kner. Denkachr. d. k. Akad. Wissenscli. Math.-nat. 

Sc, vol. iii, p. 313, pi. xvii, fig. 25. 
1866. — — F. J. Pictet and G. Oampiche. Foss. Terr. Cret. de Ste. 

Croix (Mater. Pal. Suisse, ser. 4), pt. 3, p. 475. 
1871. — — . jF. Sfoliczka. Palicont. Indica, Cret. Fauna S. India, 

vol. iii, p. 343 {Trigonoarca). 

Description. — Shell oval or rhomboidal, convex, oblique, highest posteriorly. 
Anterior margin gently curved, relatively short. Posterior margin rather long, 
oblique, slightly ciu'ved. Ventral margin with a considerable slope posteriorly, 
forming an acute, but rounded, angle with the posterior margin. Umbones 
rather small, with a carina extending to the postero-ventral angle. A curved 
ridge passes from the umbo to just above the middle of the posterior side. Hinge- 
area rather narrow. Ornamentation consists of well-marked concentric grooves, 
with faint radial ribs on the posterior and anterior portions of the shell. Lateral 
teeth parallel to the hinge-line. 

Measitrements : 

(1) (2) 

Length ... 26 . . 25 mm. 

Height . . . 22-5 . . 21 „ 

Thickness . . . 18-5 . . 18 „ 

Affinitie.';. — This species can be distinguished from G. glabra, Sowerby, by the 
great obliquity of the ventral margin of the shell, the shorter area, and the much 
less distinct radial, and better-marked concentric, ornamentation. 

The larger forms of G. obesa are readily distinguished from 0. Mailleana; in 
the smaller the outline of the sliell is more rounded, the posterior angle is less 
sharp, the carina more rounded, and the concentric grooves less distinct than 
in Mailleana. D'Orbigny compares this species with G. Gornueliana, but in that 
forin the ventral margin is more nearly parallel to the hinge-line. 

In form, some examples of G. Mailleana resemble Area Dumortieri , d'Archiac,^ 
but the character of the ornamentation appears to be different. 

> ' Bull. Soc. Gcol. de France,' ser. 2, vol. xi (1854), p. 213, pi. xi, figs. 8, 8 a—d. 



64 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 

Bemads. — Most of the English specimens have only a portion of the shell 
preserved. I have collected examples from the Cenomanian of St. Catherine, near 
Rouen (the locality of the types), which agree exactly with English specimens. 

Types. — Specimens from Rouen, but not the types, are in the d'Orbigny 
Collection at the Museum of Natural History, Paris. 

Distribution. — Chalk Marl of Piuhay CHff, Lyme Regis. Base of Chalk Marl 
(zone of Schlosnbachia varians) of Chard, Maiden Newton, Eggardon Hill, 
and Titherleigh near Chard. Chloritic Marl of Maiden Bradley. Rye Hill Sand 
of Warminster. Upper Greensand of Plush. 



CvGVLLMA, sp. Plate XIII, figs. 6 a, b, c. 

Cf. 1844. Aeca Guebangeei, A. d'Orhigny. Pal. Franc. Terr. Cret., vol. iii, p. 228, 

pi. cccxviii, figs. 1, 2. 

— 1850. — — — Prodr. de Pal., vol. ii, p. 164. 

— 1866. — — F.J. Pictet and G. Cmnpiche. I'oss. du Terr. Cret. 

Ste. Croix (Mater. Pal. Suisse, ser. 4), pt. 3, p. 474. 

— 1871. — — F. Stoliczka. Palseont. Indiea, Cret. Pauna S. India, 

vol. iii, p. 343 {Trigonoarea). 

Description. — Shell oval or rhomboidal, high, convex. Anterior and ventral 
margins curved. Posterior margin oblique ; postero-veTitral angle rounded ; 
antero-dorsal angle sharp. Umbones rather small, close together, placed near 
the anterior third of the shell. Carina rounded. Hinge-area narrow. Orna- 
mentation consists of very fine radial ribs crossed by lines of growth. 

Measurements : 

Length ......... 58 mm. 

Height ......... 47 „ 

Bemarlcs. — The only example I have seen of this is a right valve in Mr. Meyer's 
collection. It is similar to Area Giierangeri, d'Orbigny, but is less inflated. 
Only a small part of the hinge is seen. 

Distribution. — Chalk Marl (Meyer's Bed 10) of Dunscombe. 



ISOARCA. Co 

Genus — Isoarca, G. Miinster, 1842. 

['Neues Jalirb. fiir Min., &e.,' 1S12, p. 9S ; ' Beilr. zur Petrefaet.,' pt. vi, 1843, p. 81.] 

IsoAKCA AoAssizii, rictet and Iiuii.r, 1852. Plate XIII, figs. 7 a, b. 

1S12. Ckuomya cuAssrcoit.Ms, L. Ar/assiz. Et. Crit. Moll. Foss., p. .36 (pariiin), 

pi. viii/, figs. 1 — 4 (noil 5—10). 
1S50. IsocARDi.v cKAssuoitMs, ./, (f Oybigiiij . Procip. de Pal., vol. ii, p. 1.37 

ypartim). 
1852. IsoAiiCA AoAssizii, F. J. Pictct and JV. lioicv. Moll. Foss. Grcs Verts de 

Geneve, p. 4GG, pi. sxsviii, fig. .3. 
]86C. — — F. J. Pictct and G. Campiche. Foss. Terr. Cret. Ste. 

Croi.x (Mater. Pal. Suisse, ser. 3), p. 422. 
1875. — — A. J. Jukes-Browne Quart. Jouru. Geol. Soc, vol. 

xx.xi, p. 300, pi. XV, figs. 1 — 3. 
1879. — CANTAiiniGiENSis [F[. G. Seeley, iLS.], F. G. 11. Frice. The 

Gaiilt, p. 60 (iiom. nud.). 

The only examples which I have seen of this species are a few internal moulds 
found in the Cambridge Greeusand (derived). 

IsoAKCA OBESA {(V Orbujiuj), 1844. Plate XIII, tigs. 8 a — c. 

1^44. >.'CCULA OBESA, J.. d'Orhiijuy. Pal. Franc. Terr. Cret., vol. iii, p. ISO, pi. 

ccpiv, figs. 10 — 14. 
1846. IsocAEDiA OuBioxYANA, A. d'Afchiac. Mem. Soc. Geol. France, ser. 2, vol. 

ii, p. 305, pi. XV, fig. 1. 
1S47. Nl'cula luioxo.MAUENsis, d'Orhii/ny. Pal. Fran?. Terr. Cret., vol. iii, p. 766. 
1848. Arca isocAuni j;i:'oitMis, II. F. Xyst. Tableau Especes vivant et foss. 

des Arcaces, p. 38. 
1S50. JsoAncA OUESA, A. d'Oiliynij. Prodr. de Pal., vol. ii, p. 163. 
1866 — — F. J. Pictet and G. Campiche. Foss. Terr. Cret. Ste. Crois 

(Mater. Pal. Suisse, ser. 3), p. 423. 

Nou 1837. XucuLA oiiicsA, A. Gohlfuss. Petief. Germ., vol. ii, p. 150, pi. cxxiv, fig. 4. 

Description. — Shell oval or slightly subquadrate, rounded, length greater than 
height, much inflated, short anteriorly, long posteriorly; ventral margin 
slightly curved. Umbones large, anterior, close together, curved forward. 
Hinge-line about two-thirds the length of the shell. Hinge-area indistinctlj' 
limited, short anteriorly, elongate posteriorly. Ornamentation consists of 
numerous, very regular, closely-set, concentric grooves, with broader, flatfish 
interspaces; and radial grooves which are less distinct than the concentric; the 

9 



66 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 

whole forms a I'ectangulai' network, with pits at the intersection of the grooves. 
Teeth numerous. Margins of valves smooth. 
Measurements : 



Length . 




(1) 
25 


(2) 
20 






(3) 

lo'o mm 


Height . 




21-5 . 


18 




, 


13 „ 


Thickness 


. 


21 


17-5 . 




. 


11 „ 


(1) 


and (3) 


from Ball Wood. 


(2) from Ma^ 


idea 


Bi 


radley. 



Tj/pes. — From the Cenomanian of Rouen. 

Distribution. — Chloritic Marl of Ball Wood, near Plush, and of Maiden Bradley. 
Base of Chalk Marl (zone of SchJocnhaclila varlans) of Cerne, near Chard. 

Genus — Pectunculus, Laniard; 1799.^ 
[' Mem. Soc. Hist. Nat. Paris,' p. 87.] 

1. Lower Cretaceous Species. 

Pectunculus makullensis, Lei/merie, 1842. Plate XIII, figs. 9rt — c, 10. 

1842. Pectunculus makullensis, A. Leymerie. Mem. Soc. Geol. de Prance, 

vol. V, p. 7, pi. ix, fig. 2. 
IS-il. -■• — A. (TOrhigny. Pal. Fran9. Terr. Cret., vol. iii, 

p. 187, pi. cccvi, figs. 1 — 6. 
1848. ■ — MAEOLLENsis, H. G. Bronn. Index Palaeout., vol. i, p. 938. 

1850. — MAEULLENSis, A. (TOrhigny. Prodr. de Pal., vol. ii, p. 80. 

? ? 1883. — — W. Keeping. Poss., &c., Upware and Brick- 

hill, p. 116, pi. v, fig. 11. 

Description. — Shell of moderate size, suboval or nearly orbicular, longer than 
high, rather convex, compressed antero-dorsally and postero-dorsally. Anterior 
margin rounded, posterior slightly subtruncate. Umbones of moderate size, 
close together, nearly median. Hinge-area small. Hinge with from four to six 
oblique teeth on each side. Ornamentation consists of numerous radial ribs, which 
bear finer ribs, and are crossed by fine concentric ribs. 

Measurements : 

(1) (2) 

Leno'th . . . 12'5 . . 11 mm. 

Height . . . 11 . . 9-5 „ 

(1) and (2) from Shauklin. 

1 Dall considers that the name Glycimeris, Da Costa, should be adopted in place of Pecfunculus 
or Axiniea. Until the necessity for this change has been definitely shown, I prefer to retain the name 
which has been in general use for the last hundred years. Dall, 'Trans. Wagner Free Inst. Sci. 
Philadelphia,' vol. ii, pt. iv (1898), pp. 571, 607. Cossman, 'Eev. Crit. Paleozool.' (1899), p. 66. 



PECTUNCULUS. 07 

Affinities. — This is similar to P. suhlanvis, Sowerby, but is smaller, proportiou- 
ately less convex, and with less prominent umbones. 

liemarlis. — Three specimens from the Lower Greensand of Upware, which 
were referred by Keeping {vide supra) to redunciilus marullensis (and are 
preserved in the Woodwardian Museum), seem to differ from that species in 
having a subquadrate outline and more prominent umbones; the surface of the 
shell in those specimens is worn, and it is consequently impossible to comjjare 
satisfactorily the ornamentation. One example shows the hinge, but, unfortu- 
nately, very indistinctly; so far as I can see, the lateral teeth appear to be like 
those of CucuUeea rather than PectancitJus. 

Types. — From the Neocomian of Marolles. 

Disfribiifiou. — Ferruginous Sands (upper beds) of Shauklin. 

2. Upper Cretaceous Species. 

Pectunctlus subi,.i;vis, Sovcrhi/, 1824. Plate XIY, figs. 1 a — c, 2 a, b, 3 a — d, 

4 a — c, 5 a — c, (5, 7. 

1824. Pkctunculvs siiiL.T;vis, J. de C. Sowerhy. Min. Concb., vol. v, p. 112, 

pi. cccclxxii, fig. 4. 
1S50. — — ^.(/'OMi'yHy, Prodr.de Pal., vol. ii, p. 163 (yrt/7/»i). 

1S54. — — J^. Morris. Cat. Brit. Foss., ed. 2, p. 220. 

18GS. — — A. Briart and F. L. Cornet. Descript. de la Meule 

de Braequegnies (Mem. Cour. et M^m. des 
Sav. etraugers, Acad. Roy. Belg. (vol. xssiv), 
p. 61, pi. V, figs. 21—23. 
? ? 1883. — — ir. Keeping, i'oss., &e., Upware aud Brickhill, 

p. 115, pi. V, fig. 9. 

'Hon 18:57. — — A. Goldfuss. Petref. Germ., vol. ii, p. 160, pi. 

cxxvi, fig. 3. 

— 1813. — — 11. B. (icinii:. Die Verstein. vcii Kieslingswalda, 

p. 14, pi. ii, figs. 19—21. 

— 1846. — — A. E. lieuss. Die Vcrstein. der bolim. Kreide- 

Ibrmat., pt. ii, p. 9, pi. xxxv, 
figs. 10, 11. 

— 1847. — • — J. Jliiller. Mou. Petr. der Aaclieu. Krcidcf., 

])t. i, p. 17. 
? — 18S3. — — //. Schroder. Zeitschr. der Deutscli. geol. 

Ge^^ellsc•h., vol. xxxiv, p. 274. 

Description. — Shell stout, convex, longer anteriorlj^ than posteriorly, but 
sometimes nearly equilateral ; outline rounded or somewhat subquadrate ; usually 
a little longer than high. Antero-dorsal part compressed, with a rounded 



68 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 

anterioi' border; posterior border subtruncate, dorsal part of it nearly straight; 
posterior extremity sligbtly angular. Umbones of moderate size. Hinge-line 
lono'. Hinge-area moderately broad, with many ligament-grooves. Ornamenta- 
tion consists of broad radial ribs separated by narrow grooves — the main ribs 
bearino- smaller ribs ; this ornamentation is less distinctly marked antero-dorsally 
and postero-dorsally, the change in passing to the former area being gradual, to 
the latter rather sudden. At distant intervals there are lines of growth. Hinge- 
plate stout, with two or three small ti^ansverse teeth ; and oblique, moderately long 
lateral teeth (usually six to nine). Adductor impressions well marked; the 
anterior subtrigonal, the posterior smaller and oval. Margins strongly crenu- 
lated. • 

Measurements : 



Leno-th . 


(1) 
24 . 


(2) 

22 


(3) 

. 16 , 


(4) 

. 13-5 


(5) Average of 
29 specimens. 

. 18-836 mm 


Height . 


22-5 . 


21 . 


16 . 


13 


. 18-077 „ 



(1 — 5) from Blaekdowu. 
Affinities. — A species from the Aachen Greensand was described and 
figured by Goldfuss as P. sublsevis, Sowerby ; but it has been shown by later 
authors to be distinct from the latter; Romer^ and also Brauns,^ have referred it 
to P. lens, Nilsson,' but the characters of that form are known only from 
internal casts. Buhm ^ has named the Aachen form P. dux, but Holzaj^fel," in a 
later work, refers it to P. Geinitzi, d'Orbigny," the type of which is P. satjlxvis, 
Geinitz,' non Sowevhj, from Kieslingswald. The Aachen species is rather 
variable, but a comparison of several specimens and of the good series of figures 
given by Holzapfel, shows that it generally differs from P. snbJxvis, Sowerby, in 
the followius: features : 

(1) The average size of the adults is cousidei'ably larger, and the valves 
are less inflated than in P. sublcevis. 

(2) The hinge-area is smaller and the external teeth shorter. 

(3) The shell is more quadrate in form, and, as a rule, a little higher than long. 

(4) The ribs are more ilattened and are separated by striaj. 

^ 'Die Yersteiu. des norddeutsch. Kreidegeb.' (1811), p. 6S. 

^ "Die seuoij Mergel des Salzberges., &c.," ' Zeitsch. f. d. ge.sammt. Naturwiss.,' vol. xlvi (lb76), 
p. 383. 

' 'Petrif. Suecaua' (1827), p. 1-5, pi. v, fig. 4; Heunig, 'Eevis. af Lamellibr. i iS'ilsson's " Petri f- 
Suecana," 'Kongl. Fj-siogr. i Lund Hand!.,' vol. viii (1897), p. G3. 

■* ' Yerhandl. des iiaturhist. Vereiues der preuss. Eheinl., &e.,' vol. xlii (lss.5). p. 93. 

5 "Die Mollusk. der Aasheii. Kreide.," ' Palseontographica,' vol. xsxv (1889), p. 210, pi. xxiii, 
figs. 11, 12 ; pi. xxiv, figs. 1—10. 

" ' Prodr. de Pal.,' vol. ii (1850), p. 196. 

' ' Die Vei'stein. vou Kieslingswalda' (18-13), p. 11, pi. ii, figs. 19 — 21. 



PECTUNCULUS. 69 

In P. oh.iolef.its, Goldfuss,' the shell is ol)lique, and more oval and rounded iu 
form than in P. suhlasvis. 

P. suhpuhinatus, d'Arcliiac,'-from the Tourtia of Tournay, is also more oblique 
and has the posterior border more rounded. 

For the relation of this species to P. umbonatns, Sowerby, see p. 70. 

The two examples described by Keeping {vide supra) from the Lower Txreen- 
sand of Upware appear to differ from 7'. siiblseiris in being less inflated and 
in having a higher area, but the specimens are not sufficiently ])erfect to allow me 
to give a definite opinion on their affinities. 

Ti/pes. — From Blackdown ; in the British Museum. 

Dhtrihution. — Greensand of Blackdown (zones xi and xii) ; Lower Gault (zone 
vi) of Folkestone {fide Price). 



Pectunculus uhi30N.\tus (Sowerby), 1817. Plate XIV, figs. 8 a — r, 9 a — c, 10 a — c, 

11,12. 

1S17. C'AitDICM LMBOXATUM, J. Soiverhij. Mill. Conch., vol. ii, p. 12S, pi. clvi, 

figs. 2— i. 
l"-2t. PECTUN'cur.u.s UMBO.NATUs, ./. de G. Sfuverhj/. Ibid., vol. v, p. 118, pi. cct-lxxii, 

fig. 3. 
lS.5i. — — J. JLji-rts. Cat. Brit, i'oss., ed. 2, p. 220. 

1S68. — — .1. Briart and F. L. Cornet. Deseript. de la Meule 

de BMcquegnies (Mem. Cour. et Mem. 
des .Sav. etrangers, Acad. Koy. Belg., 
vol. .xxxiv), p. Gl, \A. V, figs. 19, 20 ? 

Xou 1837. — — A. Goldfuss. Petref. Germ., vol. ii, p. 160, pi. 

csxvi, fig. 2. 
? — 1S41. ~ — F. A. Earner. Die Yerstein. des iiorddeutsch. 

Kreidetormat., p. 08. 

— 1816. — — J. E. Reitss. Die Ycrsteiu. der biihm. Kreide- 

tormat., pt. ii, p. 9, pi. xli, 
fig. 20. 

— 18.57. — — ./. Tf. .Salter. Quart. Jouru. Geol. Soc, vol. 

xiii, p. b6. (For remarks on 
this form see Jukes-Browne, 
Geol. Mag., 189S, p. 29.) 

Description. — Shell rather inflated and more or less circular or slightl}^ sub- 
quadrate, usually a little higher than long, nearly equilateral. Anterior margin 

1 ' Petref. Germ.,' vol. ii (1837), p. 160, pi. cxxvi, fig. 1; Geinitz, "Das Elbthalgeb. iu Sacbsen " 
' Palseontographica,' vol. xx, pt. i (1873), p. 223, pi. xlix, figs. 7 — 11. 

- 'Mem. Soc. Geol. de France,' ser. 2, vol. xii (1846), p. .306, pi. xv, fig. 2. 



70 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 

generally evenl}' rounded, sometimes forming au obtuse but rounded angle with 
the hinge-margin. Posterior extremity slightly angular; dorsal part of the 
posterior margin subtruucate, straight or slightly curved. Hinge-line long. 
Umboues prominent, pointed; valves compressed in the postero-dorsal region. 
Hinge-area broad, with several ligament-grooves. Ornamentation consists of broad 
radial ribs bearing finer ribs, and separated by narrow grooves ; the ribs are crossed 
by lines of growth and by faintly marked concentric ridges.^ On the anterior and 
posterior parts of the valves the radial ribs are less distinct. Central teeth (two 
to four) small, transverse; lateral teeth (eight to ten) long and oblique. Anterior 
adductor impression large, subtrigonal; posterior adductor a little smaller and 
rounded. Margins of valves strongly crenulate. 
Measurenienis : 

(4) Average of 
(1) (2) (3) 27 specimens. 

Length . 18 . 17 . 15 . 18-851 mm. 

Height . 20 . 19 . 16 . 19-924 „ 

(I — 4) from Blackdown. 

Affinities. — This species differs from P. sublsevis, Sowerby, in the shell being 
less stout, more inflated, and usually higher than long; also in having a broader 
hinge-area, more prominent umbones, and fewer ribs. It resembles P. noricus, 
Zittel," in general form, but that species appears to be usually larger, with rather 
less prominent umbones, fewer ribs, and less oblique lateral teeth. 

The form from the Senonian of Coesfeld and Quedlinburg, which was referred 
by Goldfuss (vide siijjra) to this species, has been regarded as distinct by Romer," 
and named P. decussatus ; a fuller description, but without figures, is given by 
Brauns.* I have seen no examples of that form. The name was changed by 
d'Orbigny ° to suhdeciissatus, since decussatus had been used previously (1813) by 
Sowerby for an Eocene species. 

Tijpes, — From Blackdown ; in the British Museum. 

Distribution. — Blackdown Greensand (zone vii, and occasionally beneath it). 
Lower Gault (zones vi and vii) of Folkestone {fide Price). Folkestone Beds of 
Copt Point, Folkestone.'' 

1 Seen in only a few specimens. 

' " Die Bivalv. der Gosaugeb.," pt. i, ' Denkschr, der k. Akad. der Wissensoh. Matb.-nat. CI.,' vol. 
xxiv (1865), p. 1G7, pi. ix, fig. 9. 

^ 'Die Versteiu. des norddeutscb. Kieidegeb.' (1S41), p. 69. 

* "Die senon. Mergeldes Salzberges, &c.," 'Zeitscb. f. d. gesammt. Naturwiss.,' vol. .xlvi (1876), 
p. 383. 

5 'Prodr. de Pal.,' vol. ii (1850), p. 243. 

" There are three specimens from this horizon in the "Woodwardian IMuseum ; the surface of the 
shell is not perfectly preserved, but I have very little doubt that they are referable to this species. 



LI.MOPSIS. 71 



Pectuncultts euglypucs, sp. uov. Plate XIV, figs. 13 a — e. 

Dei^cription. — Shell inflated, nearly e(|iiilateral, outline rounded, length and 
height nearly equal ; posterior border (especially its dorsal part) less curved than 
the anterior. Uinbones large. Hinge-line modei-ately long. Ornamentation con- 
sists (1) on the anterior part of the valves of numerous fine, rounded, radial ribs, 
crossed by very faint concentric ridges and a few distant growth-lines; the radial 
ribs are separated by well-marked but narrow grooves with puncta ; (2) on the 
posterior part of the valves of broader, flatter radial ril)s, crossed in a regular 
manner by fine, rather closely-set concentric ridges. 

Measurements : 

Length ....... 22 mm. 

Height 22 „ 

Affinities. — Pectunculus suhjnilviuatiis, d'Archiac, from the Tourtia of Tournay, 
apparently differs from this species in the obliquity and greater convexity of the 
valves, and in the ornamentation being somewhat coarser and of the same type on 
the anterior and posterior parts of the shell. 

P. eughjplins is more inflated than P. suhlsevis, and also differ.s in the character 
of the ornamentation. 

Tjipe!^. — Three specimens in Mr. Meyer's collection. 

Distribution. — Chalk Marl (Meyer's Bed ii) of Dunscorabe. 



Genus — Limopsis, A. Sasso, 1827. 

[' Gioruale Ligustico di Scienze,' i, p. -476.] 

Limopsis albiensis, sp. nov. Plate XV, figs. 1 a — d, 2 — 1. 

1874. Pectunculus, sp., F. G. II. Price. Quart. Jouru. Geol. Soc, vol. x\x, 

p. 3G0 (in list from Bed ii). 
1879. — — (= Lucix.v oRiiicuLAni.s r), Price. The Gault, ]>. 02. 

Description. — Shell small, oval, shorter than high, somewhat inequilateral and 
oblique, of moderate convexity, compressed postero-dorsally. Anterior and 
ventral margins evenly rounded, posterior less curved and forming a blunt angle 
with the hinge-line. Umbones of moderate size, pointed. Hinge-line long, more 
extended posteriori}^ than anteriorly. Hinge-area long. Ornamentation consists 
of broad, flattened concentric ridges, separated by sharp, narrow grooves. Radial 



72 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 

ribs slender, faintly marked, sometimes indistinct in part, better marked near tlie 
umbones and on the postero-dorsal region than elsewhere. Anterior teeth (about 
five) short and nearly perpendicular; posterior (about six) more oblique, the 
external being nearly horizontal. Margins entire. 

Measurements : 

(1) (2) (3) 

Length . 5-5 . . 4-25 . . 3-75 mm. 

Height . 6-0 . . 4-.5 . . 4-0 „ 

Affinities. — This appears to be similar to the form described as Pectimcidiis 
insculptus , Reuss, from the Priesen Beds of Bohemia, but since the figures ^ of 
that form show casts only it is difficult to determine its afl:nities. Tlie hinge-line 
in P. insculptus seems to be much more curved, forming a fairly sharp angle at 
the umbo, and the teeth are also more numerous than in L. alhierisis. 

In P. reticulatns, Reuss," the radial ribs are much better marked than in 
L. albiensis. 

Types. — In the Museum of Practical Geology. 

Distribution. — Ijower Gault (zones ii, iii, and vii) of Folkestone. 



LiMOPSis, sp. Plate XV, figs. 5rt — c, 6 a—c. 

1897. Lijiopsis, sp., J£. Woods. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. liii, p. 379, pi. 

xsvii, figs. 7, 8. 

Description. — Shell small, oval, convex, a little oblique, higher than long; 
margins of valves not crenulate. Casts show fine radial stria?, sometimes crossed 
by a few shallow concentric furrows. 
Measurements : 

Length ....... 8 mm. 

Height ....... 7 ,, 

Remarks. — At present this species is known only from internal casts, so that 
a complete description cannot be given; it seems, however, to be distinct from 
other forms.^ I have not been able to make out satisfactorily the hinge 

1 Geiuitz, 'Char, der Scliicht. u. Petref. d. sachs.-liJliui. Kreidegeb.,' pt. iii (1842), p. 78, pi. xx, 
fig. 17; Eeiiss, 'Die Verstein. der bobm. Kreidef.,' pt. ii (1846), p. 8, pi. xxsv, fig. 5; Fritscb, 'Stud. 
im gebiete der bohm. Kreidef.,' v. Prieseuer Schichten (1893), p. 93, fig. lOG. 

2 Eeuss, ibid., p. S, pi. .\.nxv, figs. 7, 8. 

^ Compare with the i'oUowiug, most of which are knowu as casts onl}- : 

(i) i. calviis, Sowerby, ' Trans. Geol. Soc.,' ser. 2, vol. iii (1832), p. 417, pi. xsxviii, tig. 2 ; 
Zittel, "Die Bivalv. der Gosaugeb.," 'Deukschr. d. k. .\k. d. AVissensch. Wieu. Math.-uat. CI.,' vol. 
xxiv (1SG5), p. 1G5, pi. ix, fig. S. 

(ii) L. rhomboidalis, Alth, ' Haidinger's jS'aturvviss. Abhaudl.,' vol. iii, pt. 2 (1&50), p. 233, 
pi. xii, fig. 17 ; Pavre, ' Moll. Poss. Craie de Lemberg' (lh09), p. 121, pi. sii, figs. 11, 12. 



THE 



PALJ^ONTOGKAPHICAL SOCIETY. 



INSTITllTKI) MDCCCXLVll. 



VOLUME FOK 1!»00. 



L O N D N 

MflCCCC. 



A W () N OOl^v A PH 



CP1ETACEOIT8 LAMETJ.nmANCHlA 



OF 



ENGLAND. 



HliNUY WOODS, M.A., 

UNIVERSITY LECTURER IN PAL.SOZOOLuGY. CAMBRIDGE. 



PART II. 
TRIGONTID^, MYTILII)^, and DREISSENSIID^. 

Pages 7:5—112; Plates XV— XIX. 



LONDON : 

PKINTEl) FOE THE PAL.^iONTOGKAPHlCAL SOCIETY 

lyuu. 



I'EINTElJ Uy ADLAKlJ AND SON, 
•BAllTHOLOMEW TLOSE, E.C.. ANP 20. M.aNOVER SQUARE, W. 



TRIG ox I A. 73 

and binge-area; it is therefore possible that this form nuiy belong to Pednn- 
culus. 

Distribution. — Chalk Rock (zone of Ueteroceras Reussiann m) of Cuckhamsley. 



Fam //.v— TllIGONIIUyE, Lama rcl: 

Genus — Tnii:u\i.v, Bruijitiere, 1789. 
('Eucyc. Mc'tli. Vers.,' vol. i, ]>. xiv ; Lamarck, ' Syst. Aiiiin. saus Vcrl.,' 1801, p. IIG.) 

The British forms of this geuus have already beeu considered iu detail by Mr. Lycett in his 
' Mouoijraph of the British Fossil Trigouiie,' published by the Pala^outogniphical Society in 1872-0 ; 
it will therefore not be necessary, iu the present work, to do more than enumerate the Cretaceous 
species, and to give some additional notes on their aihnities, synonymy, etc. 



Section 1 .^Sl'AI'Hui 1)E.e. 
Tiac.oxiA .'sL'AriiA, Agassi::, IS-iU. I'late XX, figs. 1, 2. 

Additiunal Sijnonymy. 

1861. Tbigonia hunstantonensis, H. Seeleij. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 3, 

vol. vii, p. 123, pi. vi, fig. P. 
1877. — scAPHA, Li/cett, p. 183, pi. xxxviii, fig. 6. 

1884. — — O. Weerth. Die Fauna Neocom. im Teutoburg. Walde 

(Paliseout. Abhandl., vol. ii), p. 4o. 
189(5. — — .1. Wolleimiiin. Zeitsclir. d. deutschr. geol. Gesellsch., 

vol. xlviii, p. 846. 
1900. — — — Die Biv. u. Gastrop. d. deutsch. u. 

holliind. Neocoms. (Abhandl. d. k. 

preussisch. geol. Laud., N. F., 

pt. 31), p. 92. 



(iii) L. radiata. Alth, ibid., p. 234, pi. xii, fig. 19 ; Favre, ibid., p. 122, pi. xii, fig. 13. 

(iv) L. plana. Komer, ' Die Verstein. des uonideutsch. Kreidegeb.' (1841), p. 09, (il. viii, fig. 24 ; 
Gricpenkerl, "Senon. Kreide von Kiinigslutter," 'Piiiaeout. Abhandl.,' vol. iv (1889), p. 50. In this 
form tbe valves appear to be Hatter and the umbonea less prominent than in the English species 
described above. 

(v) Pectunculus? insculplus, Keuss, ' Die Verstein. der bolim. Kreideformat.,' pt. ii (1S4C), p. 8, 
pi. XXXV, fig. .5 ; Fritsch, ' Stud, im Gebiete der bohni. Kreideformat., v. I'riesener bcliichien ' (1893), 
p. 93, fig. 106. 

10 



74 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 

Beiiuirks. — From Agassiz' figiu-es alone it Avould he difficult to feel sure of the 
identity of the English form, described by 8eeley as T. himstanfoiiensis, with 
T. scrtp/trtj Agassiz ; but the figures of Pictet and Campiche give a much better 
idea of the characters of the species. Seeley's figure is more accurate than 
Lycett's, but the arrangement of the tubercles is not satisfactorily shown. 

Tijpes. — The type of T. scapha is from the Neocomian near Neuchatel. The 
type of T. huitstantoneiixis is in the Woodwardian Museum; it was at first stated to 
come from the Red Chalk, but the matrix differs entirely from the Red Chalk, 
and the specimen in all probability is fi'om the Snettisham Ii'onstone nodules ' 
(Lower Greensand), West Norfolk. 

Distribution. — Snettisham Ironstone of Sandringham Warren and Wolfei'ton 
Station. Snettisham Clay of Heachani and Snettisham. The records of this 
species from the Red Chalk of Hunstanton are probably erroneous. 



Trigonia exaltata, Lycetf, 1877. 

1877. Ljjcdt, p. 18-1, pi. sxxviii, fig. 2. 

Type. — In the British JMuseum. 

Diatributiun. — Lower Greensand of West Norfolk. 



Trigonia Robinaluina ? (TOrhlgnij, 1(S44. 

1844. Tbigunia iioBiNALDiNA, A. d'Orbifjuy. Pal. Trauc. Terr. Crct., vol. iii, 

p. 139, pi. ccxcix, figs. 1, 2. 
1850. — — — Proclr. de Pal., vol. ii, p. 78. 

1866. — — F. J. Pictet and G. Campiche. Poss. Terr. Crc't. 

Ste. Croix (Mater. Pal. Suisse, ser. 4), p. 385. 

An internal cast from the Tealby Limestone (zone of Bel. brunsvicensis) of 
Claxby, now in the WoodAvardian Museum, probably belongs to this species. 

* See Lamplugh, iu Whitaker aud Jukes-Browne, "Geo!. Borders of the Wash" ('Mem. Geol. 
Survey,' 1899), p. 16, etc. 



TRTGOXIA. 75 



Section 2. — Ci.aveij.at.T'. 

TiacoxiA ixi;f,.\s, Lijcrtt, \X7-1. 

1872. Lijccll, p. 24, pi. viii, figs. 1—3. 
1877- 1>. Il)i(l.. p. 207, pi. xxxvi. fii^.s. .'i, C. 

1877. TrKJONIA IvEEI'INlil, Ll/rt'tt. Il)i(l., p. 19('i, pi. XXXV, fig.s. 1, 2. 

Remnrkx. — ^laas^ states tliat liis T. rot'Uigianri,]'voni the (laiilt of WilhcliiislHilit', 
near Langen.stein, is related to T. ingens ; l)ut it se(>nis to l)e clearly disting-iiislied 
by the greater curvature of the ribs iieai' the carina and the indistinctuess or 
absence of tubercles. 

1\ Keejnngl, Lycett, is known only by the two type specimens from the Spilsby 
Sandstone. I have carefully compared these with a large series of T. ingens from 
the Claxby Ironstone — the chief horizon for that species, and find that the 
curvature and lunnber of the cost;i3 and the size of the tubercles var^- considerably 
in different specimens of T. ingens; some foi'ms possessing smaller and more 
numerous tubercles agree perfectly, in these respects, wirli T. Keepingi. The 
plications on the area of the smaller specimen of T. Keej^ingi are quite similar to 
those on T. ingens ; but on the larger specimen they are less distinct than usual ; 
this, I think, is accounted for by imperfect preservation. Tn comparing the form 
of the shell in the larger example of T. Keepingi with that of T. ingens it is 
important to note that that sjiecimen is larger than usual, and that the whole of 
tlie marginal pai'ts posterior to the umbo ai-e vei-y imperfect, so that a false idea 
may at first l)e taken of the height of the shell. Lycett's figures, although giving 
a good idea of the charactei- of the shell, are not accurate in cither outline or size. 

Tj/pes. — T. iiige)).'^, from the t'arstone of Downham, was formerly in the 
museum at Lynn, but cannot now be found. Specimens figured on Lycett's plate 
xxxvi, from the Claxby Ironstone, are in tlie Museum of Practical Geology; and 
also a gutta-pei'cha cast of the original of plate viii, fig. 1. 

7'. Keeping!, from the Spilsby Sandstone, in the AYoodwardian Museum. 

DistribiUion. — Spilsljy Sandstone (zone of 7/(7. hiteralis) of Claxljy and 
Donnington. Olaxby Ironstone (zone of Hel. lalemJis) of Benniworth Haven. 
Carstone of Downham, Noi-folk. 

The specimens named T. Keepingi are from tlie Spilsby Sandstone (zone of 
Bel. lateralis) of Claxby and Tealliy. 

1 ' Zeitschr. d. deutseli. geol. Gosollsch..' vol. xlvii (1835), p. 282, pi. ix, fig. 7. 



76 CRETACEOUS LAMELLTBRANCHIA. 



Section 3. — Glabra. 
Tbigonia eccenteica, ParJiinson, 1811. 

1811. Teigonia eccenteica, /. Parhinson. Org. Remains, vol. iii, jj. 175, pi. xii, 

fig. 5. 
1811. — siNUATA, ParJiinsori. Ibid., p. 177, pi. xii, fig. 13. 

1818. — ECCENTEICA, /. Sowevhtj. Miu. Conch., vol. iii, p. 11, pi. ccviii, 

figs. 1, 2. 
1828. — ExcENTRicA, Befrmice. Diet. Sciences nat., vol. Iv. p. 290. 

1837. — — G.G.Pusch. Polens Paliiont., p. CI. 

1837. — SINUATA, PhscIi. Ibid., p. 61. 

1840. — EXCENTRICA, L. Agassig. Etudes crit. Moll. Foss. (Trigou.), 

p. 9. 
1848. Lyeiodon sinuatus, H. G. Brmui. Index Pala'ont., vol. i, p. G88 (iMrtim). 
1848. — EXCENTRiCTJs, Bniii/i. Ibid., p. 68G (partim). 

1850. Trigonia excenteica. A. d'Orbigmj. Prodr. de Pal., vol. ii, p. 162. 
1854. — _ /. Morris. Cat. Brit. Foss., ed. 2, p. 228. 

1866. — — F. J. Pictet and G. Campiclie. Foss. Terr. Crct. 

Ste. Croix (Matt'r. Pal. Suisse, ser. 4), p. 387. 
1866. — SINUATA, P'uiA and Campiclie. Ibid., p. 387 (partim). 

1875. — EXCENTRICA, Lijcett, p. 94 (jMrtim), jA. xx, fig. 6 (not 5) ; pi. xxi, 

fig. 6 ; pi. xxii, fig. 5 ; jjI. xxviii, figs. 6, 9, 10. 

Nou 1837. Lyrodon bscenteicum, A. Goldj'uss. Petref. Germ., vol. ii, p. 203, pi. 

cxxxvii, fig. 8 (= Trigonia Michelofi, de 
Loriol). 

— 1847. Trigonia escentrica, /. MUller. Petref. Aacheu. Kreideformat., pt. 1, 

p. 16. 

— 1847. — SINUATA, A. d'Orhigny. Voy. Astrol. Pak'ont., pi. iv, figs. 29,30. 

Jieriinrl'f^. — Tlii.s is di.stinguished from T. affinis, Sowerby, by being proportion- 
ately longer, more produced posterioi'ly, less ovoid in outline, and in having the 
costiB near the antero -ventral margin less regularly concentric (except in small 
specimens). 

Tijpes. — I have not seen Parkinson's types. The specimen figm'ed by Sowerby 
is in the British Museum. Specimens figured by Lj^cett are in the Museum of 
Practical Geology (pi. xxi, fig. 6; pi. xxii, fig. 5), and in Mr. Vicary's collection 
(pi. XX, fig. 6; pi. xxviii, figs. 6, 9, 10). The original of pi. xx, fig. 5, stated by 
Lycett to be from Blackdown, is in the British Museum (No. 32396) ; it is really 
fi'om the Cenomanian of Le Mans, and is an example of T. sinnata, d'Orbigny {nou 
Parlvinson) — see T. affinis. 

Distribution. — Greensand of Blackdown (Zone xi), Haldon, and Kingskerswell. 



TRIGOXIA. ^1 

Trtoonta l.^viuscuia, L]icet\, 1875. 

1875. L]iretl, p. 90. pi. xxii. fis,', r,. 

Uemityl-^. — T doubt wlicilici' tlifs cnii Ijo regarded ns more than a variety of 
T. eccerdrica, Parkinson. Tlic only specimen.? I have seen are those referred to by 
Lycctt. ^lore nmteiial is needed to allow of a definite opinion being given. 

Ttjpe. — From the Greensand of ('ullomi)ton ; in Mr. Vicary's collection. 

DiHfribnfioN. — Blackdown Greensand of Collumpton. T/ycett states that this 
species was obtained l)y JMr. Meyer from the Cenomaninn of Dnnseombe, Imt the 
specimens do not appear to be in ]\Ir. Meyer's collection. 

TlililOXIA AFFINIS, SoU-fivJil/, 1818. 

1818. TitiGONiA AFPiNi.s, /. Soicrhij (ex Millir, MS.). Miu. Conch., vol. iii, 

]). 11, pi. ccviii, fig. 3. 
1828. — — Di'fratirc. Diet. Sciences nut., vol. Iv, p. 297. 

1840. — — L. Agassiz. Etudes crit. Moll. Foss. (Trigon.), p. 9. 

1844. — siNUAT.\, A. (VOrhicjiuj. Pal. Franc. Terr. Crct., vol. iii, p. 147, 

pi. ccxciii. 
1848. LrRionoN sinuatdr, H. G. Bronn. Index PaliEont., vol. i, p. G88 (pariim). 
1850. TiuaoNiA siNUATA, A. (TOrhignij. Prodr. de Pal., vol. ii, p. I<il. 
1854. — — J. Morria. Cat. Brit. Foss., ed. 2, p. 229. 

? 18(37. — — E. Crue'ranger. Album Palcout. de la Sailhe, p. 14, 

pi. xix, fig. 4. 
1875. • — ExcENTRicA, Li/cell, pi. XX, fig. 5 (from Lc Mans). 

1877. — AFFINIS, Lijccit, p. 187, pi. xxi, fig. 7 ; pi. xl, fig. 2 (from Le Mans). 

189G. — — A. J. Jukes-Browne and W. Hill. Quart. Journ. Geol. 

See, vol. Iii, p. 153. 

Bemarl:-^. — I have compared examples of this species with T. siniiafa, d'Orbigny 
(noil' Parkinson), from the Genomaiiian of I^e Mans, and consider that, as 
maintained by d'()rl)igny, the two are identical. Two specimens from Le Mans 
Avorc accidentally figured l)y Lycett ns English examples (see below). 

Ti/pcs. — The type is in the Bristol Museum. One of the specimens figured by 
Lycett (pi. xl, fig. 2) is in Mr. Vicary's collection; the other (pi. xxi, fig. 7), stated 
to be from Blackdown, is in the British Mu.seum (No. 3239(J), and was really 
obtained from the Cenomanian of Le Mans; the original of pi. xx, fig. 5 (figured 
as 7'. excentrica), is also from the same locality, and is in the British Museum, 
Casts of these two specimens, labelled T. simiata by Lycett, are in the Scarborough 
Museum. 

Distribution. — Greensand of Blackdown and Haldou. ? Cenomanian of Axmouth 
Meyer collection. 



78 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 



Trigonia DUNSC0MBRN8I8, Tiycetf, 1877. Plate XIX, figs. 12 a, h. 

1877. Lyretf, p. 188, pi. xl, figs. 5, 6 ; ]il. xli, fig. 14. 

189(1. A. J. Jiikes-Browne and [V. Hill. Quart. Joiirii. Geol. Soc, vol. Hi, p. 153. 

Bemnrkf^. — Messrs. Jukes-Browne and Hill consider that T. d^onscombensis is 
probably identical with 7'. siviiata, d'Orbigny (iioii Parkinson) which I regard 
as a synonym of T. nffviiis (see p. 77). Small forms (35 mm. long) seem to be 
inseparable, unless it is by the somewhat greater conA^exity of T. dunscomhensis, 
but the larger examples of the latter (e. g. Lycett's fig. 5) seem to differ in having 
a less ovoid outline and fewer ribs. More specimens of T. dunscomhensis are 
needed before its affinities can be definitely settled. 

Tiipe><. — Figs. 5 and G, from near Sidmouth, are in Mr. Meyer's collection. The 
original of pi. xli, fig. 14, from Dunscombe, is in the Museum of Practical 
Geology. 

Distrihution. — Cenomanian (Beds 10, 11, and 12 of Meyer) of Dunscombe, 
Branscombe, Whitecliff, and Pinliay; Bed 11 of Humble Point, Lyme Regis. 
Base of Chalk Marl (zone of Schlcenbachia varians) of Titherleigh. 



Teigonia debilis, Lijceft, 1877. 

1877. Lycetf. p. 189, pi. xl, fig. 8 ; pi. xli, fig. 5. 

1896. A. J. Jid-es-Browne and W. Hill. Quart. Joiiru. Geol. Soc, vol. lii, p. 154. 

Types. — In Mr. Meyer's collection (fig. 8), and in the Museum of Practical 
G-eology (fig. 5). 

Distrihution. — Cenomanian (Bed 10) of Dunscombe. 



Section 4. — Qitaprat^.. 
Teigonia nodosa, Sowerby, 1826. 

1822. Teigonia clavellata, G. Mantell (non Sowerby). Foss. S. Dotvtis, p. 7'3. 
1826. — NODOSA, J. de C. Soiverhy. Min. Conch., vol. vi, p. 7, pi. dvii, 

fig-. 1. 
? 1840. — ciNCTA, L. Agassiz. Etudes crit. Moll. Foss. (Trigon.), p. 27, 

pi. vii, figs. 21, 23; pi. viii, figs. 2 — 4. 
1844. — EUDis, A. d'Orbigny. Pal. Frau9. Terr. Cret., vol. iii, p. 137, 

pi. cclxxxix. 



TRIGONIA. 79 

1850. Tkigonia rtjdis, A. d'Orhhjny. Prodr. de Pal., vol. ii, p. 78 (Jpartim). 
1854. — NODOSA, J. Mvrrif. Cat. Brit. Fos.s., cd. 2, p. 229. 

'^ 1855. — Runis, G. Cottmn. Moll. Foss. de I'Youue, p. 76. 

1857. — D-tiDALEA, F. J. Fictet and E. Benevier. Foss. Terr. Aptien 

(Mater. Pal. Suisse, ser. 1), p. 02, pi. xii, 

fiy. 1. 
1857. — NODOSA, Fictet ami Benevier. Ibid., p. 94, pi. xii, fig. 2. 

1865. — — H. Cvquand. Mou. Aptieu dc I'Espagne, p. 133. 

1866. — — /.'. J. Fictet and G. CamjAche. Foss. TeiT. Crt't. Ste. 

Croix (Mater. Pal. Suisse, ser. 4), p. 385. 

1875. — — Ltjcett, p. 106, pi. xxv, figs. 1, 2 ; pi. xxxvii, figs. 5, 6. 

1875. — — var. Orbigntana, Lijcett. Ibid., p. 107, pi. xxiv, figs. 

1—3. 

1896. — — A. Woltcmann. Zeitschr. d. deutsch. geol. Gesellsch., 

vol. xlviii, p. 846. 

1900. — — _ £)ie J3iv. u. Gastrop. d. dcutscb. u. hol- 

liind. Neoc. (Abhaudl. d. k. preus- 
sisfh. geol. Laud., N. F., pt. 31), 
p. 90, pi. iv, fig. 8. 

Non 1852. — — F. J. Fictet and W. Boux. Moll. Foss. Gres verts de 

GeuL-ve, p. 454, pi. xxxv, fig. 5. 

Reriinvk^. — There appears to bo a perfect passage from the typical T. nodosa to 
the variety named by Lycett Orhicjnyana. 

Lycett regarded T. ciucfa, Agassiz, as a synonym of T. nodosa ; I have seen no 
examples of the former, but its area appears to be proportionately larger, while the 
ribs seem to l^e more nearly perpendicular to the carina and more nearly parallel 
to the ventral margin than in the English specimens. 

Types. — I have not found the type ; it came from the Hythe Beds of Hythe. 
The specimens figured by Lycett ai'e in the Museum of Practical Geology. 

DlstrihuHon. — Hji^he Beds of Hythe and Lympne. Crackers of Atherfield. 
Perna-hed of Atherfield and Redcliff. Folkestone Beds near Copt Point, Folke- 
stone. Claxby Ironstone of Tealby (fide Lycett). 



Tl.'lGONl.V TEALBYJiNSIS, LlJCett, 1875. 

1875. Lijcett, p. 114, pi. xxviii, fig. 7. 

Tiipe. — In the Woodwardian Museum, Cambridge. 

Distribution. — Spilsby Sandstone (zone of Bel. lati'ivlis) of Claxby. 



80 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBEAXCHIA. 

Tkigoxia p.epalea, rrirliiison, 1811. 

Additional Synonymy. 

1828. Teigonia d^kdalea. Dcfrance. Diet. Sciences uat., vol. Iv. p. 294. 

1868. — — A. Briart and F. L. Cornet. Descript. Miucralog. 

Gcol. et Pal. de la Meule de Bi-acqueguies (Mem. 

cour. et Mem. des Sav. etrangers, vol. xxxiv), 

p. 64, pi. vi, fig.s. 1 — 3. 
1875. — — Lycrtf. p. 100, pi. xxii, figs. 7, 8 ; pi. xxiii, figs. 2, 3 ; 

pi. xxviii, fig. 8. 
1875. — ■ — var. confusa, Lycdt, p. 102, pi. xxiii, fig. 1. 

Nou 1819. — u.edalea, Lamarck. Auim. saus Vert., vol. vi, p. 63 (ed. 2, 

1835, p. 516), from Le Mans. 
— 1866. — —F.J. Pidd and G. Campiche. Foss. Terr. Crct. Ste. 

Croix (Mater. Pal. Suisse, ser. 4), p. 371. 

Eemarlcs. — Lycett regarded T. palmata, Desliayes,^ as a variety of T. dsedalea ; 
but it should he noted tliat the former occurs at a distinctly lower horizon than the 
latter, namely, in the Middle Neocomian of the Aube. I have seen no example of 
T. yahnata. 

Types. — I have not found the type. The specimens figured hj Sowerby are in 
the British Museum; those figured by Lycett are in the Museum of Practical 
Geology, except the type of the variety confusa, which is in Mr. Vicary's collection. 
The type of T. qiiadrata, Sowerby, is in the Bristol Museum. 

Distribution. — Greensand of BlackdoAvn (Zone xii) and Haldon. 



TrvifiONiA spECTABiLis, Sowerhi/, 1826. 

1875. Lycett, p. 112, pi. xxxvi, figs. 1 — 4. 

Remarlcs. — I do not think that Lycett's view of the identity of the species figured 
hj Pictet and Roux - as T. nodosa with T. ■^pecfabilix can l^e maintained. In the 
former the area is smaller, the posterior extremity more produced and rounded, the 
tubercles smaller and more rounded and not forming such distinct rows as in T. 
spedcdjilis. 

1 ' Mem. Soc. geol. Prance,' vol. v (1842), p. 7, pi. viii, fig. 5. 

- 'Moll. Poss. Gres verts de Geneve ' (1852), p. 454, pi. xxxv, fig. 5. 



TRIGONIA. 81 

Tijpe^. — I liave not found the tj'iDe. The specimens figured by Lycett are in tlie 
Museum of Practical Geology (figs. 1— o), and in ]\Ir. Vicary's collection (fig. 4). 
Distrilmtioii. — Blackdown Greensand (Zone x). 



Section h. — ScAiJK.E. 
Trigonia Etheeidgei, Lycett, 1875. 

1875. Lijcett, p. 127, pi. xxvii, fip;s. 1 — 3. 

Tj/pes. — In the Museum of Practical Geology. 
Distribution. — Per?irt-bed of Atherfield. 



Trigonia caupata, Agnssiz, IS 10. 

Additional Synonijiiii/. 

't 1852. Trigonia aliformis, F. J. tidft ami W. Uoitx. Moll. Foss. Grcs verts de 

Geneve, pi. xxxv, tii;. 1 (not fig. 2), p. 450. 
1866. — CAUDATA, F. J. Pictef and G. Campiche. Foss. Terr. Cret. Ste. 

Croix (Mater. Pal. Suisse, ser. 4), p. 374. 
1869. — — I', de Liiriol and V. GillicroH. Mou. Urgonieu Infer. 

du Lauderon (Mem. Soc. helvet. Sci. uat., 
vol. xxiii), p. 15. 
1875. — — Lijcdt, p. 12;', pi. xxvi, tiys. 5—7. 

1895. — — G. Maas. Zeitscbr. der deutseh. geol. Gesellsuh., vol. 

xlvii, p. 264. 
1900. — — ,1. Wiillcinaiiii. Die Biv. u. Gastrop. d. deutseh. u. 

holliind. Neoe. (Abliaudl. d. k. preussiscli. geol. 
Laud., N. F., pt. 81), p. 89. 

7'//j3e.s. — From the Neocomian of Neuchutel. The specimens figured b}- Lycett 
are in the INIuseum of Practical Geology. 

Di.itribidiuii. — Crackers of Atherfield. Recoi'di'd by Topley (187-j) from several 
localities in the Weald — I have not seen the specimens; it is probable that some of 
them are examples of T. oectiana. 



11 



82 CRETACEOtJS LAMELLlBRANCHlA. 

TlUGONlA SCABIUC'OLA, Lijcctf, 1875. 

1875. Lycett, p. 130, pi. xxvii, figs. 4, 5. 

]ieiunrJ{s. — This form is very closely connected with T. cnudatu from the Lower 
Grreensand — indeed, some specimens appear to be almost inseparable from that 
species ; but the majority of the Upper Greensand examples have rather more 
numerous and closer ribs towards the umbo, the shell less produced posteriorly, 
and its height somewhat greater in proportion. It shoiild, however, be noted 
that a specimen from the Aptian of the Perte-du-Rhone, figured by Pictet and 
Renevier,^ agi'ees perfectly with examples of T. acahricola from Blackdown and 
Haldon. 

Typeti. — From Blackdown, in the Museum of Practical Geology. 

Disfribafioii. — Greensand of Blackdown, Haldon, and Devizes. 

TuiCOXIA CHENULIFEEA, Lycett, 1877. 

1877. Lycetf, p. 189, pi. xl, figs. 1, 7, 9. 

1896. A. J. Jiikes-Browne and W. Hill. Quart. Jouru. Geol. Soc, vol. lii, p. 154. 

Remarks. — The more prominent and fewer costa?, and the greater slope of the 
area and escutcheon, which Lycett regarded as features distinguishing this from 
T. crenidata, d'Orbigny, vary considerably in diiferent specimens, as may be seen 
by comparing Lycett's figures 1 and 9. In one example of T. crenuhita in the 
British Museum, from Le Mans, the costal are actually fewer than in a form of 
T. crennlifera of the same size. The costellee on the area, however, seem to 
separate T. crennlifera from T. crenulata ; in the latter they appear to be found 
only near the anterior end of the area. 

Types. — In Mr. Meyer's collection (figs. 1 and 7), and in the Museum of Practical 
Geology (fig. 9). 

Distribution. — Cenomanian (Beds 10 and 11), near Beer Head, Dimscombe, and 
Pinhay Cliff. 

TiUdONiA CBENULATA, Lamarclc, 1819. Plate XIX, fig. 14. 

1819. Tkigonia ceenulata, Lamarclc. Auim. saus vert., vol. vi, p. 63. 
1828. — — Defrance. Diet. Sciences uat., vol. Iv, p. 294. 



1 "Foss. Aj.tien dc la Perte du Khoue " ('Mater. Pal. Suisse,' ser. 1, 1857), pi. xiii, fig. 1. 



TRIGOXIA. 83 

1835. Trkionia ceenttlata, Lamarclc. Ibid., ed. 2, vol. vi, p. 515. 

1810. — — L. Aiiassiz. Rtudes crit. MoU.Foss. (Trigon.),p. 3-2, 

pi. vi, fif^'s. 4 — 6. 
1844. — — A. cVOrhigiiij. Pal. Fraue.Tevr. Crt't., vol. iii, p. 151, 

pi. CUXCV. 

1848. Lykiodon crenui.atus, If. fl. Bromi. Index Paloeout., vol. i. p. 1S(5. 

1850. Teigonia ckenui.ata. A. irOrhifjin/. Prodr. de Pal., vt)l. ii. ]<. KH. 

IBGC. — — F. J. PictH iiiul G. Camynchc. Foss. Terr. Crt't. Ste. 

Croix (Mat.'r. Pal. Siiisso, sor. 4), p. 388. 
18(37. — — Fj. Gucranger. All)uin Palrout. do la Sarthe, p. l4, 

pi. xviii, fi<:;s. 3, 4. 
? 1878. — — 0. Fraas. Aus dem Orient., vol. ii, Grcol. Beobaeht. 

Libanou, ]>. 70. 
189(>. — — A. J. Juhes-Broirne mid W. 71111. Quart, .Touru. 

Gool. Sop., vol. Hi. p. 154. 

Ttcmnd-s. — T have .'^eeii only one English example of this. The surface is not 
quite perfectly preserved, so that the rugose chai'actcr of the cost* is not well .seen. 
Ti/pe. — From the Cenomanian of Le Mans. 
Distribution. — Cenomanian (Meyer's Bed 10) of Dunscoml^e. 



Trtgonia altformis, Parkinson, 1811. 

A fhJit ifi It a J Si/v n n ?/») ?/. 

1828. Trtoonia ai.-v.formis, Dpfirinrr. Diet. Sciences nat., vol. Iv, p. 297. 
lg.50. — ALiFoKjris. G. P. Dfuhiii/i-.-t. Traiti- Element. Couch., vol. ii, 

p. 258, j)l. xxxiii, fis^. 3. 
V 1865. — — H. Coipuniil. Mon. Aptien de I'Espaf^ne, p. 1.34. 

yi866. — — F. J. PIrlt'f and G. Camplch,'. Fo.ss. Terr. Crct. Ste. 

Croix (Mater. Pal. Suisse, ser. 4), pp. 377, 
386, pi. exxviii, fii,'. !». 
1875. — — Li/cpft, p. 116, pi. xxv, file's. 3 — G ; pi. xxviii, iii,'. 5. 

1897. — P. B. Nfirhiti. Proc. Dorset Nat. Hist, and Autiq. 

Field Club, vol. xviii, p. 95, pi. iii, fiof. 14. 

Non 1841. — ALiEFORMis, F. A. P'hncr. Die Versteiu. des uord-dcutsch. 

Kreidegeb., p. t)8. 

1843. — JT. B. Geiiilt!:. Die Verstein. von Kieslingswalda, 

p. 14, pi. ii, figs. 15, 16. 

?1846. — — A. F. Pi'ii.-ta. Die Verstein. der biJhm. Kreide- 

format., pt. 2, p. 5. 

1847. — J- Miitler. Mon. Petref . der Aachen. Kreideformat., 

pt. 1, p. 15. 

18C3. — Ai.iFORMis, P. Di-escher. Zeitschr. d. deutsch. geol. Gesellsch., 

vol. XV, p. 348. 



84 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 

Non 1873. Teigonia alifoemis, H. B. Gemitz. Das Elbthalgeb. in Sachsen (Palseon- 

tographica, vol. xx), pt. 2, j>. 58. 
— 1807. — al*;formis, ^1. FrUxcJi. Stud, im Gcbiote der bijliiii. Kreide- 

I'oruiat. vi. Dio Chlomeker Scliicliteu, p. 55, 

fig. 60. 

Tyi)ef:.^Fi'om Blackdown. I have not been able to trace tlie type. Sowerby's 
specimens are in the British Musenm, except the original of fig. 3, which is in the 
Bristol Museum. The specimens figured by Lycett are in the Museum of 
Practical Geology (figs. 3^0), and in Mr. Vicary's collection (pi. xxviii, fig. -j). 
The specimen figured by Newton is in the British Museum. 

Distribution. — Greensand of Blackdown (Zones iv to vi) and Devizes. Stated 
by Lycett to occur at Haldon, but not recorded by Downes (1882) ; I have seen no 
example from that locality. Zone of Hoplites interruptiis of Okeford Fitzpaine. 
The variety attenuata is found in the Upper Greensand of Niton, Ventnor, and 
Warminster. Agassiz' ^ record of this form from the Greensand near Cambridge 
is erroneous. ? Folkestone Beds of Copt Point, Folkestone. 



Trigonia Meteri, Lycett, 1875. 

1875. Lycett, p. 12.5, pi. xxiii, fig. 6; pi. xli, figs. 15, 16. 

1896. A. J. Jukes-Bronme mid W. Hill. Quart. Jouru. Geol. Soc, vol. lii, p. 154. 

Types. — In the Museum of Practical Geology — from near Sidmouth and Duns- 
combe. 

Distribution. — Cenomanian (Meyer's Beds 10, 11, 12) of Dunscombe, Culver 
Hole (Devon), west of Pinhay, etc. Base of Chalk Marl (zone of Schhjentxirhia 
varinns) of Titherleigh, near Chard. 



Trigoxia Vecttana, Lycett, 1875. 

AJdltioiial Si/)in)u/mj/. 

1818. Trigonia al.'eformis, ,7. Sov-erhy. Miu. Concli., vol. iii, p. 27 (partim), 

pi. ccxv, fig. 2 (not 1, 3, 4). 
1875. — Vectiana, Lycett, p. 123, pi. xxiv, figs. 10, 11; pi. xxv, fig. 7. 

Types. — Museum of Practical Geology — from the PeriKt-hed of Atherfield. 
Distribution. — Perna-hed and Bed 45 (Fitton) of Atherfield. Ferna-heA of 

1 'Etudes crit. Moll. Foss.,' Trigou. (1840), p. 31. 



TRTGOXIA. 85 

RedclifP, near Sandown. Ferruginous Sands of Slianklin. Hytlie Beds of Hvthe, 
etc. Atherfield Beils of Hevenoaks. liower (ireensand of Seend (jide Lycettj. 
Sandgate Beds of Parliam Park. 



TRlftOxrA oi;XAT.\, (VOrlmjmi, ]S| I. i'latc X TX, fig. 1:]. 

Additional Synonymy. 

? 18.55. Trioonia orn.\ta, O. Cottemt. Moll. Fpss. de I'Youne, p. 7G. 

? 18.58. — — ,/. V ilanova-y-Piera . Mi'in. Geogr.-agric. de Castellon, 

1>1. ii, fig. 14. 
? 186.5. — — H. Coquainl. Mon. Aptieu de I'Espagne, p. 137. 

1866. — — F. J. Bidet and G. Cumpiche. Foss. Terr. Crt't. Ste. 

Croix (Mati'r. Pal. Suisse, ser. 4), pp. 373, 385. 

1867. — — P. de LoridJ. In A. Favre, Rech. geol. dans Savoie, 

etc., vol. i, p. 379, pi. c, fig. 8. 
P1871. — — W. A. Ooster and C. V. Fiacher-Ooster. Protoz. Helvet., 

vol. ii, p. 101, pi. XV, fig. 18. 
1875. — — Lycett, p. 139, pi. xxiv, figs. 6, 7. 

1884. — sp. indet. (2nd), 0. Wi'erth. Die Fauna Neocom. im Teuto- 

l)urg. Walde (Palceont. Alihaudl., vol. ii), 
pp. 45, 4i;. 
1896. — ORNATA, A. WoUemann. Zeitschr. d. deut.seb. geol. Gesellscli., 

vol. xlviii, p. 847. 
P 1899. — — G. Maas. Ibid., vol. Ii, p. 248. 

1900. — — A. WoUemann. Die Biv. u. Gastrop. d. deutseh. u. 

holliind. Neoc. (Abhandl. d. k. preussisch. geol. 
Laud., N. F.. pt. 31), p. 88. 

Eeriinrls. — The Engli.sh specimens agree better witii the e.\aiu[ih' tiguivd l)y 
Pictet and Renevier than with the type, in whicli the costae are less numerous. A 
specimen from Lympne (Plate XIX, fig. 13) possesses fewer costa; tlian the e.xam- 
ple.s found at Atherfield, and in this character, as also in general shape, it 
approaches more nearly the foreign examples. 

The specimen from Shorncliffe, figured by Sowerljy' as 7'. spiiiosn, var., has 
been regarded by several authors as T. ArrhlnridiKi, d'Orbigny ; 1)ut I think it is 
more likely to be an example of T. ornata. 1 have not been al)le to trace the 
specimen. 

Types. — The specimens figiired by Lycett are in the Museum of Practical 
Geology. 

Distrilmtioii. — Pernn-hed of Atherfield. Ferruginous Sands of Shanklin. 
Hytlie Beds of Hythe, T^ympne, and near Maidstone. 

I 'Trans. Geol. Soc.,' ser. 2, vol. iv (1836), pp. 131, 338, pi. xiii, fig. 3. 



86 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRAXCHIA. 



Trigonia upwaeensis, Lyceft, 1875. 

1875. Trigonia upwaeensis, Lycett, p. 143, pi. xxiii, figs. 8, 9 ; pi. xxxix, fig. 4. 
1883. — — W. Ki'fjiitig. Foss., etc., Neoc. Upware ami Brick- 

hill, p. 113. 

Bemarks. — This species is allied to T. Arcliinclana, cT'0rl3ign_y, but the costse 
are more numerous and have greater curvature near the anterior border. The 
costellfe on the area appear to be generally more numerous and more nearly 
perpendicular to the carina. The outline of the larger specimens appears to be 
more rounded than in T. Archiricinna. 

Types. — In the Museum of Practical Geology. The specimen figured on Lycett's 
pi. xxxix is in the collection of Mr. J. F. Walker. 

Distribution. — Lower Clreensand of Upware. 



Trigonia Aechiaciana, d'Orhigny, 1844. 

A dditional Synon y m y . 

1866. Trigonia Aechiaciana, F. J. Pictd and G. Campiche. Foss. Terr. Crtt. 

Ste. Croix (Mater. Pal. Suisse, ser. 4), 

p. 380. 
1875. — — Lycen, pp. 140, 202 {pariim), not the figures. 

R&iitork^. — It seems doubtful whether this species occurs in England ; I have 
seen two specimens from the Perua-hed of Atherfield and Sandown, which may 
perhaps belong to it ; but they are not sufficiently perfect for exact determination. 
The surface of the specimen from the Gault of Okeford Fitzpaine, figured by Newton,' 
has perished, so that I am unable to give any opinion as to its affinities. 



Trigonia spinosa, Parhinson, 1811. 

Additional Synonymy. 

1875. Trigonia spinosa, Lyceft, p. 136, pi. xxiii, fig. 10; pi. xxiv, figs. 8, 9; 

pi. xxviii, figs. 1, 2. 
? 1881. — — /. Kiesow. Schrift. cl. uat. Gesellsch. in Danzig, 

vol. V, p. 413. 

I 'Proc. Dorset Nat. Hist, and Antiq. Field Club.,' vol. xviii (18y7), p. 9f^, pi. iii, fig. 16. 



TRIGONIA. 87 

y 1885. Trigonia SPINOSA, F. Nutliiifj. Dio Fauuad. baltisch. Ceuoiuau. (Paheout. 

Abhaudl., vol. ii), p. 27, pi. iv, tigs. l(i, 17. 

? Nuu 18o7. — — F. Dujanliit. Me'm. Soc. gL-ol. Fraucu, vul. ii. \<. 224. 

— 1844. - —A. d'Orbiyny. Pal. Fran?. Terr. Cri-t., vol. iii, p. 154, 

pi. cc.xcvii, figs. 1 — 5. 

— 1850. — — (VOrh'ujny. Prodr. de Pal., vol. ii, p. Kil. 

Ti/pcs.- — -TliL' tyj)e, tVnin Uliickdowii, and tlic spcciincii fiy-uivd l)y Suwerlty, are 
in the British Museum. 

Tlie originals of Lycett's pi. .x.xiii, tig. Id, and pi. .x.wiii, tig. 1, 2, are in the 
Museum of Practical (leology; oF pi. k\W, fig. 8, in the Wiltshire Collection, AVood- 
wardian Museum; of pi. x.xiv, fig. '.», in the Williamson Colleetion, Manchester 
]\Iuseum. 

X'«.!)/r//'/<//o/(.— Greensand of BlaekdoAvn. 



TrIGONIA VlCAKY.VXA, Li/cetf, 1875. 

1844. TrictOnia spinosa. A. irOrbiytiy. Pal. Frau^'. Terr. Cn't., vol. iii, p. 1.54, 

pi. ccxevii, figs. 1 — 5 (uou T. spinosa, Park.). 
1850. — — (VOrhujny. Prodr. de Pal., vol. ii, p. 161. 

1807. — — E. Gui' ranger. Albiuu Pak'out. dc la Sarthe, p. 14, 

pi. xviii, fig. 2. 
1875. — VicvKYANA, Zi/c<'//, pp. 141, 203, pi. xxiii, fig. 7; pi. xxv, fius. 

8, 9 ; pi. xxviii, fig. 4 ; pi. xl, figs. 3, 4. 
':' 1882. — psEUDusriNOSA, P. de Luriol. Gault de Cosue (Mt'm. Soc. Pal. 

Suisse, vol. ix), p. 99, pi. xii, tigs. 12 
—14. 
1896. — ViCAKYANA. A. J. Jiihes-Broii-ne and W. Hill. Quart. Jourii. 

Geol. Soc, "ol. Iii, p. 154. 

llemarhs. — This is relatively higher and shorter than '/'. ^rc/tiVfcaocf, d'Orbigny, 
T. iq)warensii, hycett, and 7'. f;r/(r(fo,d'Orbigny. The costellae on the area are more 
oblique to the carina than in 7'. u-pic((rei(siii. The cost« are more numerous than 
in T. ormita. 

T. Lndovicie, Briart and Coi'uet,' from Bractjiiegnies, is more proiluced pos- 
teriorly, it has fewer ribs anteriorly, and closer ribs posteriorly, than T. Vicaryana. 

De Loriol figvu-es a form from the (lault of Cosne, which he regards as T. 
spluo-iu, d'Orbigny, itoit Sowerby, and names T. jj.ieudusjjiitusd, but it seems to 
possess fewer antl .stronger costelke on the area than '/'. .•<piiiosii, d'Orbigny, which 
is here considered to be identical with '!'. Vieori/nnii, Lycett. 

Ti/pcs. — From the Greensand near Sidmouth and Haldon ; in the Museum of 
Practical Geology (Lycett's pi. xxv, fig. 8), and Mv. Vieary's collection (fig. '.•). 
' ' Descript. de la Meule do Bracqueguies ' (1808), p, 6o, pi. vi, figs. 0, 7. 



88 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBEANCHIA. 

Utlier figured specimens are in Mr. Vicary's collection (pi. xxiii, fig. 7 — from Haldon, 
not Blackdowu as stated by Lycett; and pi. xxviii, fig. 4), and in Mr. Mej'er's collec- 
tion (pi. xl, figs. 3, 4). 

Dldrihution. — Greensand of Haldon, Kingskerswell, and near Weymouth. 
Cenomanian of Dunscombe, Branscombe, and Beer Head (Meyer's Beds 10, 11 and 
12); and of Piuliay (Bed 10). Base of Chalk Marl (zone of ScJda'iihacJtid variiiits) 
of Eggardon Hill, Chard, Chardstock, and Titherleigh (near Chard). 



TiuGoxiA Fni'uxi, De.sJuii/es, 1842. 

Additional Synonyiiiij. 

18(36. TiUGONiA FiTToNi, F. J. Plctd and G. Ganqnchc. Foss. Terr. Cre't. Ste. 

Croix (Mati'r. Pal. Suisse, ser. 4), pf). 381, 386, 

pi. cxxviii, fig. 10. 
1875. — — Lycett, p. 132, pi. xxiii, figs. 4, 5. 

1897. — — B. B. Newton. Proc. Dorset Nat. Hist, and Antiq. 

Field Club, vol. xviii, p. 9(J, jd. iii, fig. 15. 

Ti/pes.— In the Ecole des Mines, Paris, from the Albian of Le Gaty, Epothemont, 
etc. (Aulje). The specimens figured by Lycett are in the Museum of Practical 
Geology, and in the Wiltshire Collection, Woodwardiau Museum. The example 
figured by Newton is in the British Museum. 

Didrihutlon. — Gault (zone i) of Folkestone. Zone of Uoplitcs interruptua of 
Okeford Fitzpaine. 



Tkigonia costigekAj Lycett, 1879. 

1879. Lycett, p. 205, pi. xli, fig. 17. 

Ti/jje. — In the Museum of Practical Geology. This is the only specimen seen ; 
it is very imperfectly preserved. 

Ditstriliittlon. — Cenomanian (Meyer's Bed lO) of Dunscombe. 



Ti(u;uNiA rKxxATA, Soircrtv/, 1819. 

, Additional Symmymy. 

1828. Trigonia pennata, Befratice. Diet. Sciences nat., vol. Iv, p. 297. 

1866. — — F. J. Pictet and G. Campiche. Foss. Terr. Crct. Ste. 

Croix (Mater. Pal. Suisse, ser. 4), p. 387. 
1875. — — Lycett, p. 183, pl. xxiv, tigs. 4, 5; pl. xxxvii, fig. 4. 



TRIGONIA. 89 

Tiipe><. — In the British Museum — from near Teignmonth. The specimens figured 
by Lycett are in Mr. Vicary's Collection, and in the British Museum (Cunnington 
Collection). 

Dutrihnfum. — Cenomanian (Meyer's Beds lU and 11) of Dunscombe. Grecusand 
of Haldon, Teigumouth, and Kingskerswell. 



TkIGONIA SULCATAlilA, LaiiKivck. 

Additional Synonymy. 

':'1840. Teigonia sulcataeia, //. B. Geinitz. Char. d. Schicht. u. Petref. siich- 

sisch. Kreidegeb., pt. 2, pp. 54, x, pi. xxi, 
fig. 3. 
? 1846. — — Geinitz. Grundriss der Verstein., ji. 444. 

? 184(). — — A. E. liciifi-. Die Verstein der bohm.Kreidefoiinat., 

pt. 2, p. 5. 
1850. — — H. B. Geinitz. Das Quadersandst. oder Kreidegeb. 

iu Deutschland, p. 158. 
1850. — — Q, p, Be^haynn. Traitc Elcm. de Conehyl., vol ii, 

p. 259, pi xxxiii, fig. 10. 

1866. — — F. J. Fidel and G. Campiche. Foss. Terr. Crt't. 

Ste. Cruix (Mater. Pal Suisse, ser. 4), 
p. 387. 

1867. — — E. Gueranger. Album Pak'out. de la Sarthe, p. 14, 

pi. xviii, fig. 6. 
P1873. — — H. B. Geinitz. Das Elbtlialgeb. iu Sachsen. 

(Palaeoutographica, vol. xx), jjt. 1, p. 224, 
pi. xlix, figs. 13, 14. 
1875. — — Lycett, p. 135, pi. xxvi, fig. 8 ; pi. xxviii. fig. 3. 

Bemfirl-s. — 7'. 7«rnf Jcz/.s/.s-, Whiteaves,' 7'. f//(;er.s"tco.^/((^f, "Wliiteaves,- and T. Buchi, 
Geinit/,' are allied forms; and so also is probably 7'. .•<nlioviiU.^, .limbo.* 

Type.'i. — The specimens figured by Lycett are in Mr. Vicary's Collection. 

Di'ifrihutioiK — ('enoniauiaii of Dunscombe. Greensand of Haldon and Kings- 
kerswell. 

' ' Mcsozoic Fossils,' vol. i. pt. 3 ('Geo!, and Nat. Hist. Survey Cauada,' 1884), ji. 230, pi. xxxi. 
fig. 2. 

- Ibid., pt. 1 (1876), p. 68, j-l. x, lig. 1. 

•" 'Das Elbthalgel). iu Saelis.'U,' ].t. 1 (1873), p. 225, pi. xlix, figs. 15, ](!. 

* " Kreidel'ormat. von Hokkaido" ('Palajout. AbLaudl.,' vol. vi, 1894), p. 42, jii. viii, fig. 5. 



12 



9() CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 

Teigonia Cunningtoni, Lycett, 1875. 

1875. Lycett, p. 146, pi. xxiii, fig. 11. 

Ti/pe. — British. Museum (Cunnington Collection). 
Distribution. — Upper Greensand of Devizes. 

Section 6. — Byssifeb^. 

Trigonia cakinata, Agaasiz, 1840. 

Additional Synonymy. 

1858. Teigonia carinata, /. Vilaiwva-y-Piera. Mem. Geog.-agric. de Castellou, 

pi. iii, fig. 19. 
1861. — — P. de Loriol. Invert. Foss. du Mt. Saleve, p. 74. 

1865. — — H. Cotiuand. Mou. Aptien de I'Espagne, p. 135. 

18(36. — — F. J. Pictet and G. Campiche. Foss. Terr. Cix't. Ste. 

Croix (Mater. Pal. Suisse, ser. 4), p. 365. 
1877. — — Lycett, p. 179, pi. xxxv, figs. 3 — 6. 

1896. — — A. Wollemann. Zeitschr. d. deutscli. geol. Gresellsch.. 

vol. xlviii, p. 846. 
1900. — — — Die Biv. imd Gastrop. deutscli. u. 

hoUiind. Neoc. (Abhandl. d. k. 
preussisch, geol. Laud. N. F., 
pt. 31), p. 86, pi. iv, figs. 6, 7. 

Beniarlcs. — T. mhcarinata, Ebray,^ ( = T. Heva, DoUfuss) is an allied form, but 
with fewer cost^. 

Ti/'pe.^. — From the Neocomian of Hauterive. The specimens figured by Lycett 
are in the Museum of Practical Geology. 

Disfrilnition. — Pema-hed of Atherfield and Sandown. Hythe Beds of Hytlie, 
Lympne, and Maidstone. Upper Greensand of Ventnor, Blackdown, Melbury 
(near Shaftesbury), and Potterne. 

1 ' Etudes geol. sur le depart, de la Nievre ' (1858), p. 200; Dollfuss, 'Bull. Soc. geol. France,' 
ser. 2, vol. xx (1863), p. 220, pi. ii ; De Loriol, ' Gault de Cosue ' (1882), p. 97, pi. xii, figs. 8—10. 



MYTILUS. 9] 



Fa mil II — ]\[vTir,frn:, Lnmarclc. 

Genm — Mytilts, Lininrua, 1758. 
('Syst. Nat., ed. 10, p. 704.') 

Mytii.is iN.KiniVAi.vis, Soicerhij, 18oG. Plate XV, tio's. 7 a—d. 

1836. Mytilus in;equivalvis, J. de C. Sowerby. Trans. Geol. Soc, ser. 2, vol. iv, 

pp. 241, 342, ]il. xvii, fig. 10 {nun Beshaves, 
1838). 

1854. — — ./. JTorWx. Cat. Brit. Foss., ocl. 2. p. 21-,. 

Descriplloii. — Shell .slii^litly iue(|uivalve, com])ressed, triangular, expandeil ami 
rounded posteriorly; edges sharp except at the anterior part of the ventral 
margin. Dorsal margin .^lightly curved, ventral nearly straight. Umbones slightly 
curved, pointed ; no carina ; greatest convexity between the umbones and the 
postero-ventral extremity. Surface smooth except foi- faintly marked growth- 
lines. 

Measurements : 

(1) (2) 

Umbo to postero-ventral extremity . . 42 . :)1 mm. 

Height (at right angles to greatest length) . 24 . !■' ,, 
Thickness ...... 13'5 . H „ 

(1), the Type ; (2), in the British Museum. 

Affinities. — This species seems to approach M. GaUicnnei, d'Orbigny,^ but is 
more compressed near the postero-ventral edge, less regular in outline, and without 
ornamentation near the ventral border. 

Ti/2)e. — In the Bristol Museum. The oidy other specimen seen is in the British 
Museum. 

Distribution, — BlackdoAvn Greensand. 



Mytiiats, sp., rf. TORNACENsis, d'ArcMac, 18 17. 

1847. Mttilus tornacensis, A. d'Arrhiac Mc'in. Soc. gcol. France, ser. 2 

vol. ii, p. 307, pi. XV, fig. 3. 
1847. — HAiNOENSis, P. de Ryckholt. Elucubrat. pak'ont. (not seen). 



' • Pal. Fran9. Terr. Cret.,' vol. iii (1844), p. 273, pi. cccxxxix, figs. 1, 2. See also Geinitz, " Das 
Elbthalgeb. iu Sachsen " (' Palajontographica,' vol. xx), pt. 1 (1873), p. 213, pi. .\lviii, figs. 1 — 3. 



92 TEETACEOITS LAMELLTBRANCHTA. 

1852. Mytilus toenacensis, P. de Ryckliolt. Mt'langes Pak'out., pt. 1 (Mem. 

cour. et Mi'm. des Sav. t'1 rangers vol. xxiv), 
p. 150, pi. ix, fig-. 7. 
1871. — — F.Stolkzka. PalcBont. ludica, Cret. Fauna S. ludiu 

vol. iii, p. 374. 
1883. MoDioi.A, sp. nov., W. Keeping. Foss., etc., Neoe., TJpware and Brifkhill, 

p. 118. 

Bemarhs.—A single specimen descrilied, hnt not nained, by W. Keeping agree.s 
closely with M. tornacensis, d'Arcliiac. The greater part of the shell has nnfortu- 
nately disappeared except ventrally to the carina, where the characteristic crimp- 
like ornamentation is seen, but is rather finer than in Belgian specimens. 

D'Orbigny' and some other authors have considered M. foriiarevsis to he 
identical with M. Galliennei, d'Orbigny, but the two forms seem to me quite distinct. 
The former (of which I have one specimen from Tournay, sent me by M. Piret, and 
also figures of a specimen in the Brussels Museum, kindly made by M. Rutot) is 
distinguished from the latter by (1) the more prominent, ridge-like, regular growth- 
lines ; ^ (2) the presence of the crimp-like ornamentation near the dorsal margin as 
well as ventrally ; (3) the less pointed umbonal region ; (4) the curvature of the 
carina. I am doubtful whether this species should be referred to Mytilus. 

Type. — From the Tonrtia of Tournay. 

Distribvtion. — Lower Clreensand of Upware. 



Genius — MoDioL.A., Lamar clc, 1799. 
(' Mem. Soc. Hist. Nat. Paris,' p. 87.) 

MoDiOLA ^.QU.MJS, Sowevhy, 1818. Plate XV, figs. 8 a — c, 9 — 14. 

1818. MoDiOLA ^QTjALis, /. Sovjerhy. Miu. Coneb., vol. iii, p. 18, pi. ccx, fig. 2. 
? 1842. — BiPAETiTA, A. Leymerie. Mem. Soc. geol. France, vol. v, p. 26, 

pi. ix, fig. 8 (non hlpartita, Sowerby). 

1844. Mytilus ^qualis, A. d'Orhigny. Pal. Franc. TeiT. Cret., vol. iii, p. 265, 

pi. cccxxxvii, figs. 3, 4. 

1845. — (Modiolus) jequalis, E. Forbes. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. i, 

p. 248. 
1850. — iEQUALis, A. d'Orhigny. Prodr. de Pal., vol. ii, p. 81. 

1854. MoDiOLA yEqualis, /. Morris. Cat. Brit. Foss., ed. 2, p. 210. 

1855. Mytilus ^qualis, G. Cotteau. Moll. Foss. de I'Youne, p. 93. 

> 'Prod, de Pal.,' vol. ii (1850), p. 165. 

- In this respect d'Archiac's fig. 3 is not satisfactory ; it was probably drawn from a worn 
specimen. 



MODTOLA. 93 

1858. Mttilits ."EQualis, F. J. Pictet and E. Renevifr. Foss. Terr. Aptien 

(MaU'r. Pal. Suisse, ser. 1), p. llfi, pi. xvi, fisr. 2. 

1865. — — n. Coqmiiul. Mou. Aptien de I'Espagne, \>. 14o. 

1868. — — F,. Eichivttld. Letha.'a Kossica vol. ii, p. 531. 

1867. — — F. J. Pictd and G. Camjnrhc. Foss. Terr. Cn't. Ste. 

Croix (Mater. Pal. Suisse, ser. 4), pp. 496, 507. 

1883. MoDioLA OBESA, 11'. Kff pi iiij . Fciss., \e., Ncoc. Upware ami Brickliill, 

]). 1 17, pi. vi, fitr. 3. 

y Non 1846. — .tiquai.is. A. E. neii.t^. Die Versteiu. der biihin. Kreifleformat., 

pt. 2, p. 15, pi. xxxiii, fit;. 10. 

— 1S6G. — — K. A. Zithl. Die l?ivalv. tier Gosaui;eb , pt. 2 

(Denksohr. <\. k. Akad. Wissen. Matli.-nat. CI. Witii, 
vol. XXV), p. 80 (p. 4 of reprint), pi. \i, fii,'. 4. 

— 1882. — — J. Klt'goir. Sehrift. iler nat. Gesell. in Dauzij.^, vol. v, 

p. 240. 
? — 1885. — — F. NiHliiifj. Die Fauna der baltiseli. Cenom. (Pala>out. 

Abhandl., vol. ii), j). 24, pi. iv, fig. 1. 

Dcifcrijifid}!. — Shell nvatc-nlilnno'j I'atlici' short, i-oiindcd at the ends, convex, 
compressed posteriorly. Dorsal aiul ventral margins nsnallv nt-arlv parallel. 
Umbones ohtnse, not teniiiiial. Carina absent or vei'v indistinct; greatest con- 
ve.xitv of valve ])etween the nmho and the postero-venti'al extremitv. A slio-ht 
mesial groove pi-odnees a small sinns near the middle of the ventral margin. 
.Surface smooth except for the jn-esencc of small concentric I'idges, which are best 
marked anteriorly and postero-dorsally. 

Measurements : 





(1) 


r-i) 


(3) 


(•1) (5) 


(<0 


(7) 


Length 


. 29 


2H 


27 


22-5 22 


21 


1 ') mm 


Height . 


. 1 I-:. 


].-. 


1 2-.". 


12 n •.") 


lo-.-) 


'•' „ 


Thickness 


. 15 


!.■) 


1 1 


II 10 


9-5 


v» „ 



(1 — 7) all from the Crackers of Atherfield. 

Affinities. — The young forms of }f. rererm, Sowerby, are distinguished from 
this species by the greater ol)liquity of their ventral margins. M. Fiflaiii, d'Orbigny,' 
appears to differ from If. sequalls in the presence of a distinct cari)ia with radial 
strige in front of it, and also in its greater length. 

Forbes and Morris considered that M. Ardu'aci, Leymerie,' and M. hipartlta, 
Lejmierie, non Sowerby, were identical with M. geqnalis. Some of our specimens 
agree very closely with Leymerie's figures of the latter, but with the former the 
agreement is not quite so satisfactory; the figures given by d'Orbigny,* and by 

' 'Prodr. de Pal.,' vol. ii (1850), p. 81. 

- ' Mem. Soc. geol. France,' vol. v (1842), p. 8, pi. x, fig. 2. 

' ' Pal. Franc. Terr. Crct.,' vol. iii (1845), p. 291, pi. cecxliv, figs. 10—12. 



94 CRETACEOUS LAMELLTBRANCHIA. 

Pictet and Campiclie/ show a more elongate sliell ; the species is referred by these 
authors to Lithodomus. 

M. cidfer, WoUemann," from the Hils-conglomerate of Brunswick, is closel}' 
allied ; it appears to differ chiefly in having a more angular outline and a distinct 
carina. 

Young specimens of M. xquali'i are similar in form to M. matronensis, 
d'Orbigny/ but apparently somewhat longer. 

I am unable to distinguish M. ohesa, Keeping (from Upware), from M. xqualin ; 
its somewhat greater inflation is, I think, due to crushing. 

Ti/jie.'i. — Tn the British Museum — internal casts from the Sandgate Beds of 
Parham Park. The type of M. ohesa, Keeping, is in the AYoodwardian Museuin. 

Distribution. — PerH«-bed, Crackers, and Beds 35 and 30 (Fitton) of Atherfield. 
Pi'ir^rt-bed of Redcliff. Ferruginous Sands of Shanklin. Atherfield Beds of Seven- 
oaks and Peasmarsh. Hythe Beds of Maidstone. Sandgate Beds of Parham Park. 
Lower Greensand of Upware. 



MoDiOLA KKVERSA, Soirevl)!/, 1836. Plate XV, figs. 15, !(>, 17 o, li, 18 a — c; 

Plate XVI, figs. 1, 2 a, h, 3. 

183G. MoDiOLA KEVEESA, J. de 0. Sowerbi/. Trans. Geol. Soc, ser. 2, vol. iv, 

pp. 241, 342, pi. xvii, fig. 13. 
? 1842. — L«viGATA, H. B. Geinilz. Char, cler Scliieht. und Petref. des 

siiclis.-bulmi. Kreidegeb., pt. 3, p. 78, pi. xx, fig. 35. 
? 1843. — EEVEESA, H. B. Geiniiz. Die Verstein. von Kieslingswalda, p. 15, 

pi. iii, fig. 11. 
1844. Mytiltjs SEMiEADiAirs, A. d'Orhiyny. Pal. Frau9. Terr. Crc't., vol. iii, 

p. 277, pi. cccxli, figs. 1, 2. 
1850. MoDiOLA REVERSA, H. B. GehiUz. Das Qiiader.sandst. oder Kreidegeb. in 

Deutschland, p. 168 (partim). 
1850. MiTYLUS EEVEESus, A. d'Ovhiynij. Prodr. de Pal., vol. ii, p. 165. 
1854. MoDioLA EEVEESA, J. Moms. Cat. Brit. Foss., ed. 2, p. 211. 
1867. Mytilus (Modiola) eeveesus, F. J. Picfet and G. Campiche. Foss. Terr. 

Cret. Ste. Croix (Mater. Pal. Suisse, ser. 4), p. 510. 
1868 — EEVEESUS, A. Briart and F. L. Cornet. Descrijit. Min. gc'ol. et 

Pal. de la Meulc de Bracquegnies (Mem. cour. et 
Mem. des Sav. etrangers, vol. xxxiv), p. 53, pi. iv, 
figs. 9, 10. 



1 "Foss. Terr. Cret. Ste. Croix" ('Mater. Pal. Suisse,' ser. 3, 1866), pp. 517, 524, pi. cxxxiv 

fig. 8. 

3 'Zeitschr. d. deutsdi. geol. Gesellseh.,' vol. xlviii (1896), p. 843, pi. xxi, f. 4; and 'Die Biv. u. 
Crastrop. d. deutscli. u. holliind. Neoc' (1900), p. 65. 

^ 'Pal. Fran9. Terr, Cret., vol. iii (1844), p. 269, pi. cccxxxvii, figs. 14—16. 



MODIOJ.A. 95 

? 1873. MoDioLA REVERPA, Van, H. B. Geuiitz. Das Elbthalgcb. iu Saehson 

(Palaeoutographiea, vol. xx), pt. 1, ji. 216, 
pi. xlviii, fijj. 9. 

Nou ISti. Mytii.us keversus, A. d'Orhujnrj. Pal. Frauc. Terr. C'ret., veil, iii, p. 264, 

pi. cccxxxvii, figs. 1, 2. 
? 1846. MoDioLA EEVEESA, ,1. E. EcuHs. Die Verstein. der bohin. Kreideformat.. 

pt. 2, p. 15, pi. xxxiii, fig. 9. 

DescriiAiuii. — Shell elongutc-uval, cxti'eniitie.s rounded; median part ol' .-^llell — 
from the umbo to the posterior extremity — inflated and slightly ciu-ved; dorsal 
part compressed and somewhat extended. Ventral to the inflated part is a shallow 
depression. Hinge margin forms an ol^tuse angle with the oblique and slightly 
convex posterior margin. Ventral border siruious. Umboncs obtuse ; no carina. 
Ornamentation consists of concentric ridges, often sharply marked, sometimes dis- 
continuous and rather irregular ; Ijetween these arc seen, in some specimens, much 
finer ridges. A bundle of tine radial ribs extends from the tunbo to the ventral 
sinuosity and occupies the greater part of the shallow depression ; occasionally fine 
close-set radial lines are seen on other ])arts of the shell. 

Measurements : 

Length ..... 
Greatest diameter perpendicular 

to length 
Thickness .... 

(1 — 6) all from Blackdown. 

Affinities. — The form figured l)y d'()rl)igny as M. revcrstis (Sowerby), but after- 
wards separated as M. Fittoni, d'Orbigny,' appears to differ from Sowerby's species 
in the possession of a distinct carina, and in having the umbones placed less 
anteriorly. 

M. typir.a (Forbes),^ especially as represented \)\ the forms from Go.-<au, is 
closely allied to M. reversa. 

M. albcnsis (d'Orbigny)'' is very near to M. reversa, but is perhaps distinguished 
by the somewhat longer and less curved anterior margin. 

For the relation of this form to M. ligeriensis (d'Orljigny) see beloAV. 

Type. — In the Bristol Museum, from Blackdown. 

1 For the synonviiiy of this species see Pictet aud Campiche, " Foss. Terr. Crt't. Ste. Croix' 
(Mater. Pal. Suisse, ser. 4, 1867), p. 495. 

■ ' Traus. Geol. Sop.,' ser. 2, vol. vii (1846), p. 152, pi. xiv, fig. 4 ; Zittel. " Die Bivalv. der Gosaugeb." 
('Deukschr. d. k. Akad. Wissensch. Math.-nat. Classe,' vol. xxv, 1866), pt. 2, p. 78 (p. 2 of reprint), 
pi. si, fig. 5; Stoliczka, 'C'ret. Fauna S. India,' vol. iii (1871). p. 377, pi. xxiii, figs. 12 — 15. 

•' Pictet and Campiche, op. cit., p. 504, pi. cxxxiv, fig. 1. 



(1) 


(2) 


(3) 


W 


(5) 


(6) 


71 


7(:t 


58 


5-1 


;U 


21 mm 


2H 


30 


20 


22 


15 


1 '^ 


27 





22 


21 




5» 



96 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 

Di!itril>iifiou. — Greensaud of Blackdown. Greensand (cliertbeds) of Woodlands 
Covert, Great Haldoii. Upper Greenland of Black Veil and Devizes. Cenomanian 
(Mej-er's Bed 12) of DuiLSConibe. r Gault of Black Ven. 



MoDiuLA LKiEiUKNbi.s (iV Orbvjn//), 1844. Plate XVI, figs. 4 «• , h, b a, b, 6. 

1844. Mytilus ligeeiensis, A. d'OrhiijiJi/. Pal. Fran9. Terr. Cret., vol. iii, 

p. 274, pi. cccxl, figs. 1, 2. 
1850. — — — Prodr. de Pal, vol. ii, p. 165. 

1867. — — E Giic'ranijcr. Album Pak'ont. de la Sartlio, p. 17, 

pi. xxii, figs. 2 — 4. 
1867. MoDiOLA LIGEEIENSIS, i^. /. Pictet (Old G. Campiche. Foss. Terr. Cret. Ste. 

Croix (Mater. Pal. Suisse, ser. 4), p. 509. 
? 1876. — — D. Braung. Zeitsohr. f. d. gesammt. Naturwiss., 

vol. xlvi, p. 374. 
? 1883. — TYPiCA, A. Fritsch. Stud, im Gebiete der bulim. Kreideformat., 

iii. Die Iserschichten, p. 106, fig. 73. 

? Noil 1846. Mytilus (Modiola) ligeeiensis, A. E. Beuss. Die Versteiu. der bohm. 

Kreideformat., pt. 2, p. 16, pi. xxxiii. 



fig. 3. 



Measurements 



(1) (2) 

Length 89 . . 60 mm. 



•■ft' 



Greatest height (perpendicular to 

length) 40 . . 25 „ 

Thickness 34 . . 24 „ 

(1) and (2) from the Perjta-bed of Atlierfield. 

Afti.iiitles. — This species agrees with ilf. reversa, Sowerby, and seems to be 
distinguished only by the crimp-like ornament in the spaces between the ribs ; this 
is usually best developed on the dorsal and postero-ventral parts of the valves, and 
seems always to be absent on the anterior region. The specimens of M. reversa 
from Blackdown do not show that ornament,^ and its absence can scarcely be 
explained by imperfect preservation, since other finei' ornament is clearly shoAvn on 
some specimens. On the other hand, the possibility of the two species being- 
identical is supported by the great variability in the development of the crimp-like 
ornament in M. ligeriensis. On some specimens from the Cenomanian of Orbiquet 
it is very faint, but on one from Le Mans (preserved in the Ecole des Mines, Paris) 
the crimp-ornament is stronger and more continuous than the concentric ornament. 
' Oue specimen sieouis to show a very faint trace of it near the liiuge-margin. • 



MODTOLA. 97 

Distribution. — Pf?-)ia-bed of Atherfield. Upper Greensand of Potterne. Chlo- 
ritic Marl of Warminster, r Ceuomanian of Wilmington (fragment only seen). 



MnDioiA RUcosA, Rouiev, 183G. 

183ti. MoDiOLA KUUoaA, F. A. Rumer. Die Vorstein. uord-deutsch. Oolithengeb.. 

p. il8, pi. V, f. 10. 
1841. — — — Die Versteiu. uonl-dcutsch. Kreidegcb., 

p. t>7. 
18-50. MiTYLUS SUBRUGOSUS, A. (VOrhujinj. Prodr. de Pal., vol. ii, p. 81. 
1867. Mytilus (Modiola) uugosus, /''. ./. PidH ami G. Campuhe. Foss. Terr. 

Crct. Ste. Croi.x (Mat.'T. Pal. Suisse, 
ser. 4), p. 508. 
18'J6. Modiola kugosa, A. Wollemann. Zoitschr. d. deutscb. geol. Gesellsch., 

vol. xlviii, p. 845. 
1900. — — — Die Biv. u. Gastrop. d. deutscb. u. 

boUiiud. Neoc. (Abbandl. d. k. preuss. 

geol. Laud., N. F., pt. 31), p. 64. 

ReitKirkx. — A specimen 40 niiii. long, with the umbones broken, is in the 
Leckenl)y Collection (^Woodwardian Mnseum), and belongs, I think, to this species. 
Tijpe. — From the Hil-sthon of the Elligser Brink. 
Dbitrihidiun. — Crackers of Atherfield. 



M(imoiA sunsiMi'LKx {(VOrhi'jmj), 1850. Plate XVI, figs. 7, 8, •)</, l>, M)ci, h. 

1842. Modiola simplex, G. F. Deshayes. In A. Levmorit-, JMeni. Soc. geol. 

France, vol. v, pp. 8, '26, pi. vii, fig. 8 (uon Mi/tilus 
.s/myy/e.?, Defrauce, 1824; Passv, 18-32). 

1844. Mytilus — .1. d'Orhi<jnij. Pal. Franc. Terr. Crct., vol. iii, p. 269, 

pi. cccxx-wiii, tigs. 1 — 4. 

1845. Mytilus (Momiolus) simplex, E. Forbes. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc., vol. i, 

p. 248. 
1850. Mitylus subsimplex, .4. d'Orbiijni/. Piodr. de Pal., vol. ii, p. 81. 
1852. Mytilus guegitis, F. J. Pictef and W. Roiix. MoU. Foss. Gri-s verts de 

Geneve, pp. 481, 551, pi. xl, fig. 2. 

1854. Modiola simplex, ./. Munin. Cat. Brit. Foss., ed. 2, p. 211. 

1855. Mytilus subsimplex, G. Cotteau. Moll. Foss. de I'Yonne. p. i>4. 

1858. — — F. J. Fidel and E. Renevier. Foss. Terr. Aptien 

(Mater. Pal. Suisse, ser. 1), p. 114, pl. xvi, fig. 3. 
1861. — — P. dc Loriol. Auini. luvrrt. Foss. Mt. Salcve, p. 92, 

pl. xi, tig. y. 

13 



98 rRETACEOUS LAMBLLTBRANCHIA. 

1865. Mytilus subsimplex, H. Coquand. Mou. Aptien de 1 Espagne, p. 143. 
18(57. — — F. J. Picfet and G. Campiche. Foss. Terr. Cret. 

Ste. Croix (Mater. Pal. Suisse, ser. 4), pp. 493, 507. 
1882. MoDioLA SUB-SIMPLEX, P. de Loriol. Gault de Cosne (Mem. Soc. Pal- 

Suisse, vol. ix), p. 81, pi. ix, fig. 17. 
1884. Mytilus simplex, 0. Wferth. Die Faima d. Neoc. im Teutoburg. Walde 

(Palaeont. Abhaudl., vol. ii), p. 47. 

1895. — — G. Maas. Zeitschr. der deutscli. geol. GeseUsch., vol. 

xlvii, p. 266. 

1896. MoDioLA simplex, a. WoUemaini. Zeitschr. der deutseh. geol. GeseUsdi., 

vol. xlviii, p. 844. 

1897. Mytilus — B. B. Newton. Proc. Dorset Nat. Hist, and Antiq. 

Field Club, vol. xviii, p. 89, pi. iii, fig. 13. 
1900. MoDiOLA subsimplex, a. WoUemann. Die Biv. u. Gastrop. d. deutseh. u. 

holliind. Neocoms. (Abhandl. d. k. preussisch. geol 
Laud., N. F., pt. 31), p. 62.' 

Desc)-iptioit. — Shell elongate, straight or curved, somewhat compressed. Ante- 
rior extremity narrow ; posterior part somewhat expanded. Hinge-margin straight, 
long; posterior margin relatively short, curved, oblique; ventral margin concave. 
A rounded ridge extends from the umbo to the postero-ventral extremity ; in front 
of this is a shallow depression. Surface smooth except for faint growth-lines. 

Measurements : 

Length (greatest) 

Height (at right angles to 

greatest length) 
Thickness .... 

(Ij— (5) all from the Crackers of Atherfield. 

Affinities. — This species is very near to, and perhaps identical Avith, M. sUiqua, 
Matheron ; ' but the latter is said to have the anterior extremity more obtuse. 

M. semiornatas, d'Orbigny, has the concentric ornament more pronounced on 
the dorsal part of the shell. 

M. reciior, Wollemann,- from the Hils-congiomerate of Brunswick, is very 

1 'Catal. Foss. Bouches-du-Rhoiie ' (1842), p. 178, pi. xxviii, figs. 5, 6; d'Orbigny, 'Pal. Franc. 
Terr. Cret.,' vol. iii (1844), p. 274, pi. cccxxxix, figs. 3, 4; and ' Prodr. de Pal.' (1850), p. 165; 
Geinitz, ' Quadersandst. in Deutschland ' (1850), p. 168, pi. x, fig. 14; Zittel, 'Die Bivalv. der 
Gosaugeb.,' pt. 2 (1866), p. 81 (p. 5 reprint), pi. xi, fig. 3; Pictet and Campiche, ' Foss. Terr. Cret. 
Ste. Croix (1867), p. 510; Geinitz, 'Das Elbthalgeb. in Sachsen,' pt. 1 (1873), p. 215, pi. xlvii, fig. 3, 
pt. 2, pi. XV, fig. 4; Biihm, " Kreidebild. Fiirbergs," etc. (' Paleeontographica,' vol. xxxviii, 1891), 
p. 81, pi. iii, fig. 29 ; Midler, " Mollusk. Uuterseu. Braunschweig und Ilsede " (' Abhandl. d. k. preuss. 
geol. Land.,' N. F., pt. 25, 1898), p. 46, pi. v, fig. 14. 

- 'Zeitschr. d. deutseh. geol. Gesellsch.,' vol. xlviii (1896), p. 844, pi. xxi, f. 6; and ' Die Biv. u. 
Gastrop. d. deutseh. u. holliind. Neoc' (1900), p. 63. 



(1) 

51 , 


(2) 

, 48 


(3) 

. 44 . 


(4) 

, 34 . 


(5) 

30 mm 


16 


. 15 


. 14 , 


, 13 . 


, 11 „ 




. 12-5 


. 11 , 


. 1() , 


7-5 „ 



MODIOT.A. 99 

closely related to M. salmmplex, but seems to differ in l)eing less convex Ijetween 
tlio umbo and the posterior extremity, and in liavini-- the vontrni miiri^in sti-aiiilitcr 
and tliL' posterior more rounded. 

Tiipes. — The type comes IVoin tiie Neocoiinan ..f \'illc-sui-'JV>rre. The specimen 
referred to l)y Forbes is in tlie .Museum of tli.' (jeoloo-ical Society. The specimen 
figured by Newton is in the Bi-itish Museum. 

Dlsfrlliiition. — I'eriia-hcd and Crackers of AtlnM-ficld. .Vtlicrficld IJcds of Seven- 
oaks, rpper Greensand of i)evi/.(\s. (iault of Folkestone, Black Ven. and 
Okeford Fit/.paine. rGi'eensand of lilackdown. 



MoDiOLA FL.A.GELiJFER.\, Forhes, 1846. Plate XYII, figs. 1, 2. 

? 1842. Inoceeamus siliqu.\, P. Matheron. Catal. Foss. Bouclics-du-Rhouo, p. 174, 

pi. XXV, fig. 6. 
1846. Mytilus (Modiolus) FLAGELLiFERus. E. Forhes. Trans. Geol. Soc, ser. 2, 

vol. vii, p. 152, pi. xvi, fig. 9. 
1850. MiTYLUs FLAGELLIFERUS. A. (l Orhigiiij. Prodr. de Pal., vol. ii, p. 247. 
? 1863. Mytilus (Modiolus) flagelliferus. J>. Stiir. Jahrh. d. k.-k. <,'eol. 

Reiohsanst.. vol. xiii, p. 55. 

1866. MoDioLA flagellifera, K.A. Zittel. Die Bivalv. d. Gosaiigeb. (Ueuksc-hr. 

d. k. Akad. dcr Wisseuscli. Math-uat. Classe, 
vol. xxv). ]>t. 2. p. 82 (p. 6 of rq>riiit ). pi. xii, 
fig. 2. 

1867. — flagelliferus, F. J. Pictel aud G. Campiche. Foss. Terr. Crt't. 

Ste. Croix (Mater. Pal. Suisse, ser. 4), p. 513. 
1871. — flagellifera, F. Stollrz/cn. Pal. Indita, Cret. Fauna S. India. 

p. 379. pi. xxiv, figs. 1, 2. 
? 1873. Mytilus (Modiola) flagellifera If. Ti. Geinif-.. Das Elbthal-rel). in 

Sachsen (Pala^outographiea, vol. xx). pt. 2, p. 55, 
pi. XV, fig. 5. 
1897. Modiola flagellifera, A. FrltucJi. Stud, iin Gel), der hcihin. Kreidef. vi. 

Die Cliloniek. Schieht., p. 59, fig. 69. 

Dcstcription. — Shell veiy elongate, slightly curved, compres.sed, witli kin'fe-like 
edges; somewhat enlarged posteriorly. Dorsal margin almost straight, ami nearly 
])arallel with the slightly concave ventral margin. Umbones obtuse, nearly terminal, 
with a faintly marked oblicpie carina extending to the postero-ventral extremity. 
Ornamentation consists of flagellifonn ribs, whicli ai-e bi'oad neai-the dorsal mar'nn, 
and are directed obliquely backwards. At about half their length they curve 
rapidly, diminish in size, bifurcate, and often have smaller iii)s intercalated : the 
ribs taper at the cariiut, ventral to which the shell is maiked with uicw tli-lines 
only, or is nearly smooth. 



100 CRETAf'EOIJS LAMELLTRRAXCHTA. 

Measurements : 

(1) (2) 

Leiio-th 77 102 mm. 

Heiglit 25 22 „ 

(1) and (2) from Devizes. 

Affinities. — This species belongs to a section of Modiola characteristic of the 
Jurassic rocks, of which M. Soirerhiana (d'Orbig-nv) [= M. plica fa, Sowerby], 
M. perpUcata (Etallon), M. Mediis (d'Orbigny), and M. ica.unensis (de Loriol) are 
well-known representatives. 

I have seen only three English examples, and these, althongli in the form of in- 
ternal casts, seem to agree perfectly with the types of M. fagellifera, Forbes (from 
Pondicherry), with which I have compared them. Zittel has referred to this species 
a form found in the Grosau Beds, of which I have seen one specimen collected by 
Mr. H. Kynaston from Finstergraben, and now preserved in the Woodwardian 
Museum ; this also agrees with the Forbes' types. 

The specimen figured by Matheron as Inoceramus siliqua is probably an imper- 
fect example of this species. Modiola Gillieroni (Pictet and Campiche),' from the 
Valangian of Presle (near Bienne) and Cinquetral, appears to differ from M. flar/eJ- 
lifeva in having fewer ribs dorsally, and in the general absence of bifurcation as 
they curve on approaching the carina. 

if. Baini, Sharpe," from Sunday River (South Africa), apparently differs from 
M. flarjellifera in having the ribs continued ventral to the carina, and perhaps also 
in having a more elongate shell. 

M. Ebraj/i, de Loriol,' is probably another related form, l)ut at present is im- 
perfectly known. 

Tjiprs. — From the Valudayoor Group of Pondicherry, preserved in the Museum 
of the Geological Society of London (No. 10631) ; these are also figured by 
Stoliczka. 

Distribution. — Upper Greensand of Devizes and Black Ven. 



Modiola undulata (Foriie.^). Plate XVII, fig. 3, 

1845. Cypricaedia? undulata, E. Forbes. Quart. Jouru. Geol. Soc, vol. i, 

p. 242, pi. iii, fig. 1. 
1848. Cypeicakdia undulata, H. 0. Bronn. Index Palseont., vol. i, p. 387. 

1 "Foss. Terr. Cret. Ste. Croix" ('Mater. Pal. Suisse,' ser. 4), 1867, p. 503, pi. cxxxiii, 
figs. 9, 10. 

3 'Trans. Geol. Soc.,' ser. 2, vol. vii (1856), p. 193, pi. xxii, figs. 2, 3. 

s "Faune du Gault de Cosne " ('Mem. Soc. Pal. Suisse,' vol. ix, 1882), p. 80, pi. ix, figs. 18—20 
(especially fig. 20). 



MODIOLA. ]()] 

]8o0. MiTYLUS UNDULATUS, A. (VOrhignij. Prodr. dc Pal., vol. ii, ]i. 110. 
1854. Cypricardia undulata, J. Morrix. Cat. Brit. Foss., ed. 2, p. 19ii. 
1867. Mytilus (Modiola) undulatus, F. J. Pictet and G. Campiche. Foss. 

Torr. Cri't. Ste. Croix (Matrr. Pul. 

Suisse, ser. 4), p. 508. 
L^71. Modiola undulata. F. Sloliczl-fi. Palii^oiit. Indica, Cret. Fauna S. ludia, 

vol. iii, p. :!7:i. 

I)r.<i-i-!'jili(iii. -Shell iii(i(l('i';U('ly ('l(lll^•atL^ coinpix'.-^sed. ciiljii'ucd postui-iorlv. 
Dorsal iiiiU'iiiii nearly sti'aiu'lit ; ventral (il)Ii(|ne ; anterior rouniled. I lulioiies not 
tei'ininal, witli a sliarply niai'ked cui-vinii' carina extendiii"' to the po.stei'o-x'enti'al 
e.xtreinitx". I'"rnin the dorsal margin liroad rilis start and are directed posteriorly, 
afterwards cnrxiiiLi' to join the carina, wliei'e they end. N'^eiitral to the carina the 
.sliell is marked l)y tine lines only. 

Measureineiifs : 

]jOiio'th ......... '•)■] nnu. 

Heii>;lit (at the posterior end) . . . . . 18 „ 

AfJiiiUies. — This is distirigiii.shetl from }f. flit(jellifer(i, Forbes, and .V. (lillicroui. 
(Pictet and Campiclie) V)y the shorter shell, the carina, the small curvature of the 
fibs, and the ab.sence of bifurcaticm in them. 

Tlie o-eneric position of this species cannot he stateil with certainty, since the 
ty|)e specimen is the only examjile seen and the interior is utd<no\vn. 

'////»'. — In the Museum of the Geological Society of [jondon (.No. 2088). 

IJisfriliiitidii. — Athertield ('lav of .Atherfield. 



Stih-gcnus — Bi; m hyhontks, Sivainson, 1840. 
('Treatise on Malacolo;j;y,' p. 384.) 

MoLiioL.v (Bi;.\ciivnoNTi:s) GfioKAiNnKKi 't {iVOrhhjnij), 18U-. I'late .W'll, iigs. 4, 

5 (( — c. 

1844. Mytilus Guerangeki, A. iVOrhigny. Pal. Franc. Terr. Cri't., vol. iii. p. 

282, pi. cccxlii, figs. 7— H. 
1850. Mitylu.s — iVOrb!y,i>/. Prodr. de Pal., vol. ii, p. 166. 

1862. Buachydontes Guerangkui, J. 0. Chetm. Manuel de Conchvl., vol. ii, 

p. 154, fig. 762. 
1867. Mytilus Gueranoeri, F. J. Pictet and G. Campiche. Foss. Terr. Cn't. 

Ste. Croix (Mati'r. Pal. Suisse, ser. 4), p. 509. 
1807. — — E. Gnfranx/er. Alhum Palront. de la Sarthe. p. 17, 

pi. xxiii, fig. 3. 
1871. Modiola Gueranoeri, F Stoliczka. Palteont. Indica. Cret. Fauna S. India, 

vol. iii, p. 373 {Brachydontes). 



102 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 

Remarks. — Two incomplete specimens in Mr. Meyer's collection agree with M. 
(Brach]/do7ites) 6rH(?)'flH_7er'/, from the Cenomanian of Le Mans, except in having finer 
ribs. Not having seen the type or other French sjiecimens of M. Giwranijeri I am 
nnable to refer these examples definitely to that species. The ribbing on the 
ventral surface is olearlv shoAvn, and separates this form from M. dirnricafa, 
d'Orbigny.' 

A specimen from the Greensand of Haldon, in Mr. Vicary's collection ([il. xvii. 
fig. 4), agrees with 71/. Gneranijeri, especially with the example figui-ed h\ 
Grueranger, except in the absence of the fine ribbing on the ventral s\;rface ; this 
difference may be due to imperfect preservation. The shell tapers more rapidly 
toward the umbones than in M. divaricafa. 

Distribution. — Greensand of Haldon. Cenomanian (Meyer's Beds 10 and 12) 
of Dunscombe. 



MoDioLA (Bkachydontes) vectiensis, sp. nov. Plate XVII, figs. 6 a, !>, 7 o — c, 8. 

Description. — Shell small, rather short, inflated, expanded, and compressed 
posteriorly, extremities rounded. Ventral margin with a sinus produced by a 
mesial depression. Umbones obtuse, not terminal. Ornamentation consists of 
many strong and somewhat irregular ribs, which cover the entire surface and 
generally bifurcate toward the margin of the valve. 

Measurements : 

Length .... 
Height .... 
Thickness . . . .6 — — • — — „ 

(1), (5) from the Crackers, Atherfield. 

(2) from the Pcr/w-bed, Eedcliff. 

(3) from the Atherfield Beds, Littletou Pit, near Guildford. 

(4) from the Atherfield Beds, East Shalford. 

Affinities. — The smaller forms of this species resemble M. striato-costatn 
(d'Orbigny), but possess stronger and less regular ribs, and are without the con- 
centric ribs. 

M. inorinicns" (de Loriol) is also similar, but has more regular ribs, which do not 
bifurcate, and some parts of the shell are Avithout ribs. 

1 'Pal. Franc. Terr. Cre't.,' vol, iii (1844), p. 275, pi. cc.cxl, figs. 3, 4; ' Prodr. de Pal.,' vol. ii 
(1850), p. 246; Pictet and Campiche, ' Poss. Terr. Cret. Ste. Croix' (1867), p. 511. 

^ De Loriol and Pellat, ' Portlandien de Boulogne-sur-Mer ' (' Mem. Soc. Phvs. et d'Hist. Nat. de 
Geneve,' vol, xix, 1866), p. 91, pi. ix, fig. 4, 



(1) 


(^) 


(3) 


(■i) 


(5) 


14 


14 


] S-o 


12-5 


9 mm 


7-5 


8 


8 


8 


■i „ 



MODIOLA. 108 

M. pedenialis, Romer/ is a larj^er species with finer ribs, and the anterior part 
of the shell nearly smooth. 

Distrt(/ittiun.^Fe)-ua-hcd of ileilclilf. Crackers uf Alhertield. Alhertieid Beds 
of East Slialford, Peasmarsh, Sevenoaks, and (ferruginous nodules) Littleton Pit, 
near Guildford. 



MoDloLA (BiiAruYiiuMLs) STJ;iATu-cusTATA {(C Orbujii)/), JhI 1. I'jate XVli, tigs. '.» n, //, 

10 ", b, 11 '« — c. 

1844.. Mttilus stbiato-costatus, A. d'Orhiijmj. Pal. Fraiu;. Terr. Civt , vol. iii. 

p. 281, pi. eccxlii, tigs. 4—6. 
1848. MoDioLA sTRiATo cosTATA. H. G. Broiiit. ludex Palseont., vol. i, p. 7'S^. 
1850. MiTYi.us STKiATo-cosTATUS, A. d'Ofhiijtnj. Proclr. de Pal., vol. ii, p. 166. 
1867. MoDiuLA STRIATO-COSTAT0S, F. J. Piciet aiiil G. C'amjtiche. Foss. Terr. 

Crt't. Ste. Croix (Matt'r. Pal. Suisse, ser. 4), 

p. .510. 
1871. — STRiATO-cosTATA, F. Sf'iliczka. Palaeout. Indira. Cret. Fauua 

S. India, vol. iii, p. 373. 

Descriptluii. — Shell small, oblong or ovate-oblong, short, inflated, somewhat 
expanded, and also rounded and compressed posteriorly, ventral margin slightly 
sinuous. Umbones not quite terminal. No carina; dorsal ami ventral to a line 
between the umbones and the posterior extremity the valves are shar{)ly com- 
pressed. Ornamentation consists of numerous fine radial ril)s separated l)y narrow 
grooves and covering the entire surface; the ribs curve toward the dorsal margin. 
The radial ribs ai'c crossed at intervals by concentric lidges. 

Measurement.-; : 

(1) (2) (3) 

Length . . . . '.) 8 8 

Height . . . . () -J I'-j 

Tliickness . . . — 1 \'7') 

(1) to (5) from Blackdowu. 

Affiintlea. — The relation of this species to M. cecficnsls is given above. It 
seems to approach closely the form described by Fictet and Campiche " as Litho- 
doiiias prefitenals. 

DlstriliiiUdn. — Hhickdow n (Jreensand. 

' ' Die Kreidebild. von Texas ' (1852). p. 53, pi. vii. fii,'. 11. 

2 " Foss. Terr. Crct. Ste. Croix " (' Matt'r. Pal. Suisse,' ser. 4, 1867), p. 522, pi. cxxxvi, figs. 2 — 4. 



(!) 

7 


(5) 

h'b mm 


1-25 


■ro „ 


•j 


95 



104 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 

MODIOLA, sp. 

1883. MoDioLA PEDERNALis f?), W. Keepiiuj. Foss., etc., Neoc. Upware and 

Brickhill.p. 117,pl. vi, fig. 2. 

A portion of a left valve witli the surface abraded, from the Lower Clreensand 
of Upware, was regarded by Keeping as probably M. pedernalis, Romer. The 
imperfect character of the specimen makes this reference very doubtful. The shell 
also resembles M. autlssiodorensis, Cotteau, from the Portlandian.^ 



Genns — Ckenell.v, Broion, 1827. 

(•Illust. Coucli. Great Britain aud Ireland,' pi. xxxi, figs. 12— U; ed. 2 (1844), p. 75, 

pi. xxiii, figs. 12 — 14. ) 

Crenella lei.la [Sowerhij), 183(3. Plate XVII, figs. 12 a, h, 13 a—d. 

1836. MoDiOLA BELLA, /. cle C. Sowerby. Traus. Geol. Soc, ser. 2, vol. iv, 

pp. 118, 158, 336, pi. xi, fig. 9. 

1844. Mytilus Coenuelianus. A. cVOrhigmj Pal. Franc. Terr. Cret , vol. iii, 

p. 268, pi. cccxxxvii, figs. 10 — 13. 

1845. — (Modiolus) BELLUS, £. jForfces. Quart. Jouru Ueol. Soc , vul. i, 

p. 248. 
185U. MiTYLUS CoRNUELiANUs, A. d'OrhiijHij. Prodr. de Pal., vol. ii, p. 81. 
1850. — BEhi,A, (FOrhigity. Ibid., p. 138. 

1854. MoDioLA BELLA, /. MorHs. Cat. Brit. Foss., ed. 2, p. 210. 

1855. Mytilus Cornuelianus, G. Cotteau. Moll Foss. de I'Yonue, p. 93. 
1858. — bellus, F. J. Pidet and E. Benevier. Foss. Terr. Aptien (Mater. 

Pal. Suisse, ser. 1), p. 113, pi. xv, fig. 10. 
1867. — — F. J. Pidet and G. Campichc. Foss. Terr. Crct. Ste. 

Croix (Mater. Pal. Suisse, ser. 4), p. 502. 
X869. — — P. de Loriol and V. Gillu'ron. Mon. de I'Etage Urgonien 

Infer, du Landeron (Mem. Soc. Helvet. Sci. Nat., 
vol. xxiii), p. 17, pi. i, fig. 15. 
1871. MoDiOLA BELLA, F. StoUczka. Palaeont. Indica, Cret. Fauna S. India, 

vol. iii, p. 372 {:> Crenella). 

1895. Mytilus Cornuelianus, G. Maait. Zeitschr. der deutsch. geol. Gesellsch., 

vol. xlvii, p. 266. 

1896. MoDioLA CoRNUELiANA, A. Wolhmann. Zeitschr. der deutsch. geol. 

Gesellsch., vol. xlviii, p. 844. 
1900. — BELLA, 4. lFoH«/«(Mi«. DieBiv.u. Gastrop. d. deutsch. u. holliind. 

Neocoms. (Abhandl. d. k. preuss. geol. Laud., N. F., 
pt. 31), p. 69. 



1 De Loriol aud Cotteau, ' Mon. I'Etage Portlaudien de I'Youne ' (1868), p. 189, pi. xii, fig. 8. 



CREXELLA. 105 

Description. — Shell subquadrate or oval, short, inflated — especially anteriorly 
and between the umbo and the postero-ventral extremity ; on each side of this line 
the shell is compressed, and on the ventral side it is flattened. Hinge-margin 
relatively short; posterior margin curved, ob]i(|ue ; ventral long, nearly straight. 
Postero-ventral angle roundfd. Uml)o prominent, extending beyond the short 
anterior mai'giii. Ornamentation consists of imiiierous fine regular radial ribs, 
crossed by finer concentric ribs, which are best marked on the dorsal part of the 
valves ; also at intervals a few well-marked growth-lines. 

Measurements : 

(1) (2) (3) 

Length . . . K! . 11 . lo mm. 

Height ... 11 . '.» . 8-5 „ 

Thickness . . . 1:>-j . 12-5. 11 „ 

(1— o) all from Atheififkl. 

Affinities. — Tliis is distinguished from the other Cretaceous species' by its 
more ([uadrate outline. It may, perhaps, belong to the sub-genus Bhvmboidella, 
Monterosato. 

Types. — I have not seen the type; it came from the Hythe Beds, near Hythe. 

Distribution. — I'enia-hi^il of Atherfield and licdcliff. Crackers of Atherfield. 
Hythe Beds near Hythe, and near Maidstone. 



Genus — LiTiiuiio.MUS, Cnvicr, 1817. 
(' Le Rcgue Animal,' vol. ii, p. 471.) 

LiTHODOMUS EUGOSUS? tVOrbitjmj, 18-45. Plate Wli, figs. 14'/, b. 

1845. LiTHODOMUS EUGOSUS, A. d'Orbigny. Pal. Frauc. Terr. Cn't., vol. iii,p. 29-1-, 

pi. cccxlvi, tigs. 1 — 3. 
1850. _ _ _ Prod, de Fal, vol. ii, p. 166. 

1867. — — E. Gne'raiKjer. Album Pak'ont. de la Sarthe, p. 18, 

pi. xxiii, tigs. 18—20. 
187.3. — — H. B.Geliiif:. Das Elbthalgcb. iu Sacliseu (Palajon- 

tographica, vol. xx), pt. 1, p. 219, pi. Ii, figs. 

2-1—26. 

Dcscriptlun. — Shell elongate, oval, suijcyliudrical, dorsal and ventral margins 
nearly parallel, extremities rounded. Surface with strongly marked growth-lines. 
Uinbones not terminal. 

1 C. concentrica, Gabb; C. elegatiiula, Meek and Harden; C- soicea, Conrad; C. grmulaio- 
cancellata (Eiimer) ; C. injlata (Miill.). 

14 



ion CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBEANCHIA. 

Meas^iremciiis : 

Length ......... 28 mm. 

Height 12 „ 

Affinities. — This species approaches L. oblongus, d'Orbigny, and L. alpimts, 
Zittel. 

Remarks. — The three specimens seen are imperfectly preserved, and the radial 
ornament, described by d'Orbigny as occurring on the antero- ventral part of the 
valves, is not shown. 

Distribution. — Cenomanian (Meyer's Bed 10) of Dunscombe. 



Fm»////— DREISSENSIID^, Gr,nj. 

Genus — Septifek, G. A. Becluz, 1848. 
('Eev. Zool.,'p. 275.) 

Septifer lineatus {Sowerhij), 1836. Plate XVIII, figs. 1 — 12. 

? 1820. PiNNiTES UNGULATUS, E. F. Schlotheim. Die Petrefacteukuude, p. 304. 
1836. MoDiOLA LiNEATA, /. de C. Sowerby. Trans. Geol. Soc, ser. 2, vol. iv, 

pp. 129, 338, pi. xiv, fig. 2 (non Mytilue lineatus, 
Gmeliu, 1789). 
1839. — ANGUSTA, F. A. Rimer. Die Verstein. norddeutsch. Oolithen- 

geb Nachtrag, p. 33, pi. xviii, fig. 36 (nou 
M. angusta, Deshayes, 1824). 
? 1840. — CoTT^, H. B. Gelnitz. Char. d. Scliiclit. u. Petref. des sjichs 

Kreidegeb., pt. 2, p. 56, pi. x, fig. 5. 

1841. — ANGUSTA, F. A. Romer. Die Verstein. norddeutsch. Kreidegeb., 

p. 66. 
? 1841. Mttilus Cott«, Rjmer. Ibid., pi. 66, pi. viii, tig. 18. 

1842. — CvviERi, P. Matheron. Cat. Foss. des Bouclies-du-Ehone, p. 179, 

pi. xxviii, figs. 9, 10. 
? 1843. — CoTT«, H. B. Geinitz. Die Verstein. von Kiesliugswalda, p. 15. 

1844. — LINEATUS, A. iVOrhujny. Pal. Frany. Terr. Crc't., vol. iii, p. 266, 

pi. cccxxxvii, figs. 7 — 9. 
? 1844. MoDiOLA GRANULOSA, V. Poticz (uid A. BUcJiauJ. Galerie des Moll., wl. ii. 

p. 132, pi. liv, fig. 10. 

1845. Mytilus (Modiolus) aspee, E. Forbes (non Sowerby). Quart. Jouru. Geol. 

Soc, vol. i, p. 248. 
? 1846. — Cott^, a. E. Benss. Die Verstein. der bohm. Kreideformat., 

pt. 2, p. 14, pi. xxxiii, fig. 4. 
1848. MoDioLA LINEATA, H. G. Bronti. Index Palaeont., vol. i, p. 737. 
1850. MiTYLUs suBLiNEATUS, A. d'Orbigny. Prodr. de Pal., vol. ii, pp. 81, 119. 
? — — SUBANGUSTUS, d'Orbiyiiy. Ibid., p. 81. 



SEPTIFKR. 107 

I80O. MiTYLus PEREGEiNus, cV Ofligtiy. Ibid., p. 165. 
— CuviERi, fl'Orhigny. Ibid., p. 246. 

— — CoTTJK, d'Orhigny. Ibid., p. 246. 

— MoiMor,.*. QUADRATA, J. (le C. Sowerhy. In F. Dixon, Geol. Sussex, p. 347 

[p. 382 of cd. 2], pi. sxviii, iig. 13. 
1852. Mytilus Cuttje, P. de RycAholl. Melanges Pak'ont., pt. 1 (Mrin. cour. ft 

Mem. des Sav. etranger.s, vol. xxiv), p. 147. 
'^ — — oipi.YANirs, de Byrkhnlt. Ibid., p. 1.52, pi. ix, figs. 12, 13. 

1852. MoDiOLA 1.INEATA, C. G. Guhil. Deutschl. Petref., p. 379 (pnrlim). 
1854. — —J-. M>y>-rh. Cat. Brit. Foss., ed. 2, p. 210. 

1852. Mytilus OKiiioNyANu.s, F. J. PIrtct and W. Rotix. Moll. Foss. Gus verts 

de Geneve, p. 479, j)l. xxxix, fig. 9. 

1857. — SUBLINEATUS, G. Cotlfuii. Moll. Foss. de I'Yonne, p. 93. 

1858. — — F. J. PlrM and E. lienevier. Foss. Terr. Aptien 

de la Perte dn Ehone (Matt'r. Pal. Suisse, ser. 1), 
p. Ill, pi. XV, figs. 8, 9. 
1861. — — P. (/(' Loriol. Anim. Invert. Foss. du Ml. Sulcve, 

p. 92. 
18G4. — SPATHULATUS, H. Seeley. The Geologist, vol. vii, p. 53. 

1865. — CuviERi, H. Coqiiand. Mon. Aptien de I'Espagne, p. 142. 
1867. — — F. J. Picti't and G. Campiche. Foss. Terr. Cn't. Ste. 

Croix (Mati-r. Pal. Suisse, ser. 4), p. 491. 
18C7. — CoTT.«, Piciet and Campirhe. Ibid., p. 511. 

1809. — CuviERi, P. de Loriol and V. GiUie'ron. Mon. de I'Etage Urgon. 

inf. de Lauderou (Mem. Soc. Helvet. Sci. Nat., vol. 
xxiii), p. 16, pi. i, fig. 14. 
r 1870. MoDiOLA, cf. lineata, F. Rumer. Geol. von Oberschles., p. 333. 
1871. Mytilus Cott.*, F. 8tnlkzka. Palaeont. Indica, Cret. Fauna S. India, 

vol. iii, p. 373, No. 56 (Sejillfer ?). 
1873. MoDiOLA CoTT.y., H. B. Gcinitz. Das Elbthalgeb. in Saehseu (Palieonto- 

graphica, vol. xx), pt. 1, p. 214, pi. xlviii, figs. 4—8. 
1876. — (SeptiferV) Cott.*;, D. Bramm. Die Seuou. Mergel des Salz- 

berges (Zeitsehr. f. d. gesammt. 
Naturwiss., vol. xlvi), p. 375. 
1889. Mytilus Cott.t., A. Friti'rh. Stud, im Geb. der bohni Kreidef. iv. Die 

Teplitzer Schielit., p. 79, tig. 66. 

1896. Modiola angusta, A. Widleinann. Zeitsehr. der deutsch. geol. Gesellsch., 

vol. xlviii, p. 844. 

1897. — Cott.'e, B. Leonhard. Die Fauna der Kreidef. von Oberschles. 

(Palieontographica, vol. xliv), p. 27. 

1897. — — JL W<i'nh. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc., vol. liii, p. 380, 

pi. xxvii, figs. 9 — 12. 
? 1898. Mytilus (Septifee) lineatus, A. Frilsrh. Stud, im Geb. der bohm. 

Kreidef. vi. Die Chlomeker Schichteu, 
p. 57, fig. 65. 

1898. Septifer lineatus, G. MiUhr. Die Mollusk. Uutersen. vou Braunschweig 

und Ilsede, pt. 1 (Abh. d. k. preuss. geol. Laud., 
N. F., pt. 25), p. 48. pi. vii, fig. 2. 



108 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 

1899. MoDiOLA CoTTX, A. Hen nig. Bihang till k. Srenska Vet.-Akacl. Handl., 

vol. xxiv, p. 13, pi. i, figs. 16 — 19. 

1900. — CtrviEEi, A. WiiJlcninnn. Die Biv. u. Gastrop. d. deutsch. u. 

liolliiud. Neoc. (Abhandl. d. k. preuss. geol. Laud., 
N. F., pt. 31), p. 68. 

Nou 18-17. Mytiltjs lineatd.s, /. Miiller. Petref. Aacheu. Kreidef., pt. 1, p. 34. 
— 1889. Septifer line.vtu.s, E. Holzapfel. Die Mollusk. Aachen. Kreide (Palseon- 

tographica, vol. xxxv), p. 216, pi. xxv, figs. 10—13 
(these figures are enlarged three times). 

Description. — Shell tliin, ovate-oblong, inflated, regularly convex from the umbo 
to the posterior extremity, more or less compressed at right angles to its greatest 
length (dorso-ventrally) ; slightly curved or occasionally straight. Dorsal margin 
slightly convex. Posterior extremity well rounded, a little expanded. Antero- 
ventral margin slightly concave, sometimes straight. Umbones small, curved, 
terminal. Carina faintly marked near the umbo, absent elsewhere. Antero-ventral 
face of the shell flattened or concave, postero-dorsal part regularly convex. 

Ornamentation consists of fine but well-marked radial ribs, crossed by rather 
less distinct concentric ribs, giving a cancellate appearance ; the radial ribs are 
serrate or granular where crossed by the concentric ribs. At intervals fairly strong 
growth-lines occur. An oval area below the umbones is without radial ribs, and 
shows only lines of growth. 



Measurements : 




















Umbo to posterior 


(1) 


(2) 


(3) 


(4) 


(5) 


(6) 


(7) (8) 


(9) 


(10) 


extremity 


40 


42 


42 


41 


37 


34 


32 29 


m 


28 mm 


Greatest diameter at 




















right angles to pre- 




















ceding . 


IS 


15 


14 


14-5 


14 


12 


12 12 


15 


11 „ 


Thickness 


29 


25 


23 


2(3 


22 


20-5 


15 15-5 


21 


IG „ 



(1 — 3, 6) from the Hythe Beds, Lympne. 

(4) „ Chalk Marl, Chardstock. 

(5) ,, ., Kempstone Rocks. 

(7) ,, ,, Dunscombe. 

(8) „ „ Titherleigh, 
(9, 10) „ Chalk Eock, Cuckhamsley. 

Affinities. — The specimens figured by Geinitz as M. Gottse in ' Das El])thalge- 
birge in Sachsen ' agree perfectly with our examples from the Cenomaniau. The 
figures of M. Gottse given by earlier authors appear to represent imperfect or 
crushed specimens, and I follow Geinitz, who was probably acquainted with the 
originals, in regarding them as the examples of M. Gottse. 

Modiola angusta, Romer, is considered by Wollemann to be identical with M. 
lineata ; I have seen no examples of it. 



SEPTTFER. 100 

Modiola quadrafa, Sowerby, from the Upper Clialk, is;, I believe, only a 
somewhat crushed example nf tliis species, similar to tlie one fis>-ure(l on our 
PI. XVIII, fi.t?. 12. 

Holzapfel considci-s thai the forms IVdin the Aaclirii (Ireensand, originally 
described l)y Midler as Mi/liliis lincaht>i and .][. .^culnris, shoidd lie referred to M. 
1 ill fat IIS, Sowerby. The Aaclieu species is very vaiialilc. and I am greatly indebted 
to Pi-(if. ITolzapfel for the loan of six specimens Avhicli vary in tlieir greatest length 
from '.>■•") to 1 -J mm. ^ The Aachen shell is clearly distinct from our species; it is 
moi'e curved, more irregular, smaller, and with the radial ril)s more strongly 
marked and not crossed by concentinc ribs, so that the cancellate appearance is not 
seen. 

The form figured as MijIUhh cijih/niiiis by de Ryckholt,'' from Ciply and 
Maestricht, is perhaps a .small example of >S'. lineatus (Sow.). 

M. sequatoralis, Mayer-Eymai'." fi'om Somalilaud, is ])er]iaps an allied form, but 
is imperfectly known at present. 

liemarls. — The variations in this species consist chiefly in the amount of 
inflation and curvature of the valves, and in the flattening of the antero-ventral 
surface. 

The examples from the Hythe Beds are usually larger, rather more inflated, 
and have the antero-ventral surface more flattened than those found in the Upper 
Greensaud and Cenomanian. But all the different forms which the shell takes may 
be seen at all horizons, and from the examination of a large series of specimens I 
am convinced that the Lower Cretaceous forms cannot be separated from those of 
the Upper Cretaceous. The relative ]n'o]iortions of the valves of course change as 
age increases. 

On account of the thinness of the shell the form of the valves has often become 
somewhat altered by pressui-e, and the shell itself — especially in specimens from the 
Hythe Beds — has often parti}- disa})peared. 

None of the specimens I have seen shoAv the interior of the valves, l)ut some 
of the internal casts give indications of the presence of an undxinal plate. 

The name M. GottsR, Romer, is adopted by Geinitz (1873) for this species, and 
M. Cuvieri, Matheron, by Pictet and Campiche (18G7), since the name Mijlilus 
lineatus had been used by Gmelin in 1789 for another form, and Modiola angvsta 
was also preoccupied by Deshayes (1824). D'Orbigny in 1850 substituted the 
name sublineutns for lineatus, Sow. If Sowerby's species be referred to Septifer, 
then his specific name may be retained. 

' It should be uoticeJ that Holzapfel's figures of this species are enlarged three times. 
•- "Melanges Pak'out.," pt. 1 (' Mom. cour. et Mt'm. des Sav. otrangers,' vol. xxiv, 1852), p. 152, 
pi. ix, figs. 12, 13. 

3 ' Vierteljahrs. nat. Gesellsch. Ziirich,' vol. xxxviii (1893), p. 254, pi. i, figs. 7, 8. 



110 GRBTACBOUS LAMBLLIBRANCHIA. 

Ttjpes. — I liave not seen the types ; they were obtained from the Hythe Beds, 
near Hythe. The type of M. spafhnlatns, Seeley, from the Barnwell Gravel 
(derived from the Chalk), is in the Woodwardian Museum, Cambridge. 

Distribution: — Hythe Beds of Hythe and Lympne. Lower Greensand of 
Farino-don and Seend. Upper Greensand of Chilfrome (Dorset), and near 
Weymouth. Greensand of Haldon. Chloritic Marl of Maiden Bradley. Ceno- 
manian (Meyer's Bed 12) of Dunscombe and Kempstone Rocks (Sidmouth). Chalk 
Marl of Chardstock. Basement Bed of Chalk Marl of Cerne Abbas. Cenomanian 
Sands of AVilmino-ton. Lower Chalk of Burwell and Stoke Ferry. Chalk Rock of 
Winchester, Cuckhamsley, Luton cutting, and Underwood Hall (Dullingham). 
Upper Chalk of Northfleet. Flint gravel (derived from Upper Chalk) near 
Ventnor. Zone of Bd. qvadrata of Winchester and Salisbury. Zone of Bel. 
mucronata of Salisbury and Norwich. 



Geviisi — Dretssensia, P. van Beveden, 1835. 

(•Ami. Sci. Nat.; ser. 2, vol. iii, p. 193, \A. viii. Emeud. P. Fificher, 'Man. de Conch.,' 188G, p. 972.) 

Dreissensia lanceolata {8owcrI)ii), 1823. Plate XVIII, figs. 13—15; Plate XIX, 

figs. 1—11. 

1823. Mttilus edentultjs, ,7. de C. Soiverby. Min. Conch., vol. v, p. 55, pi. 

ccccxxxix, fig. 1. 
1823. — LANCEOLATUS, Sowevhij. Ibid., fig. 2. 

1836. — TRIDENS, /. de C. Sowerby. Trans. Geol. Soc, ser. 2, vol. iv, 

p. 342, pi. xvii, fig. 14. 
1836. — PE^LONotrs, Sowerhy. Ibid., p. 342, pi. xvii, fig. 15. 

1844. — LANCEOLATUS, A. d'Orhigny. Pal. Franc. Terr. Cret., vol. iii, 

p. 270, pi. cccxxxviii, figs. 5, 6. 

1844. — FALCATUS, d'Orbigny. Ibid., p. 280, pi. cccxli, figs. 11 — 13. 

1845. — LANCEOLATTis, var. EDENTULUS, E. Forbes. Quart. Journ. G-eol. 

Soc, vol. i, p. 248. 

? 1846. — A. E. Reuns. Die Verstein. der bohm. Kreide- 

format., pt. 2, p. 15, pi. xxxvii, fig. 5. 
1848. — — if. (t. Bronn. Index Palaeont., vol. i, p. 773. 

1850. MiTTLUS ABBUPTUS, A. d'Orbicjuy. Prodr. de Pal., vol. ii, p. 107. 
1850. — SUBFALCATUS, d'Orbigtuj. Ibid., p. 166. 

1850. — LANCEOLATUS, d'OrUgmj. Ibid., p. 166. 

1854. Mytilus EDENTULUS, /. Norrts. Cat. Brit. Foss., ed. 2, p. 215. 
1854. — LANCEOLATUS, Morris. Ibid., p. 215. 

1854. — PBij;LONGUS, Morris. Ibid., p. 215, 



DREISSENSIA. Ill 

1854. Mytilus tridens. Mon-in. Ibid., p. 215. 

1868. — LANCEOhATUS, F. J. I'iclct and E. Menecier. Foss. Terr. Aptien 

do la Perte du Rhone (Matt'r. Pal. Suisse, ser. 1), 

1.. 110. pi. XV, fig. 7. 
? 1861. — Galliennei, U. TnuitschoUI. Bull. Soc. Imji. Nat. de Moscou, 

1867. — LANCEOLATus, F. J. Pictet and G. CaiHjncJui. Foss. Terr. Crc't. 

Ste. Croix (Mati'r. Pal. Suisse, ser. 4), p. 485. 

1868. — —A. Brtart and F. L. Cornet. Descript. Meule 

de Bracquegnies (Mc'ni. cour. et Mi'iii. Sav. 
ctraugers, vol. xxxiv), p. 52, pi. iv, figs. 11, 12. 
vol. xxxiv, pt. 2, p. 433, pi. xii, fig. 4. 
'i 1868. MoDioLA suBEALcATA, E. Eicliinild. LcOisea Kossica, p. 533, pi. xxi, fig. 14. 

1871. Mytilus LANCEOLATUS, /'. Stollczka. Palujout. Indica, Cret. Fauna S. 

India, Vol. iii, p. 372. 

1872. — — F. Schmidt. Mammutliexpcd. (Mt'm. do I'Acad. 

Imp. Sci. de St. Pctersb., vol. xviii, No. 1), 
p. 154, pi. ii, fig. 7 ; pi. iii, tig. 12. 
> 1884. — —J. F. Wliitmccn. Geol. and Nat. Hist. Survey of 

Canada : Mesozoic Fossils, vol. i, pt. 3, p. 236, 
pi. xxxi, fig. 7. 

Non 1868. Modiola lanceolata, E. Eichn-ald. Letha^a Eossica, p. 532, pi. xxii, 

tis. 5. 



Description. — Shell stout, convex; outline suljtrajiezoidal, or sometimes siib- 
triangular. Hinge-margin slightly convex, sometimes straight, u.sually iieaily half 
the length of the antero-ventral margin ; the lattei- is slightly concave. Posterior 
margin convex, often roughly parallel to the antero-ventral margin, and curving 
gradually at the posterior extremity of the valve. Umbones sharp, terminal ; 
apical angle varying from 1-7° to 53° — average 51^°. Carina shai-p, Init rathei- 
more rounded on the older parts of the shell; usually close to the margin except in 
the umbonal region. The shell in front of the carina is vertical, or nearly vertical, 
to the plane of the valves, except near the uniboni's, whei'e it slopes outward. 
Behind the carina the shell slopes gradually to the posterior and dorsal margins. 
Ornamentation : the greater part of the shell is usually nearly smooth except for 
growth-lines, but concentric ribs are seen on the earlier parts and near the carina ; 
sometimes also on the antero-ventral margin. Interior not seen except at the 
umbonal region ; umbonal septum present ; teeth absent or rudimentary. 



112 



CEETACEOUS LAMELLJBRANCHIA. 



Measurements : 

Antero-ventral margin 

Hinge-margin . 

Diameter from the 
middle of the carina 
(perpendicular) to 
posterior margin 

Thickness . 



(1) (2) (3) (4.) (5) (G) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) (U) (15) 

47 45 42 40 38 35 35 34 33 30 26 26 25 24 22 mm. 
20 22 24 20 20 20 16 20 18 16 13 12 15 15 12 mm. 



16 19 19 18 18 17 14 17 15 13 12 11 13 — lOinm. 

17 21 18 15 16 19 15 16 15 13 12 12 11-5 10 11mm. 
1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 10, 14 from the Crackers, Atlierfield. 

2 „ Perna-hed, Atherfield. 
6, 9, 11, 12, 13, 15 from Blackdown. 



Affinities. — The presence of an umbonal plate shows that this species should be 
referred to the Dreissensiida^. In the few specimens showing the interior I have 
found no trace of the anterior myophore (for the byssal muscle) which distinguishes 
Goiigeria from Dreissensia^ — but further specimens to confirm the absence of this 
structure are desirable. From the Upper Eocene of the Paris basin, associated 
with marine fossils, M. Cossmann " has already described two species of Dreissensia, 
and that author confirms my reference of this Cretaceous species to the 
Dreissensiidfe. 

This species may be allied to Mytilus tornacensis, d'Archiac, from the Tourtia 
of Tournay, of which I have seen one specimen, sent me by M. Piret (see p. 91). 
That species, however, appears to differ from ours in having the carina at 
a greater distance from the antero-ventral border, also in the presence of more 
distinct and regular growth-lines with ridges or grooves at right angles to 
them, the ridges being best marked on the antero-ventral face of the shell. I do 
not know Avhether it possesses an umbonal plate or not. M. snhfalcaius, d'Orbigny, 
from the Genomanian, appears to have the concentric ril)s more distinct on the 
carina than is usual in 21. laiieeoJatus, but since this feature is seen in some 
specimens of the latter, and is generally present on the earlier parts of the shell, it 
can hardly be regarded as distinctive. 

D'Orbigny considered that his Mytilm; Galliennei,^ which in outline is similar to 
the larger examples of M. hmceolatns, was identical with M. tornacensis, d'Arch. 

The forms from the Aachen Greensand described by Miiller as M. tegulatns, 
Miill., M. lanceolatus, Sow., and M. falcafii.s, d'Orl)., whilst referred by Holzapfel* 

1 P. Oppeuheim, 'Zeitschr. d. deutsdi. geol. Gesellscli.,' vol. li (1891), p. 923, pi. li. 

2 ' Cat. 111. Coq. Foss. Eoc. de Paris,' fascic. 2 (1887), p. 151. 

■' ' Pal. rran9. Terr. Crtt.,' vol. iii (1844), p. 273, pi. cccxxxix, ligs. 1, 2 ; ' Prodr. de Pal.,' vol. ii 
(1850), p. 165. 

* "Die Mollusk. Aaclieu. Kreide " (' Palajoutograpliica,' vol. xxxv. 1889), p. 218, pi. xxv. figs, 
1 — 9. It should be uoted that these figures are enlarged twice. 



THE 



PALiEONTOGEAPHlCAL SOCIETY. 



INSTITUTED MDCCCXLVII. 



VOLUME FOE 1901. 



LONDON: 

MUCCCCI. 



A MONOGRAPH 



CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBMNCHIA 



OF 



ENGLAND. 



BY 



HENRY WOODS, M.A., 

UNIVERSITY LECTURER IN PAL.^OZOOLOGY, CAMBRIDGE. 



PART III. 
MODIOLOPSID^ AND SPONDYLID^. 

Pages 113—144; Plates XX— XXVI. 



LONDON: 

PRINTED FOR THE PAL.'EONTOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY. 

lltOl. 



PEIKTED BY ADLAED AND SON, 
BABTHOLOMEW CLOSE, E.C., AND 20, HaNOVEE SQUAEE, W. 



DREiSSENSIA. 11.5 

to l^cpt'ifer fcgulatiis, are reg'arded by biin as probal)ly identical with Sowcrby's 
species. I believe that view is probably correct, but without a larger series of 
specimens it is difficult to sj^eak with confidence on the subject. The Aachen form 
is smaller and more variable in outline than the Engli.sh species. I am indebted to 
Professor Holzapfel tni' tlic loan of several si)ecimens. 

M. siihatriiatas. Meek and llayden. fi'oni the Fox Hills group, is con.sidered by 
Meek^ to be near M, Iduccolatus, but is only known from an internal cast. 

Although it is possible for small fiuviatile Tiamellibranchs to be carried out to 
sea by currents and become entombed in marine deposits, such does not ajjpear to 
ha\e been the case with the species we are now considering, because (1) all the 
associated fossils are marine ; (2) the lithological cvidt'uce is not in favour of the 
strata having been deposited near a sluire-line ; (3) the species occurs at several 
horizons and in more or less widely separated localities ; and (4) some specimens 
have the two valves still united. 

If, then, this species be truly marine, it might be urged that it is unlikely to 
belong to the genus Dreissensia, which at the present day is found in brackish and 
fresh waters only. That it does not belong to the gemas Sepfifer is shown by the 
entire absence of radial sculpture, which characterises all the known species of that 
genus ; in this feature, and also in the form of the shell, it agrees with living 
species of Dreissnisia, differing only in the very young stages when (as shown by 
growth-lines on adult specimens) the shell was rather more elongate pro- 
portionately. 

We have therefore apparently onlj- two views to choose from concerning the 
genei'ic position of the species here described as Dreissensia lanceolata : — (i) That 
it is an early marine form of Dreissensia ; or (ii) that, although possessing the 
characters of Dreissensia, yet it has no direct genetic connection with that genus, 
l)ut is an instance of heterogenetic homoeomorphy. If the latter view be taken, 
then this species must be regarded as the type of a new genus. The former view 
seems more likely to be correct, unless it can be shoAvn that the Tertiary Dreissensix 
have no connection with this species, but have descended from some other generic 
type. 

That Dreissensia may have been marine at no very remote geological period 
seems possible from the fact that living forms occur in the brackish waters of the 
Aralo-Caspian area, etc. ; that it ju-obably was marine is supported by a study 
of its development,' which differs from that of othei- fresh-water Lamellibranchs, 
and agi'ees closely with that of certain marine forms. It is further noteworthy 

1 "Invert. Cret. and Tcrt. Foss. Missouri" ('U.S. Geol. Surv. Torrit.,' vol. ix, 1876), p. 69, 
j)l. .wxviii, fij;. 2. 

- A detailed account of the development of Dreissensia jwlymorpha, with a full bibliography, has 
l)iTU recently given by J. lleisenheimer, ' Zeitschr. fi'ir wisseusch. Zool.,' vol. Ixix (1001), pp. 1 — 137, 
jils. i — xiii. 

15 



T14 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 

that whilst a number of living genera of fresh-water mollusks occm- in pre-Tertiary 
rocks, Dreissensia has not yet been found associated with them.' 

Remarks. — Four examples from the Blackdown Grreensand were descril^ed 
by Sowerby as distinct species under the names edentulns, lanceulatus, tridens, 
prseloiigns. Most later authors (d'Orbigny, Forbes, Bronn, Pictet and Renevier, 
Pictet and Campiche, Briart and Cornet, Stoliczka, Whiteaves, etc.) have considered 
these forms to be inseparable, and have united them under the name lanceolatns, 
but that view was not shared by Morris. An examination of all the availaljle 
specimens leads me to agree with the opinion generally held. 

In 1850 d'Orbigny regarded the Lower Ci^etaceous examples as distinct from 
those foinid in the Blackdown Greensand, and named them Mi/tiliis ahruptu.'<. 
Pictet and Campiche did not uphold this separation. The only difference that I can 
detect is that, on the average, the examples found in the earlier beds reach a larger 
size than those in the later. 

Tij'pes. — From the Blackdown Greensand : M. cdenfuhis is in the British 
Museum ; M. tridens and M. prxlorujus are in the Bristol Museum. I have not 
been able to trace the type of M. lanceolatus. 

Blstrlhution. — Perna-beA, Crackers, and Fitton's Beds 32 and 45, of Atherfield. 
Per;ui-bed of Sandown. Atherfield Beds of East 8halford and Peasmarsh. 
Ferruginous Sands of Shanklin. Sandgate Beds of Parham Park. Blackdown 
Greensand (zones x and xv). Greensand of Haldon. Upper Greensand of 
Shaftesbury. 



Prny/////— MODIOLOPSID^, Fisclier. 
Genus — Myoconcha, ./. de G. Sowerby, 1824. 

(Min. Couch., vol. v, p. 103, pi. cccclxvii.) 

Myoconcha cretacea, A. d'Orbiijiu/, 1844. Plate XX, figs. 3 a, h. 

V 1832. Mytilus simfi,ex, A. Passy. Gl'oI. de la Seiue-infe'r., p. 6 (exi^l. of plates), 

pi. xiii, figs. 4, 5. (Nou M. simplex, 
Def ranee, 1824.) 



1 W. J. Sollas, " Ou the Origin of Freshwater Faunas," ' Scient. Trans. Roy. Dublin Soc.,' 
ser. 2, vol. iii (1884), p. 106 ; C. A. White, ' Third Ann. Eep. U.S. Geol. Survey ' (1883), p. 423. It 
has been suggested that Mytilus membranacevs, Dunlcer, from tlie North German Wealden of Obern- 
kirchen, Egestorf, Oesede, etc., and the Purbeck beds of Nieustedt and Linden, may belong to the 
Dreissensiidse, but the characters of the interior of the shell are at present unknown ; the same may 
be said of Mytilus Lyelli, Sowerby, from the English Purbeck and Wealden. See Dunker, ' Mon. 
Norddeutsch. Weald.' (1846), p. 25, pi. xi, f. 10, 11 ; C. Struckmauu, ' Die Wealden-Bildungen von 
Hannover' (1880), p. 63, pi. i, f. 11, 12; P. Oppenheim, ' Zeitschr. der deutsch. geol. Gesellsch.,' 
vol. xliii (1891), p. 944. 



MYOCONCIIA. 115 

1844. Mtoconcha cretacea, A. d'Orbigny. Pal. Frau?. Ten-. Crct , vol. iii, 

p. 260, pi. cccxxxv. 
? 1847. — — A. J'Archiar. Mi'm. Soc. gi'ol. France, ser. 2, 

vol. ii, p. 307. 
1850. — — A. d'Oriiijny. Prodr. de Pal., vol. ii, p. ItJo. 

1854. — _ /. Morris. Cat. Brit. Foss., ed. 2, p. 2U. 

1862. — — /. G. Clu'Hii. Mauuel de Conch., vol. ii, p. 1.55, 

fig. 766. 
1866. — — F. J. Pidet am! G. Campiche. Moll. Foss. Terr 

Crct. Stc. Croix (Mater. Pal. Suisse, ser. 4;, 
p. 344. 
? 1868. — — E. Eichwald. Lethaja Rossica, vol. ii, p. 588, 

pi. xxii, fig. 10. 

Description. — fcjliell «ubti'iiuig-ular, or more or less oblono-, g-radually increa.'^iii"- 
ill height posteriorly. Anterior end blunt, rounded; posterior border rounded, 
somewhat oblique ; ventral border nearly .straight. \''alves flattened, g]-adually 
compressed posteriorly, more sharply compre.ssed towards rlie ventral inargiu. 

Ornamentation consists of slender, ecjnidistant, slightly curving, radial ribs, 
which are absent near the dorsal margin; the most dorsal rib is stronger tliaii tlie 
others. The radial ribs are crossed regularly l)y numerous sleudei' concentric ribs 
which are parallel to the growth-lines. 

Measurements : 

Length 74 nun. 

Height ;}8 „ 

Thickness 28 „ 

Affinities. — M. Re(/tiienicnui, Matlicron,' is less expanded posteriorly, and more 
concave ventrally. 

Mijoconcha, n. sp., ]\Iiiller,- may lie an allie<l form, but is known only by internal 
moulds. 

Types. — From the Cenomanian of Saintes, Angouleme, Rouen, etc. 

Distribution. — Basement bed of Chalk Marl (zone of SchJoenhaclna varians) of 
('hard, Maiden Newton, and Evershot. T'ldoritic ^larl of Maiden Bradley, ^Vool- 
combe, and Toller Fratrum.^ 

• 'Cat. Foss. Bouches-dii-Kli6ne' (1842;, p. 177, pi. xxviii, figs. 3, 4. D'Orbiguv, 'Prodr. de 
Pal.,' vol. ii (185U), p. 196. 

- "Die Molluslc. d. Unt«rseu. v. Brauusclnveig u. Ilsede " ('Abhaudl. d. 1;. preuss. <=:eol. Laud.,' 
n. F., pt. 25, 1898), p. 48, pi. vii, fig. 3. 

•' Casts of Myocoucha, from the Lower Grceusaud of Seeud, are preserved in the Museum of 
Practical Geology, but the species cannot, at present, be determined. 



11(3 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 



i^amZy— S POND YLID^, Gray. 

Genus — Spondylus, Linnxns, 1758. 
(' Syst. Nat.,' ed. 10, p. 690.) 
SroNDTLUS RoEiiERi, BesJiaijes, 18-12. Plate XX, figs. 4 a — d. 

1841. Spondylus kadiatus, F. A. Burner (uon Qoldfvss). Die Versteiu. d. nord- 

deiitscli. Kreidegeb., p. 60. 

1842. — LATUs, G. P. DesJiayeg (non Sowerhy), in A. Leyvierie. Mem. 

Soc. gt'ol. de France, vol. v, 
pp. 10, 27, pi. vi, fig. 7. 
— — EoEMERi, Deslwi/es. Ibid., pp. 10, 27, pi. vi, figs. 8 — 10. 

1847. — — ^. d'Orhi(/))y. Pal. Franc. Terr. Crt't., vol. iii, p. 65.5, 

pi. ccccli, figs. 1 — 6. 
1850. — — d'Orligny. Prodr. de Pal., vol. ii, p. 83. 

1855. — — G. Cotteau. Moll. Foss. de I'Tonne, p. 118. 

1861. — — P. de Loriol. Anim. Invert. Foss. du Mt. Saleve, 

p. 107, pl. xiv, figs. 4, 5. 
1870. — —F.J. Piciet avd G. Campiche. Foss. Terr. Crct. Ste. 

Croix (Mater. Pal. Suisse, ser. 5), pp. 256, 260. 
? 1871. — — W. A. Oosfer. Pteroj)odenschiclit Scliweizer-Alpen 

(Protozoe Helvetica, 2), pj). 126, 
141, pl. xviii, figs. 8 — 10. 
1883. — — W. Keeping. Foss., etc., Neoc. TJpware and Brickliill, 

p. 113. 
1896. — — A. WoUemann. Zeitschr. d. deutscb. geol. Gesellscli., 

vol. xlviii, ]). 834. 
1900. — — WoUemann. Die Biv. u. G-astrop. d. deutsch. u. 

liollJiud. Neoc. (Abliandl. d. k. preuss. 
geol. Land., n. F., pt. 31), p. 20. 

Description. — Shell oval in outline, the proportion of length to height variable, 
more or less oljlique. Right valve flattened, Avith numerons radial ribs, usually 
faintly marked, and strong concentric lamellge. Left valve convex, with numerous 
slightly unequal ribs, separated by grooves of the same width; the larger ribs 
occur at regular intervals, and bear sj^ines mostly directed ventrally : between 
the larger ribs are two or three smaller ribs, either smooth or with small spines. 
Ears of both valves apparently smooth. 



8P0XDYLUS. 117 

Measurement ■< : 

Length ......... '-^Pi mill. 

Heig-lit 10 „ 

Thickness 2;i „ 

.[(Minifies. — This species appears to be closely allied to «S'. gihhofinn, d'Oi'bigny, 
l)ut tlie ribs are more spiny and rather coarser, and tlie valves less convex in jiro- 
portion to their size. It seems to differ from N. strinto-rnt^tafns, d'Orbigiiy, in 
having more nnmerons and more slender ril)s. 

yu'/zn/r/i;.')'.— Deshayes' figures of this species appear to rejiresent worn specimens, 
and conseqiiently do not .show the real characters of the ornamentation. In the 
absence of other specimens from tiie locality of the types one is obliged to rely on 
the figures and descriptions by d'Orbigny as giving the s|)ecific characters of <S'. 
Roemeri. 

This species appears to be very rare in England. The examples from Brickhill 
are rather water-worn, but the stumps of the spines remain on some of the ribs. 

Tijpe^. — From the Neocomian of Foucheres, in the Ecole des Mines, Paris. 

Distrihntioii. — re.yna-])vd of Atherfield. Lower Greensand of Brickhill.' 



Spondtlus (iiBKosrs, (VOrhiijmi, 1847. Plate XX, figs, o, (J a — r, 7 a — c, 8 a, l>, 

9 (I, h, ](), n. 

1847. Spondylus cibbosus, A. d'Orbigiiij. Pal. Franc. Terr. Crt't., vol. iii, 

p. t)58, pi. eccolii, figs. 1 — 6. 
1850. — — d'Orhiyny. Prodr. de Pal., vol. ii, p. 139. 

1853. — Brunneei, F. J. Pictet and W. Eouz. Moll. Foss. Grcs verts 

de Geneve, p. 514, pi. slvii, fig. 1 (? 2). 
1858. — — F. J. Pictet and E. Benevier. Foss. Terr. Aptien 

(Mater. Pal. Suisse, ser. 1), p. 13(3. 
18(36. — oiBBOSUS, H. G. Seeley. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 3, vol. xvii, 

p. 177. 
1870. — — F. J. Pictet and G. Campiche. Foss. Terr. Crct. Ste. 

Croix (Mati'r. Pal. Suisse, ser. 5), 
p. 257, pi. clxxxii, figs. 1 — 4. 
1875. — — .1. /. Jiilct'n-Ih-oivne. Quart. Jouru. Geol. Soc, 

vol. xxxi, p. 297. 
— — DvTEiiP'LEAUVS? Jiil-es-Browne. Ibid., p. 297. 

_ — _ /. Phillips. Geol. Yorks., ed. 3. pt. 1, p. 245. 

1 Diaachora ? (juttata, Sharps, from the Lower Greensand of Faringdon, is probably a Spondylus, 
but I have not succeeded in finding the type or any otiier specimens. Sharpe, ' Quart. .Journ. Geol. 
Soc' vol. X (1853), p. 197, pi. vi, fig. 3. 



118 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 

Desaiption. — Shell oval, ol)lique, higher than long. Right valve variable, 
flattened when attached by its entire surface, more convex when attached by a 
part only, the umbonal part sometimes mnch produced and talon-like. The 
attached part Avith concentric lamellfe, the free part with many radial ribs without 
spines. 

Left valve moderately convex; umbo more or less produced; ribs numerous, 
unequal : the stronger occur at regular intervals, and are separated by two or three 
(rarely one only, or more than three) smaller ribs ; the stronger ribs bear numerous 
spiny processes, the smaller ribs are usTially without spines.^ 

Mea-'Oiremenft^ of h-ff valve : 

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) 

Length . 31 SI 30 29 26 25 25 21 19-5 23 21 19 16 mm. 
Heidit . 36 35 34 36 31 28 27 25 23 25 23 22-5 19 „ 



o 



(1 — 9) Cambridge Greensand. 

(10 — 13) Eed Limestone, Hunstanton. 

Affinities. — For the relation of S. gibbosus to >S'. Boemeri see p. 117. 

In -S". Dfdempleaniis the shell is less oblique than in 8. gibbosus ; the spines on 
the left valve are generally more irregular and more nearly vertical than in the 
latter (judging from the figure of Pictet and Campiche). The stronger ribs which 
occur at regular intervals in /5. gibbosus are never so distinctly marked in 8. 
Dutempleanus. 

Remarks. — The specimens figured by d'Orbigny, as pointed out by Pictet and 
Campiche, are worn examples with the shell imperfect. The specimens found in 
the Caml^ridge Greensand vary considerably ; a gradual passage can be traced from 
forms in which the right valve is flat (fig. 9 b) to others in which it is much pro- 
duced and talon-like (fig. 11) ; in the right valve the appearance of the surface 
depends largely on the amount of wearing the shell has undergone, — one specimen, 
in which the ribs appear almost equal and without spines, agrees perfectly with 
d'Orbigny's fig. 2 ; in most cases, however, the strongei- ribs occurring at regular 
intervals are distinctly seen (fig. 6 a). Only the bases of the spines remain ; the}^ 
are generally regularly developed on the stronger ribs, but occasionally occur more 
irregularly (fig. 8 a). 

The specimens found in the Red Limestone of Hunstanton and Speetou are, tm 
the average, smaller than those in the Cambridge Greensand, and the spines, 
probably owing to the hardness of the matrix and consequent difiiculty of 
extraction, are usually wanting or indistinct, but one specimen in the British 
Museum shows them clearly. 

' The specimen figured liy Pictet and Campiche shows spines on the small ribs. The general 
absence of small spines on our specimens is probably due to the worn nature of the shell. 



SPONDYLUS. 1]., 

^ T;/j>e.'<.~D\Mngnfs specimens came tVoiii tlie All)iaii nf Xovion and :\Iaclici>o- 
ineiiil (Ardennes). 

I'Islrihnfiou.—Cimihridge Greensand (derived tVom tlie (^ault), ( 'ainhi'id.ov. 
lied Limestone of Hunstanton and Speeton. 



Si'nNi,Yi.us sTuiATUs (Sowerbij), lH\r>. Plate XXI, figs. 1 a, h, 2, :3 a, h, 4, 5. 

1815. l)iAN<iiuRA sriuATA, J. Soiverby. Miu. Coiu;li., vol. i, p. 183, pi. l.\x.\, %. 1. 
1^^^- — — Defrance. Diet. Seieu. uat., vol. xiii, p. Ifil, 

pi. Ixxviii, fij,'. ]. 
1838. Spondtlu-s striatus, A. Gold/uss. Petref. Germ., vol. ii, p. !»», pi. cvi, 

fig. 5. 
1821»-40. DiANciioRA STKIATA, F. E. Gw'nn-MvnevlUe. Icon, clu Eugue Auiui. 

Moll., p. -12, pi. XXV, lig. 4. 
1837. SPONDYLU.S sTRiATU.s, H. G. BroHU. Li-thaea Geog., p. 687 (ed. 3, j.t. 5, 

p. 283), pi. xxxii, fig. 4. 

1840. — -^ jj B. Gelniiz. Char. d. Schiclit. u. Petref. des 

si'iehsi.scli. Kreidegeb., pt. 2, p. 58. 

1841. — — F. A. Rnuer. Die Versteiu. d. nord-deutsch. 

Kreidegeb., p. 59. 
? 1846. ^ — A. E. Reuss. Die Versteiu. d. bciliiu. Kreidef..rmat.. 

pt. 2, p. 37, pi. xl, figs. 5, 10. 11. 
1847. — CAPiLLATUs, A. d'An-hlac. Mc'm. Soc. gt'ol. de France, ser. 2, 

vol. ii, p. 311. pi. xvii, fig. 1. 
— — STRixiva, A. (rOi-huiinj. Pal. Franv. Terr. Crt't., vol. iii, p. UtJO, 

pi. ccccliii. 
^ 1850. — . — Y, Ji. Kaer. Kreidemerg. von Lemberg, etc. 

(Haidinger's Naturw4ss. Abhandl., 
vol. iii, pt. 2), p. 30. 
■ — — ?. ^1- Altli. Geogn.-]ial. Bescbreib. Umgeb. von 

Lemberg (Haidinger's Naturwiss. 
Abhandl., vol. iii, pt. 2), p. 251. 

— — — A- (VOrhiijiii/. Prodr. de Pal., vol. ii, p. 170. 

— — — It. B. Geinitz. Das Quadersandst. oder Kreidegeb. 

in Deutschlaud, p. 194. 

— — CAPiLLATUs, Geinitz. Ibid., p. 194, pi. xi, figs. 2, 3. 

? 1852. — STKiATUs r. 1{. Ktier. Denkschr. d. k. Akad. d. WissenseL. 

Wicn. ]\rath.-nat. Classe, vol. iii. 
I't. 1, p. 318, pi. xvii, fig. 8. 
1854. — — /. Morris. Cat. Brit. Foss., ed. 2, p. 182. 

1858. — — .7. A. Eiides-Dt'.<l(iiigchai)ii>if. Mi'ni. Soc Linn, de 

Norniand., vol. \i, p. 134, pi. xx, (igs. 2-t — 26. 
? 1866. — — A'. A. Ziffel. Die Biv. der Gosaugeb. (Denkschr. d. 

k. Akad. d. Wissenseh. Math.-nat. Classe, vol. xxv), 
p. 118 (p. 42 of reprint), pi. xviii. tig. 7h, c (? fig. 7a). 



120 CRETACEOUS LAMBLLIBRAXCHIA. 

? 1868. Spondylus striatus, E. Eichwald. Lethsea Rossica, vol. ii, p. 422. 
1870. — —F.J. Piciet and G. Campiche. Foss. Terr. Cret. Ste. 

Croix (Mater. Pal. Suisse, ser. 5), p. 261. 
1872. — — H. B. Geinifz. Das Elbthalgeb. in Sachsen (Palte- 

ontograpbica, vol. xx), pt. 1, 
p. 186, pi. xlii, figs. 1-3. 
? 1877. — — A. FritscJi. Stud, im Gebiete der biihin. Kreidef . : II, 

Die Weisseuberg. u. Maluitz. Schicht., p. 138. 
1878. — — G. Behrens. Zeitsdir. d. deutscb. geol. Gesellscb., 

vol. XXX, p. 2.59. 
1893. — — B. Michael. Ibid., vol. xlv, p. 237. 

1895. — — E. Tiessen. Ibid., vol. xlvii, p. 475. 

1897. — — -R. Leonhard. Die Kreidef. iu Oberscbles. (Palseon- 

tograpliica, vol. xliv), p. 50. 

Nou 1822. PoDOPSis STRIATA, A. Brongniart. Descript. ge'ol. des Envir. de Paris. In 

Cuvier, Ossein, foss., ed. 2, vol. ii, 
pp. 319, 604, pi. V, fig. 3. 
— 1870. Spondylus striatus, F. Romer. Geol. von. Oberscbles., p. 315, pi. xxxvii, 

figs. 3, 4. 

Dcsrrii)tion. — Shell large, obliquely ovate, liigli ; anterior and ventral margins 
i-egularlj rounded ; posterior margin siiglitly concave or nearly straight. 

Right valve usually more inflated than the left, and generally attached by the 
larger part of its surface ; free part with radial ribs, separated by shallow grooves, 
and crossed by numerous very fine concentric lamella?. 

Left valve moderately convex, umbonal part prominent and produced ; surface 
sometimes undulating; ribs numerous, equal, smooth, flattened, separated by deep 
grooves except on the later formed parts of the valve, where the grooves become 
shallow and the ribs less distinct. The grooves and ribs are crossed by concentric 
laraellge, like those on the right valve. Ears smooth except for gi'owth-lines. 

Measurements of h>ft valve: 

(1) (2) (3) (4) 

Length .... 56 52 50 -40 mm. 

Height .... 77 65 ' 58 48 „ 

(1 — 4) from Warminster. 

Affinities. — For the relation of this species to 8. latus, Sowerby, see p. 123. 

8. hi/.strix, d'Orbigny (? Goldfuss) is distinguished from this species by the left 
valve being less convex, the umbo less produced, the narrower and more widely 
separated ribs, and the spines on the earlier part of the valve. 

8. capillatus, d'Archiac, from the Tourtia of Tournay, has been regarded by 
Greinitz, d'Orbigny, and other authors as a synonym of 8. striatus; specimens 



SPOXDYLUS. 121 

whicli I have obtained from Toiirnay agree perfectly with the English examples, 
but the example figured by d'Archiac appears to differ in having the umbo of the 
left valve less produced. 

>S'. ■sabi-ostnhifiis, Stoliczka,' appears to be a closely allied form, and was indeed 
regarded by Geinitz as identical with *S'. driitus. 

S. co))iphiiialn.-<, d'Orbigny, is imperfectly known, but may be closely allied to, 
oi' identical witli, S. atruifas ; it is recorded by Morris tVom the Lower Greensand 
of Folkestone. 

BemiifJrs. — This species is known chiefly from specimens found at "Warminster. 
An example from that locality in Mr. .). !"'. Walker's collection shows the interior 
of the right valve. The size of the attached surface varies considerahly in diffei-ent 
specimens. 

Specimens showing the interiors of fixed valves, resembling )S'. gibhosim and 
/S'. Jatns, occui' in the Blackdown Greensand and the Gault of Folkestone, but I am 
unable to determine the species without more specimens. 

Type. — From Chute Farm, Warminster, in the British Museum. 

Distribxdion. — Lower Greensand of Faringdon. Rye Hill Sand of Warminster. 
Upper Greensand, Longleat. Cenomanian Sandstone of WiliningtDii. Base of 
Chalk Marl of Maiden Newton. Cenomanian (Bed 11) of Bransconibe. 



Spondylus LATis (SowerJii/), 1815. Plate XXII, figs, la, b, 2a, b, 3, 4rt, }>, 5 — 7, 

8 a— r, 9, 10 a, h. 

181-5. DiANCHORA LATA, /. Soiverbij. Min. Coucli., vol. i, p. 184, pi. Ixxx, fig. 2. 
1822. — — G. Mantell. Foss. S. Downs, p. 205, pi. xxvi, fig. 21. 

— — OBLIQUA, Manfcll. Ibid., p. 20(5, pis. xxv, fig. 1 ; xxvi, fig. 12. 
1836. Spondylus lineatus, A. Gohlfuss. Petref. Gei-m., vol. ii, p. 97, pi. cvi, 

fig. 8. 
1839. — — H. B. Geinits. Char. d. Scliicht. u. Peticf. des 

silchs. Kreidogeb., pt. 1, p. 25, 
pi. XX, fig. 39. 

1841. — — F. A. Rimer. Die Verstein. dos uord-deutscli. 

Kreidegeb., j). 59. 

— — LATus, Bonier. Ibid., p. 59. 

? — — OBLiQuus, Rimer. Ibid., p. 60. 

1842. — LATUS, H. B. Geinitz. Char. d. Schicht. u. Putrof. des siichs.- 

biilmi. Kreidegeb., pt. 3, p. 82. 



1 "Palaeontologia Indica," 'Cret. Fauna S. India,' vol. iii (1871), p. 449, pi. xxxiii, fig. 8 ; pi. xxxiv, 
fig. 2. 

10 



122 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 

1842. Spondylits obliqutjs, Geinitz. Char. d. Schiclit. ii. Petref. des siichs.- 

Ixihni. Kreidegeb., pt. 3, p. 82. 

1846. — (Dianchora) obliquus, A. E. Beuss. Die Verstein. d. bulim. 

Kreidefoi-mat., pt. 2, p. 36, pi. xl, lig. 4. 

— — — LINEATUS, Beuss. Ibid., p. 36, pi. xl, figs. 7 — 9. 
? 1847. — — — J. Muller. Petref. der Aachen. 

Kreidef., pt. 1, p. 34. 
1850. — LINEATUS, H. B. Geinitz. Das Quadersandst. oder Kreidegeb. 

iu Deutschl., p. 194 (jiartim). 

— — OBLiQuus, Geinitz. Ibid., p. 194 (partim). 

— — LINEATUS, A. d'Orhigny. Prodr. de Pal., vol. ii, p. 254. 

— — LATUS, J. de G. Sowerhy, in F. Dixon. Geol. Sussex, p. 356 

(p. 386, ed. 2), pi. xxviii, figs. 30, 31. 
? — — LINEATUS, A. Alth. Geogn.-pal. Beschreib. von Lemberg 

(Haidinger's Naturwiss. Abhandl., 
vol. iii, pt. 2), p. 250. 
1854. — LATUS, /. Morris. Cat. Brit. Foss., ed. 2, p. 182. 

? — — OBLiQuus, Morris. Ibid., p. 182. 

? 1868. — LINEATUS, E. Eichwald. Lethgea Eossica, vol. ii, p. 421. 

? 1869. — — E. Favre. Moll. Foss. de la Craie des Envir. de 

Lemberg, p. 158. 
1870. — STEiATUS, F. Boiner. Geol. von Oberschles., p. 315, pi. xxxvii, 

figs. 3, 4. 
1872. — LATUS, H. B. Geinitz. Das Elbtbalgeb. in Sachsen (Palajon- 

tographica, vol. xx), pt. 1, p. 187, 
l^l. xlii, figs. 4 — 6 ; pt. 2, p. 32, 
pi. viii, figs. 18—21. 
? 1877. — — A. Fritsch. Stud, im Gebiete dor buhm. Kreidef ormat. 

II, Die Weisseuberg. u. Maluitz. Scliicht., p. 139. 

1881. — .EQUicosTATUS, B. Etheridgc, iu W. H. Penning and A. J. 

Jiihes-Browne. Geol. Cambridge (Mem. Geol. 
Survey), p. 145, pi ii, fig. 5. 

1882. — LATUS, H. Schnkler. Zeitschr. d. deutseh. geol. Gesellsch., 

vol. xxxiv, p. 262. 
? 1885. — cf. LATUS, B. Lundgren. Spondylus-art. i Sveriges Kritsyst, 

(Sver. Geol. TJndersiJk., ser. C, 
No. 69), p. 12, pi. ii, fig. 28. 
1889. — LATUS, A. Fritsch. Stud, im Gebiete] der biJhm. Kreidef. IV, 

Die Teplitz. Schiclit., p. 86, fig^ 82. 
p — — of. LINEATUS, 0. GriepenJeerl. Senou. von Konigslutter (Palse- 

ont. Abhandl., vol. iv), p. 39. 

— — LATUS, E. Holzapfel. Die Mollusk. d. Aachen. Kreide. 

(Palseontographica, vol. xxxv), p. 
244, pi. xxvii, figs. 11, 14. 
1892. — — E. Stolley. Die Kreide Schleswig-Holsteins (Mitth. a, 

d. Min. lustitut der Univ. Kiel, vol. i), p. 236. 
1897. — — B. Leonliard. Die Kreidef. in Oberschles. (Palseonto- 

graphica, vol. xliv), p. 50. 
_ — — H. Woods. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. liii, p. 387. 



SPOXDYLUS. 125 

Non 1842. Spondylus latus, A. Leymerie. Mem. Soc. gvol. de France, vol. v, p. 10, 

pi. vi, fig. 10. 

Descriptinn. — Shell oval, rounded, moi-e or le.s.s obliqiie, but sometimes nearly 
equilateral, of moderate .size or small, liei<)-lit and length neai'ly equal. Right valve 
usually attached by its entire surface, and bearing concentric spiny lamellae ; when 
part of the valve is not attached it is ornamented with numerous radial ribs ; the 
whole of the interior also shows numerous .small radial riljs. 

Left valve inflated, sometimes with undulating surface; growth-lines few and 
not strongly marked ; the radial ribs are numerous, small, regular, flattened or 
I'ounded, without spines, and of equal size, except when new ribs are occasionally 
introduced ; the ribs are sejjarated by grooves of the same or less width, and in 
these are seen very faintly marked transverse ribs, which sometimes pass on to the 
radial ril)s. Umbo small, pointed. Near the umbo some of the radial ribs, at 
regular intervals, are stronger than the others, and bear short spiny jjrocesses. 
Ears smooth. 

Measurements : 

(1) (2) (:i) (4) (5) (li) (7) (8) (9) (10) 

Length . . .25 25 24 23 21 26 34 40 43 23 mm. 
Height . . . 26 25 24 2:? 20 27 36 37 39 23 „ 

(1 — 4) zone of A. qiiaJratus, East Hamham, Salisbury. 
(5) „ ,, West Harnliam, Salisbury. 

(6, 7) zone of M. cor-angmnum, Graveseud 

(8, 9) zone of H. suhjlohosus. Cherry Hinton ; (8) is the type of S. mqnicostatus, Eth. 
(10) Lower Chalk. Fulbouru Asylum. 

Affimtleti. — The numerous smootli ril)s serve to distinguish this species. S. 
■■itriitlus, Sowerby, from the Warminster Greensand, etc., is a much larger form, 
shorter in proportion to its height, and with the umbonal region more produced. 

The form from the Lower Chalk, described by Etheridge as (S'. aiquicostatiia, 
cainiot, I think, be separated from this species; the type (PL XXII, fig. ]) 
appears to differ somewhat from S. latns, l)ut this is on account of its being an old 
individual; other smaller examples found on the same horizon are inseparable 
from iS'. latns fuund in higlier zones of the Chalk. The Lower Chalk forms are in 
several cases somewhat larger than an^^ that I have seen in the Middle or Upper 
('halk. Two specimens from the Chalk Marl of Dover and Folkestone probably 
belong to this species, but more exanq^les are needed l)efore a definite determination 
can be made. 

Ti/pps. — The type, from the Chalk ol' i.ewes, and the specimen figured by 
Dixon, are in the British Museum. 1 have not seen the types of Biauchora obliqua, 
^Vlantell, which came from Lewes and Brighton ; nor his figured specimen of S. 
latus. The type of S. leqaicostatus, Ethei'idge, is in the Woodwardian Museum. 



124 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 

Disfribntioii : 

(i) Loiver Challc : Fulbourn Asylum. Zone of R. suhglohosus of Slielford, 
CheiTj Hinton, and cutting east of Soutli Cave Station. 

(ii) Middle Ghall- : Le^n^es. Melbourn Rock near Hitcliin. Zone of E. Cuvierl 
of Dover. Zone of TerebrafuUna gracilis of Dowlands (near Rousdon), the 
Dorset coast, Dover, the Sussex coast, Whyteleaf (Warlingham), St. Giles' Hill 
("Winchester), Hitchin, Worsted Lodge, and Mutlow Hill (Cambs). Zone of 
Holasfer planus of Chapel Rock (Pinhay), Dover, the Sussex coast, Cheveley, and 
Linton. Chalk Rock {Uensyianwm-zone) of Brixton, Winchester, Cuckhamsley, 
Thickthorn Hill, and Boxmoor. 

(iii) ITj^per Ghall- : Zone of M. cor-tesfudinariuvi of Dover, the Sussex coast, and 
Balsham. Zone of M. coy-avguinwn of Thanet, St. Margaret's, the Sussex coast, 
Charlton, Gravesend, Strood, Northfleet, and near Hitchin. Zone of Marsupites of 
Thanet and the Sussex coast. Zone of A. quadratus of Hensting Farm, MarAvell 
Road, and Hensley Lane (all near Winchester), East and West Harnham (near 
Salisbury), and the Sussex coast. Zone of B. mncronafa of the Dorset coast. 



SroNDYLUS SEKRATUS, sp. nov. Plate XXI, figs. G a — c, 7 a — c. 

Description. — Shell rounded, outline rather irregular, slightly inequilateral; 
height and length nearly equal. 

Right valve flattened or slightly concave, with numerous parallel, concentric, 
and spiny laminae and faint radial ribs. 

Left valve moderately convex, except in small forms ; ornamented with numerous 
small ribs, Avhicli are of equal size except on the earlier parts of the shell, where 
new ribs are being introduced ; all the ribs bear many small spines, placed regularly, 
but on the old parts of the shell the ribs may be nearly smooth. The grooves are 
broader than the ribs, moderately deep, and crossed by well-marked but somewhat 
irregular, transverse, thread-like ribs. Ears with four or five ribs. 



Measuremenii 



s 



(1) (2) (3) 

Length . . .20 . .23 . .32 mm. 

Height . . . 19-5 . .23 . .29 „ 

(1) Upper Chalk {Uintacrinus-heA.), Devizes Eoad, Salisbury. 

(2) Upper Chalk, locality unknown. 

(3) Upper Chalk {IJintacriniis-'h&A) , Newgate, Thanet. 

Affinities. — This is similar in form to 8. latns, but is distinguished by the small 
and regular spines, and the broader grooves between the ribs. 8. Roy anus, 



SPONDYLUS. 1:20 

d'Orbigny,' differs from this species in having stronger ribs at regular intervals, 
anil in being proportionately higher. 

N. aspcr, Uoldfuss," is similar in form, but the spines are coarser, fewer, and 
less regular'. 

8. uccitltus, Greinitz,' is a very small (7 nnn.) form, which may be closely related 
to (S'. fycrnifii!^, but tlie ril)s appear to be more un('(|ual and to bear tul)ercles wliicli 
are in contact, instead of spiny processes distinctly separated from one another. 

Remarks. — This is a very rare species; I have seen only five exam])les which 
could be definitely referred to it. 

Dldribution. — Marsujntes-zone {Uintacrinus-hed) of Devizes Road, near Salis- 
bury, and the Thanet coast. 



Spondylus Dutempleands, (VOrliiiiiiij, 1847. Plate XXII, figs. 11a, />, 12((, h, lo, 

M; Plate XXTTT, figs. 1—5. 

1833. DiANCHORA spiNOSA, -S'. Woodmird. Geol. Norfolk, p. 48, pi. v, fig. '24. 
1847. Spondylus Dutempleanus, A. cVOrhicjny. Pal. Frau^-. Terr. Crct., vol. iii, 

p. 672, pi. cccclx, figs. 6 — 11. 
1850. _ _ _ Prodr. de Pal, vol. ii, p. 2.54. 

1869. — — E. Favre. Moll. Foss. de la Craie de Leuiterg. 

p. 159, pi. xiii, figs. 14, 15. 

1870. — — F. J. Pictet and G. Campiche. Foss. Terr. 

Crct. Ste. Croix (Matt'r. Pal. Suisse, 
ser. 5), p. 262. 
1887. — DuTEMPLEi, A. P,n„i. Hist, du Terr, de Craie (Bull. Soc. 

Sci. hist, et nat. de I'Yonne, ser. 3, 
vol. xii), p. 166. 
1889. — Dutempleanus, E. Uohapfel. Die Mollusk. d. Aaclieu. 

Kreide. (Palaoontographica, vol. xxxv), 
p. 244, pi. xxvii, figs. 8—10. 

1891. — — J. Bidim. Die Kreidebild. des Furbergs, 

etc. (Pala;ontographiea, vol. xxxviii), p. 88. 

1892. — — E. Stolley. Die Kreide Schleswg-Holsteius 

(Mitth. a. d. Mill. Inst. Kiel, vol. i), p. 2.36. 

Nou 1875. — — ?, A. J. Jiikeg-Browne. Quart. Jouni. Geol. 

Soc, vol. xxxi, i>. 297. 

Description. — Shell oval, slightly oljli(pie, usually inflated, rounded ventrally, 
pointed and produced in the umbonal region. Right valve sometimes with greater, 

' • Pal. Frauv. Terr. Crct.,' vol. iii (1847), p. 671, pi. cccclx, tigs 1—5. 
2 • Petref. Germ.,' vol. ii (1836), p. 96, pi. cvi, fig. 1. 

•■' "Das Elhthalgeb. in Sachsen" (* Palaeontograpliica,' vol. xx, pt. 1). p. 207, pi. xlvi. fig. 1. 
(N.B. — Enlarged about throe times.) 



126 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 

sometimes less inflation than the left ; the attached part bears concentric 
toothed lamellae ; the free surface has numerous reg'ular, nearly equal radial ribs, 
sepai'ated by narrow grooves ; in some cases the ribs cany short spines placed 
rather irregularly, and sometimes slender transverse ribs are seen. 

Left valve usually regularly convex, vsath numerous slightly unequal ribs, which 
are occasionally a little wavy. The ribs are separated by grooves, generally of 
greater, but sometimes of the same width. The spines on the ribs are hollow, 
usually short, sometimes perpendicular to the surface, sometimes sloping ventrally ; 
they may be developed rather irregularly, or larger spines may be borne on slightly 
stronger ribs at i-egular intervals; between these ribs are three or two slightly 
smaller ribs, with sometimes smaller spines. Faintly marked transverse ribs occur 
in the grooves, and sometimes extend on to the ribs. Ears smooth, except for 
growth-lines. 



Measurements of left valve : 
















(1) (2) 


(3) 


(4) 


(5) 


(6) 


(7) 


(8) 


(9) 


Length . 20 22-5 


23 


23 


26 


17 


22 


27 


24 mm. 


Height . 23 25 


25 


26-5 


30 


19-5 


26 


30 


27 „ 



(1 — 5) zoue of A. quadrcdus. East Harnhara. 
(6—8) „ „ West Haruham. 

(9) Chalk of Trimiugham. 

Affinities. — 8. Onialil, d'Archiac,^ appears to be a more oblique form with 
fewer ribs. The form referred by d'Orbigny ^ to 8. hystrix is larger than 
8. Dufempleanus, and has the spines confined to the neighbourhood of the umbo. 
Specimens from the Cenomanian of Devon and Orbiquet (Normandy) agree with 
the Turouian and Senonian examples, except that the ribs are a little more widely 
separated. Similar Cenomanian forms from St. Fargeau (Yonne) and St. Sauveur 
(Yonne) have also been referred to 8. Dutempleanns by d'Orbigny and by Peron. 

8. fiinhriatus, Groldfuss,* is very similar to 8. Dutempleanns ; judging from the 
figures alone, the only difference appears to be in the fewer spines on the 
ribs. 

A specimen, described and figured by Sowerby * as Lima ? spinosa, is perhaps 
an example of 8. Dufempleanus. I have not been able to find the original, and the 
locality is not stated. 

Remarks. — In the majority of specimens seen the spines have been more or less 
completely broken in the process of clearing away the matrix. Examples from 

1 ■ Mi'm. Soc. geol. de France,' vol. ii (1847), p. 312, pi. xv, fig. 11. 
- ' Pal. Franc. Terr. Crct.,' vol. iii (1847), pi. ccccliv, figs. 1—9. 

3 ' Petref. Germ.,' vol. ii (1836), p. 97, pi. cvi, fig. 2. A specimen was referred to this species hy 
Dixon (' Greol. Sussex,' p. 35(5, pi. xxviii, fig. 34). 

* F. Dixon, ' Geol. Sussex' (1850), p. 347, pi. xxviii, fig. 33; p. 382 of ed. 2. 



SPONDYLUS. 1'27 

tlu^ Ti'iiningliam Chalk appear to have the spines pbiced more closely together 
than in other zones. The convexity of the valves varies considerably. The 
largest examples seen came from the B. murronafa zone of Norwich and Shering- 
ham. A few imperfect specimens obtained from tlie Clialk Marl of Folkestone 
probably belong to this species. 

Types. — From the Senonian of Epernay, St. Sauvenr, and Auxon. 

Bistrlhution. — Cenomanian (Bed 11) of Maynard's Cliif, Sidmouth. Zone 
of It. (Juvleri of the Sussex coast. Zone of I'l-rclratidina r/rarilia of St. Giles' 
Pit, near Winchester, and Dover. Zone of //. phinns of Tw3-ford Down, near 
Winchester, and Chapel Rock, Pinhay. Zone of .If. ror-testndiiiarinm of Dover. 
Zone of M. cor-anguinmn of the Thanet coast, St. Margaret's, and the Sussex 
coast. flintacrinns-hund of Kingsgate (Margate). Zone of Marmipites of tlie 
Thanet and Sussex coasts. Zone of Acfinocama.r qnadnitus of Hnrsley (Win- 
chester), East and West Harnham (Salis])ury), and the Sussex coast. Zone of 
B. vnicronafa of Norwich, Sheringham, Clarendon (Salisbury), Ballard, and 
Studland. Chalk of Trimingham. 



Si'ONDYLUS SPiNOSUS {Soirerlji/), 1 Si 1. Plate XXIII, figs. *') — 11 : I'late 

X.XIV, figs. 1—7. 

1814. Plaoiostoma spinosa, /. Sowerhij. Min. Conch., vol. i, p. 177. i>l. Ixxviii. 

figs. 1—3. 
Y 1819. Spondylus podopsideus, LamarcJc. Anim. sans Vert., vol. vi, p. 1M4. 
r — Plaoiostoma sulcata, Lamarck. Ibid., p. 161. 
1820. Pectinites aouleatus, E T. v. Schlotheim. Die Petrefactenkimdo, p. 228. 
1822. Plaoiostoma spinosa, G. Mantcll. Foss. S. Downs, p. 203, pi. xxvi, 

fig. 10. 
— brightoniensis, G. Maniell. Ibid., p. 204, pi. xxv, fig. 15. 

— — spinosa, a. Brongniart. Descr. gcol. des Euvir. de Paris, 

pp. 251, 320, GOO, pi. iv, fig. 2. 
1825. Pachytos spinosus, Defrance. Diet. Sciences uat., vol. xxxvii, p. 207, 

pi. Ixxviii, fig. 2; pi. Ixxix, tig. 1. 
? — — striatus, Defrance. Ibid., p. 207. 

1827. Plaoiostoma spinosum, S. Nilsson. Petrif. Suocaua, p. 25. 
1833. — — S. Woodward. Geol. Norfolk, p. 40, pi. v, fig. 25 

(':' young). 
183<;. Spondylus spinosus, A. Gohljuss. Petrcf. Germ., vol. ii, p. :»5, pi. cv, 

fig. 5. 

— — duplioatus, a. Goldfiiss. Ibid., vfl. ii, p. 95, pi. ev, fig. (j. 
1837. Plaoiostoma spinosum, W. Hmiixjir. Lotliaa Suecica, p. 54, pi. xv, 

fig. 4. 

— Spondylus spinosus, H. G. Dronii. Lethtea Geog., p. 684 (ed. 2), [■. 280 

(vol. ii, pt. 5, ed. 3), pi. xxxii, fig. 6. 



128 CRETACEOUS LA]\IELLIBIIANCHIA. 

1839. Spondylus SPiNosrs, H. B. Gehiite. Char. d. Scliiclit. u. Petref. das siichs. 

Kreidegeb., pt. 1, p. 24. 

— — DUPLICATES, Geinitz. Ibid., p. 25. 

1841. — spiNOSTJs, F. A. Romer. Die Verstein. des uorddeutscli. 

Kreidegeb., p. 58. 

— — DUPLICATUS, Romer. Ibid., p. 58. 

1842. Lima brightoniensis, F. v. Hagenow. Rug-eu'sehenKreideversteiu. Neues 

Jahrb. fiir Min., etc., 1842, p. 556. 

1846. Spondylus spinosds, H. B. Geinitz. Gruudr. der Verstein., p. 474. 

— — (Pachytos) spinosus, a. E. Reuss. Die Verstein. der bohm. 

Kreideformat., jjt. 2, p. 36. 

1847. — SPINOSUS, A. cVOrhifjinj. Pal. Fraue. 'I'err. Cret., vol. iii, p. 673, 

pi. i-ccclxi, figs. 1 — 4. 

1848. — — H. G. Bronn. Index Palgeont., vol. i, p. 1189. 
1850. — — H. B. Geinitz. Das Quadersandst. oder Kreidegeb. in 

DeiitscUaud, p. 196. 

— — — A. d'Orhiijiiij. Prodr. de Pal., vol. ii, p. 254. 

? — • — — A. Alth. Geog.-pal. Besclireib. der TJmgeb. von Lem- 

berg (Haidinger's Natnrwiss. AbLandL, 
vol. iii, pt. 2), p. 250. 
1852. — — R. Kiier. Denkschr. d. k. Akad. d. Wissensch. Math.- 

uat. CI., vol. iii, p. 318. 

1854. — —J. Morris. Cat. Brit. Foss., ed. 2, p. 182. 

— — BRIGHTONIENSIS, Movris. Ibid., p. 182. 

1855. — SPINOSUS, G. Cotteau. Moll. Foss. de I'Yonne, p. 118. 

1859. — jEQTJALis, E. Hi'hert. Bull. Soc. geol. de France, ser. 2, vol. 

xvi, p. 149. 

1860. — svBSPiTsosvs, H. Coquand. Descripit. Depart, de la Charente, vol. 

ii,p.l42. (Non d'Arcliiac, 1848.) 
1868. — SPINOSUS, E. Eirhwald. Letbsea Eossica, vol. ii, p. 420. 

? 1869. — — E. Favre. Moll. Foss. de la Craie de Lemberg, 

p. 158. 

1870. — — F. Romer. Geol. von Oberscliles., p. 315, pi. xx.\iv, 

fig. 11. 

1871. — supERBUs, H. Willett. Cat. Cret. Foss. Brighton Mus., p. 35. 

1872. — SPINOSUS, H. B. Geinitz. Das Elbthalgeb. in Sachseu (Palse- 

outographica, vol. xx, pt. ii), 
p. 31, pi. ix, figs. 1—3. 

1876. — — B. Branns. Die Seuon. des Salzberges (Zeitschr. f. 

d. gesammt. Naturwiss., vol. xlvi), p. 391. 

1877. — — var. duplicatus, A. FritscJi. Stud, ini Geb. der 

bohm. Kreidef. II. Die Weissen- 
berg. u. Malnitz. Schicht, p. 138, 
fig. 132. 

1881. Lima spinosa, R. Etheridije. In Penning and Jukes-Browne's Geol. Cam- 

bridge (Mem. Geol. Survey), pp. 65, 69, 72. 

1882. Spondylus jEqualis, B. Lundgren. Bull. Soc. geol. de France, ser. 3, vol- 

X, p. 458. 



SPONDYLUS. 129 

1885. Spondylus .i:qualis, Lnndgren. Spondylusart. i Sverig. Ki-itsyst. (Sverig 

Geol. Uudersok., ser. C, No. 69), p. 5, 
pi. i, figs. 1 — 3. 

1889. — — O. Griepenkerl. Seuoii vou Konigslutter (PalEcont. 

Abhaudl., vol. iv), p. 38. 

— — spiNOsus, E. Holzapfel. Die Mollusk. Aachen. Kreide (Palseon- 

tographica, vol. x.\xv), p. 243, pi. 
xxvii, figs. 12, 13. 

— — — A. Fritsch. Stud, iin Gebiete der bolim. Kreide- 

format. IV. Die Teplitzer Schicht, 
p. 85, fig. 81. 

1897. — — H. Woti(h. Quart. Jouni. Geol. Soc, vol. liii, p. 385. 

— — — B. Leonhard. Kreideforniat. in Oberscliles. (Palseon- 

tographica, vol. xliv), p. 50. 
— — .«(iuALis, A. Hennig. Kevis. Lamell. i Nilsson's ' Petrif. 

Sueeana' (Kon. Fysiogr. Sfillsk. i 
Lund. Handl.,N. ¥., vol. viii), p. 25. 

1898. — spiNosus, G. MuUer. Mollusk. Untersen. von Braunschweig u. 

Ilsede (Abhaudl. d. k. preuss. geol. 
Laiid.,n. F., pt. 25), p. 23, pi. iv, fig. 4. 

Description. — Shell regular, ovate, i^lightly iiUMjiiilateral, rounded ventrall}-, 
more or les.s pointed and produced in the umbonal region, where the margins are 
only slightly curved. Valves sometimes equally conve.x;, Imt the right usually 
flattened ; convexity greatest in the median line, towards the umbo. 

Right valve a little larger than the left, with the dorsal part of the posterior 
border longer than the corresponding part of the anterior Ijorder. Ribs stronger 
than those of the left valve, separated by deep narrow grooves ; the grooves are 
crossed by rather irregular linear ridges. In some specimens almost everj- rib is 
divided into two parts by a narrow median furi'ow — the furrows starting, in 
different specimens, at varying distances from the umbo ; in others onl}^ a few ribs 
(often near the centre of the valve or near the anterior and posterior borders) are 
so divided ; or all the ribs may be undivided. Long .slightly curving spines, with a 
groove on their upper surfaces, are borne at intervals l)y some of the ribs — 
frequently by eight, and grow out radially, those near the margin of the valve 
extending outwards in all directions roughly parallel to the plane of the valves ; 
the spines near the anterior and posterior margins are the .strongest. The ribs 
bearing spines are often not divided by a groove. 

Left valve with from 26 to 51 regular, rounded ril:>s, occasionally bearing short 
spines ; the grooves between the ribs may ])c wider or narrower than the ribs, and 
are crossed by many rather irregular linear ridges, which sometimes extend on to 
the ril)s. The ribs may be (1) all of uniform size, separated by broader grooves, 
and arc then relatively few in niimber and stout; or (2) the stronger ribs may 
alternate regularly with smaller I'ibs introduced in the grooves at varying distances 

17 



130 



CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 



from the umbo, thus increasing the total number of ribs at the margin of the 
valve ; or (3) only a few smaller ribs occur here and there between the larger. The 
first is associated with undivided ribs on the right valve ; the second with all the 
ribs divided ; the third with a few ribs divided — the divided ribs of the right valve 
corresponding in position with the small intercalated rib of the left valve. Rarely 
one or two ribs on the left valve may be divided. In old specimens rather strong 
growth-lines placed near together occur near the margin of the valve, giving it a 
frilled appearance. Near the umbones the ribs sometimes have a serrated appear- 
ance, due to the presence of short, close-set, spiny processes. Ears on both valves 
with growth-lines only or with faintly marked radial ribs also near the umbones ; 
at the inner border the ear is limited by a ridge (often indistinct on the left valve), 
and between this and the commencement of the regular series of radial ribs on the 
valve is a smooth area. 

Measurements of f lie left valce. 



Length (in millimetres) 
Height „ „ 

Number of main ribs 



Zone of T. gracilis. Zone of H. planus. 

49 48 47 47 35 34 ... 57 53 49 47 46 45 44 42 42 41 40 38 33 30 
53 50 51 49 38 39 ... 59 59 57 52 49 48 46 48 49 44 43 39 34 31 
33 43 27 30 33 27 ... 34 33 33 29 33 28 31 34 28 30 33 SO 31 32 



Number of small intermediate ribs 9 8 8 11 5 8 ... 14 10 9 22 36 14 18 9 10 8 6 6 1 

Chalk Rock. Zone of M. cor-testuditiarium. Zone of M. cor-anguinum. 



Length . . . . 51 46 37 

Height . . . . 62 50 41 

Number of main ribs . . 3U 33 26 

Number of small intermediate ribs 1111 8 



52 41 41 38 35 34 
55 47 45 43 38 36 
30 26 25 25 25 28 
10 14 14 10 12 2 



72 62 55 61 51 50 47 

83 69 57 56 55 60 53 

30 36 34 26 31 27 29 

4 17 15 8 14 7 



Zone of Marsupites teshulinarixis. 



Length . . . . 

Height . . - . 

Number of main ribs 
Number of small intermediate ribs 



53 53 53 47 47 47 45 44 43 43 43 42 40 37 35 

60 59 66 60 47 62 51 49 54 49 46 47 44 40 41 

30 29 31 29 29 37 28 28 29 28 26 26 27 27 35 

4 6 19 12 1 1 3 13 



ione of B. mucrc 


mata. 


Tr: 


iming 


ham Chalk. 


62 


.•• 




36 


31 


56 


,,, 




40 


32 


32 


.■ < 




30 


27 









4 






Zone of A. q%i,adratus. 
Length . . . . 55 40 33 29 27 26 

Height . . . . 65 42 36 31 30 28 

Number of main ribs . . 35 28 27 27 31 29 

Number of small intermediate ribs 13 16 4 2 11 

Bemarhs. — The amount of convexity of the two valves together, and also the 
relative convexities of right and left valves, varies considerably in different 
examples, and is to some extent associated with differences in the ribbing. On 
the right valve the variation in the ribs consists (1) in the presence or absence 
of a narrow furrow on the rib — giving the appearance of a split rib, — and (2) in 
the period at which this furrow is introduced. Coincident with the beginning of 



SPONDYLUS. 1:31 

the furrow on this valve is the introduction of a small intermediate rib between 
two main ribs on the left valve, so placed that at the margin of the valve the small 
furrow of the right valve fits into the small rib of the left valve. The numljer of 
the small intermediate ribs and the period at which they are introduced vary 
considerably in different specimens ; in some cases they are (piite absent, in others 
only a few occur, or they may appear in almost every groove. "Wlien these inter- 
mediate I'ibs are absent, the other ril).s appear to be stronger and arc efpial in size, 
and separated by broad and deep grooves ; the form named S. asqualis by Hebert 
l)elongs, I believe, to this grouj). Another form, with many intermediate ribs, was 
named S. dwplicntus by Goldfuss ; this, however, has l:)een regarded by most later 
writers (Geinitz, Reuss, d'Orbigny, Brauns, etc.) as inseparable from ^S'. i^phiosuft. 
In tlie cases where the intermediate ribs are iiiti'odiiced at an early period, they 
beconae towards the margin of the shell almost or quite as large as the other ribs, 
so that the shell appears to bear a large number of rather small ribs, and differs 
greatly in appearance from the forms with no intermediate ribs. Between these 
different varieties every transition seems to occur, l)ut certain types, as noted 
below, are more abundant in some zones than in others. 

The form described by Hel^ert as >S'. eeqiuilis ^ Avas found in the //. mucronata 
Chalk of Meudon. It was stated to differ from S. spiiiosus, Sowerby, in luning 
(1) equal ribs (/. e. no intermediate ribs) on the left valve, and imdivided ribs on 
the right valve ; (2) the two valves of equal convexity ; (3) spines on both valves. 
Hebert gave no figures, but Lundgren has figured specimens from Kopinge, which, 
however, do not show the spines. I believe that 8. seqnalis is only one of the 
varieties of 8. sinnosns. Forms found in the Upper Chalk of England (especially 
in the B. viucronata and Marsiipifes zones) agree in the first and second of the 
features above mentioned, and also in rare cases show spines on the left valve, 
although never so well developed as those on the right. This form, as already 
stated, passes into the one with many intermediate small ribs. It will, however, 
probably be convenient to refer to the two extremes as the ceqiialis-tj-pe and the 
dupliccdus-tj^e respectively. 

Plar/iostoma hrightoniensis, Mantell, seems to be an old individual belonging 
to the sequalis-ty-pQ ', it occurs chiefly in the 31. cor-anguiuum zone. Near the 
margin of the left valve intermediate ribs are introduced, and at this part on both 
valves growtli-lines are well marked and close together, giving something of a 
frilled appearance. 

S. obesus, d'Orbigny," from the Senonian, appears to be oidy a variety of 

' It is recorded by Barrois from the B. mucronata zone of StudlanJ Bay and Norwich. See 
' Rech. Terr. Crct. Super.' (1876), pp. 103, 163. 

2 ' Pal. Frau9. Terr. Crct.,' vol. iii (1847), p. 67.5, pi. cccd.xi, fi-s. 5—7. 



132 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 

S. spiiio.'ilis, having the valves rather more convex than usual and the ribs on the 
ears a little more distinct. 

Two small specimens in Dr. Blackmore's collection from the A. qtiadratus zone 
of East Harnham (length 6 mm.), and the B. mucronata zone of Clarendon (length 
6"5 mm.), are probal^ly yovmg individuals of 8. s])inosus. 

8. supevhus, Willett, MS., is an example of the sequalis-tj-pe from the Upper 
Chalk (probably Marsu.pifes zone) of Seaford. 

The inner layer of the shell, and also the area and teeth, have been removed by 
solution from the specimens of 8. spiiw.^us and other species of 8pondyliis found in 
the Chalk of England.' 

A large number of good specimens of 8. spiiwsus are preserved in most 
museums and collections, but unfortunately, in the majority of cases, the zones 
from which they were obtained are not definitely kno'nai, and consequently, in 
order to determine whether any of the varieties are characteristic of particular 
zones, I have had to rely mainly on the collections kindly lent me by Drs. Black- 
more and Rowe, and Messrs. Jukes-Browne, W. Hill, Gr. E. Dibley, and J. Scanes, 
and on my o"\vn collecting. Similarly, in selecting specimens for figuring, I havt^ 
chosen those of which the exact horizon is known even when finer examples of the 
same type, but of uncertain zone, were at hand. In order to work out satisfactorily 
the zonal characters of 8. spinosus, a much larger number of carefully collected 
specimens than I have had at my disposal would be required, and the following 
notes on the forms found in successive zones nmst, therefore, be regarded as of a 
preliminary nature only. 

T. gracilis-zone. — The common forms (PI. XXIII, fig. 6) have the valves 
flattened. Ribs on the left valve are generally slender and separated by broad 
grooves ; intermediate (small) ribs are seen in all cases, and, as a rule, are 
moderately numerous. Forms with the left valve more convex occur rather rarely 
(PL XXIII, fig. 7). , 

H. plaiius-zone and Chalk Rock. — Valves, especially the left, are more convex 
than in the preceding zone; ribs rather stoiiter (PI. XXIII, figs. 8 — 10). Some 
forms having few or no intermediate ribs occur (PI. XXIII, fig. 8). 

M. cor-testu(luiariuvi-zoue. — Commonly the left valve is very convex, and the 
intermediate ribs are introduced early and Ijecome nearly as large as the others 
(PI. XXIII, fig. 11). Less common are forms with only a few intermediate 
ribs. 

M. cor-anguhmm-zone. — Convexity of the two valves is generally more nearly 
equal. Intermediate ribs are generally small and not numerous, and the main ribs 
stout (PI. XXIV, figs. 1, 2). The old individuals of this type, named Plagiostoma 

1 For a move detailed account of this, with references to previous writevs on the subject, see 
Woods, 'Quart. Jouru. Geol. Soc.,' vol. liii (1897), p. 386. 



SPONDYLUS. 133 

hrightonlcnfis hj Mantell, occur chiefly in this zone, but occasionally in the 
previous zone (PL XXIV, fig. 'A). 

Man^upites-zone. — Two types occur : (i) witli few or no intermediate riljs and the 
valves of nearly equal convexity (PI. XXTV, figs. 4, 6) ; (ii) -R-ith many inter- 
mediate ril)s of nearly the same size as the main ribs, and valves of nearly equal 
convexity : this is not so common as the first type (PI. XXIV, fig. 5). 

A. qtiaJratus-zone. — The same two types occur. Only a few examples hare 
been seen, the average size being ap]iai'ently less (PL XXIV, fig. 7). 

B. nmcronntn-zone. — No intermediate ribs in the examples seen (similar to 
PL XXIV, fig. 4). 

Trimingham Chalk. — Two rathei- small examples are in Mr. A. C. Sa\an's 
collection, one without intermediate ribs, and the other having four. Another 
specimen is in Mr. R. M. Brydone's collection. 

Types. — Sowerby's types fi'om Brighton and Northflcet are in the British 
Museum. I have not seen the specimen figured by Mantell as riagiostoma .'^jnnosn, 
nor the type of P. hriglitoniensia. S. svperbvs, Willett, MS., is in the Brighton 
Museum. The types of S. cluplicatus, Goldfuss, came from the Senonian of 
Quedlinburg and Coesfeld. 

Distribution. — -8. xpinosus ranges from the zone of Bhynclionella Guvieri to zone 
of B. mucronata. A few of the localities are given below. 

i. Zone of E. Guvieri. — Dover. 

ii. Zone of Terebratulina gracilis. — Dowlands (near Rousdon). "Whitecliff 
(Seaton). Hooken (near Beer Head). St. Giles's Hill and Twyford Doivn ("Win- 
chester). East Knoyle (Wilts). The Sussex coast. Dover. Whyteleaf (AVar- 
lingham). Dunton Green. Preston (Hitchin). Luton. 

iii. Zone of Holaster planus. — Chapel Rock (Pinhay). St. Giles's Hill (Win- 
chester). The Sussex coast. Dover. Cuxton. Borstal. Cheveley (Xewmarket). 
Three quarters of a mile north-west of AVest AVratting (Cambs). 

iv. Chalk Rock. — West AVycombe. Princes Risborough. Cuckhamsley. Box- 
moor. Luton. Clothall (Herts). Quickwood (Herts). Reed and Newsells 
(Royston). L^nderwood Hall (DuUingham). Barkway. Great Chesterford. 

V. Zone of Micrasfer cor-testudinarium. — West of Beer Harlxmr. North of 
Alton Line Junction. The Sussex coast. Dover. Chatham. Piu'ley. Balsham. 

vi. Zone of Micraster cor-anguinum. — Hungry Do'wai, Blandford. Mitcheldcver 
(upper part of zone). Eaton Lane and AVinnal Road (AVinchester). The Sussex 
coast. St. Margaret's. Thanet. Gravesend. 

vii. Zone of Marsupites testudinarius. — AA^itherington, near Salisbury (lower 
part of zone). Devizes Road, near Salisbury [Uiiitacrinus-hand). The Sussex and 
Thanet coasts. Margate. 

viii. Zone of Actinocamax quadratas. — The Dorset coast. East and AVest 



134 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 

Hai^nham (Salisbury). Hursley. Hensting Farm (Wincliester). The Sussex 
coast. 

ix. Zone of Belemnitella mucronata. — Studland Bay. ? "Winchester. Norwich. 
Sheringham. 

X. Trimingham Chalk. 



Genus — Plicatula, Lamarcl; 1801. 
(' Syst. Anim. sans Vert.,' p. 132.) 

Plicatula placunea, Lamarclr, 1819. Plate XXV, figs. 1 — 4. 

1819. Plicatula placunea, Lamarck. Anim. sans Vert., vol. vi, p. 186. 

1822. Spondylus ? steigilis, A. Brongniart. Descript. geol. Envir. de Paris. 

In Cuvier, Ossem. foss., ed. 2, 
vol. ii, pp. 333. 613, pi. ix, fig. 6. 

1826. Plicatula placunata, Defrance. Diet. Sciences nat., vol. xli, p. 400. 

1842. — PLACUN^iA, A. Leymerie. Mem. Soc. geol. de France, vol. v, 

pp. 16, 27, pi. xiii, fig. 2. 

— — — P. Mathcron. Catal. Foss. des Bouclies-du-Ehone, 

p. 189. 
1845. — — E. Forbes. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. i, p. 249. 

1847. — PLACUNEA, A. d'Orlujny. Pal. Frau9. Terr. Cret., vol. iii, p. 682, 

pi. cccclxii, figs. 11 — 18. 
1850. — — d'Orhigny. Prodr. de Pal., vol. ii, pp. 84, 119. 

: — — — Ewald. Zeitschr. d. deutscli. geol. Gesellsch., vol. ii, 

p. 470. 

1853. — —F.J. Pidet and W. Roux. Moll. Foss. Gres verts 

de Geneve, p. 518, pi. xlvii, fig. 5. 

1854. — — /. Morris. Cat. Brit. Foss., ed. 2, p. 180. 

1855. — PLACUNiEA, G. Cotteau. Moll. Foss. de I'Yonne, p. 118. 

1858. — PLACUNEA, F. J. Pidet and E. Benevier. Foss. Aptien de la 

Perte du Ehone, etc. (Mate'r. Pal. Suisse, 
ser. 2), p. 136. 

— — — J. A. Eudes-Deslongchamps. Les Plicat. du Calvados 

(Mt'm. Soc. Linn. Norm., vol. xi), 
p. 102, pi. xvii, figs. 1, 2. 

1859. — — J. Vilanova-y-Piera. Mem. geog.-agric. de Castdlon, 

pi. ii, fig. 16. 

1865. — — H. Coquand. Aptien de I'Espagne, p. 168. 

1866. — — E. Eichwald. Zeitschr. d. deutscli. geol. Gesellsch., 

vol. xviii, p. 271. 
1868. — — — Lethaea Eossica, vol. ii, p. 414. 

1871. — — F. J. Pidet and G. Campiche. Foss. Terr. Crct. Ste. 

Croix (Mater. Pal. Suisse, ser. 5), pp. 268. 271. 



PLICATULA. 135 

1875. Plicattjla placunea, /. Phillips. G-eol. Yorks., ed. 3, pt. 1, p. 244. 
1900. — — A. Wollemann. Die Biv. u. Gastrop. des deutsch. 

u. holliind. Kreide. (Abhandl. d. k. preuss. 

geol. Land., n. F., pt. 31), p. 23. 

Description. — Shell very ol)lique, oval, projecting and pointed at the uml)ones ; 
length greater than height. Left valve flat or slightly concave; right valve 
convex. Both valves ornamented with strong angular ribs, usually eight to ten in 
number, bearing tiibular overlapping spines; between these large ribs smaller ones 
are introduced, and bear spiny processes. Near the margin of the shell, in old 
individuals, the two sets of ribs may become of nearly equal size. The ribs are 
crossed by concentric, usually faintly marked lamellEe, and at intervals by well- 
marked growth-lines. 

Measurements : 

(4) 

Lencjth . . 30 27 25 I'.t mm. 



(1) (2) 


(3) 


30 27 


25 


33 24. 


24-5 


(1—4) from Hythe. 





Height! . 33 24. 24-5 20 



Affinities. — This is distinguished from P. inflata, Sowerby, and P. Carteroniana, 
d'Orbigny, by greater development of spines and the presence of the smaller ribs. 

Dislribittion. — Hythe Beds of Hythe, Lympne, St. Martha's (East Shalford), 
Sevenoaks, and Maidstone. P Ferruginous Sands of Shanklin. ? Speeton Clay. 
Recorded by Fitton (1847) from the Perna-hed of Atherfield." 



Plicatula Cakteroniana, (VOrbigmj, 1847. Plate XXV, figs. 5a, b, da, b, 7 — 12. 

1847. Plicatula Caeteeoniana, A. d'Orbigny. Pal. Fran?. Terr. Crct., vol. iii, 

p. 680, pi. ccccxUi, figs. 5 — 7. 
1850. — — d'Orbigny. Prodr. de Pal., vol. ii, p. 83. 

1854. — — /. Morris. Cat. Brit. Foss., ed. 2, p. 180. 

1871. — Caeteroni, F. J. Pidei and G. Campiche. Foss. Terr. Cret. 

Ste. Croix (Mater. Pal. Suisse, ser. 5), 
pp. 265, 271, pi. clxxxiii, figs. 3, 4. 
1883. — — W. Keepimj. Foss., etc., Neoc. Upware and Brick- 

hill, p. 110, pi. V, fig. 4. 
1896. — Caeteeoniana, A. Wollemann. Zeitschr. d. deutsch. geol. 

Gesellsch., vol. xlviii, p. 835. 

1 Measured obliquely from the umbo to the middle of the ventral margin. 

- I have not been able to find the type or other specimens of Plicatula iiuvquidens, Sharpe, from 
the Lower Greensand of Faringdon, ' Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc.,' vol. x (1853), p. 197, pi. vi, fig. 4. 



(2) 


(3) 


Vi 


11 mm. 


16 


14 „ 



136 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRAXCHIA. 

1900. Plicatula Carteeoniana, Wollemann. Die Biv. u. Gastr. d. deutscli. u. 

holliind. Neoc. (Abhandl. d. k. 
pveuss. geol. Land., n. F., pt. 
31), p. 22. 

Description. — Shell oval, somewhat triangular, oblique ; height greater than 

length. Right valve much inflated, ornamented with usually eight to ten sharp, 

prominent ribs, which are slightly curved, bear short spiny processes, and are 

separated by broad furrows ; well-marked growth-lines occur at intervals. Left 

valve flat or slightly concave ; ribs less prominent, more rounded, and broader 

than on the right valve, separated by narrow furrows. 

Measurements : 

(1) 
Length . . . . 17 

Height' .... 21 

(1 — 3) from Up ware. 

Types. — From the Neocomian of Maisons, near the Ecorces (Doubs). The 
specimen figured by Keeping is in the Woodwardian Museum. 

Distribution. — Hythe Beds of Hythe and (Bargate Stone) of St. Catherine's 
Hill (Gruildford). Sandgate Beds of Sevenoaks. Lower Greensand of Brickhill, 
Potton, and Upware. 



Pligatula ^quicostata, Keeping, 1883. 

1883. Plicatula ^quicostata, W. Keeping. Foss., etc., Upware aud Brickhill, 

p. Ill, pi. V, fig. 5. 

Description. — Shell small, ovate, oblique, high, very inequivalve, margins 
rounded. Right valve much inflated, umbonal part prominent, with a small area 
for attachment ; ornamented with numerous (about fifty) small, regidar, rounded 
ribs, which curve slightly, are of nearly equal size, and are separated by narrow 
grooves ; these ribs are crossed by small concentric lamellae, and occasionally by 
'stronger growth -lines. Left valve flat or slightly concave, with similar ornamenta- 
tion, but the ribs apparently fewer and broader. 

Measurements : 

(1) (2) 

Leng-th ...... 9 16 mm. 

Height 14 19-5 „ 

Thickness 8-5 H „ 

(1, 2) from Upware. (1) the type. 

1 Measured obliquely. 



PLICATULA. 137 

Affinities. — This species appears to be closely allied to P. imhricata, Koch and 
Dunker,^ from the Hilsthon of the Elligser Brink, l)ut is distinguished by the left 
valve being flat or concave. The shell is also very similar in form to P. 
Carteroniana, and may even prove to be only a worn example of tliat species. 

Bemavhs. — The only nndoubted specimens which I have seen are the three 
rather imperfectly preserved examples on which the species was founded. 

Types. — In the Woodwardian Museum. 

Distribution. — Lower Greensand of Upware. 



Plicatula (;uj{(!Itis, Pldet and Itonx, 1853. Plate XXV, figs. 13'/, h, 11 — 21. 

1823. Plicatui.a pectinoides, /. He V. Sowerhy (non Lamarck). Miu. Conch., 

vol. V, p. .5, pi. ccccix, fig. 1. 
1847. — RADIOLA, A. d'Orhiyny. Pal. Franc. Terr. Crct., vol. iii, p. 683 

(partim), jjI. ccccl.\iii, figs. 6, 7 (non 1 — 5). 
1850. _ _ _ Prod, de Pal., vol. ii, p. 139 {partim). 

1853. — GURGiTis, F. J. Pldet and W. Boux. Moll. Foss. Gres verts de 

Geneve, p. 517, pi. xlvii, fig. 4. 

1854. — PECTINOIDES, J. Morris. Cat. Brit. Foss., ed. 2, p. 180. 
? 1855. — RADIOLA, G. Cotteau. Moll. Foss. de I'Yonne, p. 118. 

1871. — GVRGiTis, F. J. Pidet and G. Campiche. Foss. Terr. Crct. Ste. 

Croix (Mater. Pal. Suisse, ser. 5), p. 272. 
1875. — PECTINOIDES, A. J. Jukes-Browne. Quart. Jouru. Geol. See, 

vol. xxxi, p. 297. 

Non 1846. Plicatula pectinoides, A. E. Beuss. Die Verstein. d. bolim. Kreidef., 

pt. ii, p. 37, pi. xxxi, figs. Iti, 17 
( :=: P. Barroisi, Perou). 
— — — — J. de C. Soicerbtj. Trans. Geol. Soe., ser. 2, vol. v, 

p. 328, pi. xxii, figs. G, 9 ( = P. 
peregrina, d'Orbigny). 

Description. — Shell oval, more or less triangidar, umboual part generally 
produced ; margins rounded, the postero-dorsal being often concave. Inequivalve : 
right valve sometimes only slightly, but generally very convex, somewhat flattened 
near the umbones ; left valve concave, sometimes flat. Right valve ornamented 
with numerous narrow, sharp, radial ribs, curving and slightly irregular, separated 
by broad spaces. The ribs bear many spines, having usually a roughly concentric 
arrangement, and being longest near the margins of the valves. Concentric 

' ' Norddeutscli. Oolithgeb.' (1837), p. 50, pi. vi, fig. 3; G. BiJlini, ' Zeitschr. der doutsch. geol. 
Gesellsch.,' vol. xxix (1877), \>. 236; A. Wollcmauu, "Die Biv. u. Gastrop. des deutseh. u. liolliind. 
Neoc." (' Abhandl. d. k. preussisch geol. Landesanst.,' n. F., part 31, 1900). p. 23. 

18 



138 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 

lamellae and well-marked growtli-lines are present. The ribs vary in number 
considerably in different specimens, but are always more numerous near the ventral 
margin than neai" the uml:)o, OAving to the intercalation of new ribs. Left valve 
ornamented with simikir but usually broader and more rounded ribs, crossed by 
numerous concentric lamellee. 
Measurements : 

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (U) (12) 

Length . . 58 48 47 39 36 33 31 30 25 22 22 17 mm. 
Heiglit^ . . 48 44 46 51 40 38 28 36 28 30 29 20 „ 
Number of ribs 

at margin of 

right valve . 39 34 25 29 23 19 19 24 24 26 28 11 
(1 — 7, 11, 12) from the G-ault of Folkestone; (8—10) from the Gault near Cambridge. 

Affinities. — See P. inflnta (p. 140). 

Bemarks. — This species was described by Sowerby as Plicatula pectinoides 
(Lamarck). The type of Lamarck's species came from the Lias of Metz," and is 
quite distinct from the Cretaceous species ; the latter must, therefore, be knoA\'n as 
P. gnrgitis, Pictet and Roux. 

Ti/]jcs. — The types of P. pectinoides, Sowerby, from the Gault near Cambridge, 
appear to have been lost. 

Distribution. — Gault of Folkestone (zones i — iii, vi, viii, x, xi), of Ford (near 
Aylesbury), and of Barnwell (Cambridge). Cambridge Greensand (derived from 
the Gault). Red Limestone of Hunstanton. Upper Greensand of the Isle of 
Wight. 



Plicatula minuta, Seeleij, 1866. Plate XXV, figs. 22—25. 

1866. Plicatula minuta, H. G. Seeley. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 3, vol. xvii, 

p. 176. 

Bemarl-s. — The ornamentation of this small form is of the same type as that of 
P. gnrgitis, but the libs are perhaps more numerous than at the umbo of that 
species. Comparison, however, is difficult, since the umbo of P. gnrgitis is seldom 
well preserved. It seems probable that P. minuta is only the young form of P. 
gnrgitis, l)ut since the smallest knowTi example of the latter is very much larger 

1 Measured obliquely from the umbo to the middle of the ventral margin. 

- Placmia ]jectinoides, Lamarck, ' Anim. sans Vert.,' vol. vi (1819), p. 224. PlicaMa ])ect{noi<Jes, 
Defrance, 'Diet. Sciences nat.,' vol. xli (1826), p. 400; Deshayes and Milne Edvrards, Lamarck's 
' Anim. sans Vert.,' ed. 2, vol. vii (1836), p. 178; d'Orbigny, 'Prodr. de Pal.,' vol. i (1849), p. 238. 



PLICATULA. 1:39 

than the largest of the former, it is at present impossible to trace a passage from 
one to the other. 

Types. — From the Red Limestone of Hunstanton, in the Woodwardian Museum. 

D'lstrihution. — Cambridge Greensand. Red Limestone of Hunstanton and 
Speeton. 



Plr'atula inplata, Sowerbi/, 182:3. Plate XXVI, figs. 1 — 11. 

1819. Plicatula radiola, LamarcJc. Aiiim. sans. Vert., vol. vi, p. 185 

(? partim). 

1822. — SPINOSA, G. Mantell Foss. S. Downs, p. 129, pi. x.\vi, figs. 

13, 16, 17 (non spinosa, Sowerby). 

1823. — INFLATA, J. de C. Sowerhy. Miu. Conch., vol. v, p. 6, pi. 

ccccis, fig. 2. 
1836. — — A. Goldfuss. Petref. Germ., vol. ii, p. 102, pi. cvii, 

fig. 6. 

— — RXDiOhA, Lamarck. Auim. sans Vert.,ecl. 2 (by Deshayes and 

Milne Edwards), vol. vii, p. 177 (? partim). 
? 1846. — i^fIjATA, A. E. Beuss. Die Versteiu. Jer bijlim. Kroideformat., 

pt. 2, p. 37. 
1847. — RADIOLA, A. d'Orhiijny. Pal. Franc. Terr. Crct., vol. iii, p. 

683 (parlim), pi. cccclxiii, figs. 1 — 5 
(non 6, 7). 

— — SPINOSA, d'Orbigny. Ibid., p. 685, pi. cccclxiii, figs. 8 — 10. 
1850. — BADIOLA, A. d'Orbigny. Prodr. de Pal., vol. ii, p. 120. 

1852. — — R. Kner. Denkscbr. d. k. Akad. d. Wissensch. 

Math.-nat. CI., vol. iii, p. 319, pi. xvii, fig. 9. 

1853. — —F.J. Pidet and W. Bonx. Moll. Foss. Grcs verts 

de Geneve, p. 516, pi. xlvii, fig. 3. 

1854. — INFLATA, J. Morris. Cat. Brit. Foss., ed. 2, p. 180. 

1855. — RADIOLA, G. Cotteau. Moll. Foss. de I'Yonne, p. 118. 

1858. — — >, J. A. Eiidcs-Dcslongchanips. Mem. Soc. Linn, de 

Normaud., vol. xi, p. 103, pi. xvii, figs. 3 — 8. 
? — — INFLATA ?, Eudes-Deslongchamps. Ibid., p. 100, pi. xvi, figs. 

31—33. 

— — — F. J. Pidet and E. Eenevier. Foss. Terr. Aptien 

(Mater. Pal. Suisse, ser. 1), p. 137. 

1859. — — A. V. Strombeck. Zeitschr. der deutsch. geol. 

Gesellsch., vol. xi, p. 37. 
1863. _ _ — Ibid., vol. XV, p. 109. 

1865. — — H. Coqiiand. Men. Aptien de I'Espagne, p. 159. 

1871. — —F.J. Pidet and G. Campidie. Foss. Terr. Crct. Ste. 

Croix (Mater. Pal. Suisse, ser. 5), p. 269. 
1882. — — It. Windm'dler. Jahrb. d. k. geol. preussisch Geol. 

Landesanst.' (1881), p. 21. 



140 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 

1882. Plicatula spinosa, /. Kiesoiu. Sclirift der Nat. Gesellscli. in Danzig, 

n. F., vol. V, p. 241. 
J885. — iNFLATA, F. Nutting. Die Fauna d. baltisch. Cenonian. (Palae- 

ont. Abhandl., vol. ii), p. 15, pi. ii, fig. 3. 
1887. — — A. Peron. Hist, du Terr, de Craie (Bull. Soc. Sci. 

Hist, et Nat. de I'Tonne, ser. 3, vol. 
xii), p. 169, pi. ii, fig. 3. 

1889. — A. Fritsch. Stud, im Gebiete der bohm. Kreide- 

format. IV. Die Teplitz. Schicht, 
p. 86, fig. 84. 
1895. — — E. Tiessen. Zeitsclir. der deutscli. geol. Gesellscli., 

vol. xlvii, p. 477. 
P1897. — — A. Fritsch. Stud, im Gebiete der bohm. Kreide- 

format. VI. Die CMomeker Schiclit, 
p. 68, fig. 88. 

Description. — Shell oval or somewhat triangular — more distinctly oval in large 
specimens ; very oblique, margins rounded. Right valve moderately convex, the 
convexity increasing considerably with age, so that in old specimens the later part 
of the valve curves considerably from the less convex earlier part. Left valve flat 
or concave. Right valve ornamented with regular, radial, slightly curved ribs, 
which are usually few in number, and bear short recumbent spines, which are 
longer at the anterior and posterior margins ; a few new ribs may be introduced 
between the older ones. Left valve with similar ribs and spines. 

Measurements : 

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) 

Length . 18 22 23 24 25 
Heio-ht' . 22 23 21 26 28 



o 



(6) 


(7) 


(8) 


(9) 


(10) 


(11) 


27 


28 


37 


45 


45 


49 mm, 


27 


30 


38 


41 


47 


50 „ 



(2) from the Lower Chalk, Ventnor. 

(8) from the Chalk Marl, Haslingfield. 

(9) from the H. snhglohosus zone. Cherry Hinton. 
Others from the Totternhoe Stone, Burwell. 

Affinities. — From a comparison of specimens of P. radiola, d'Orbigny, from the 
Aptian, with specimens of P. inflata, Sowerby, from the English Cenomanian, 
Pictet, Renevier, and Campiche came to the conclusion that the two forms could 
not be regarded as distinct species. My own observations lead me to endorse the 
opinion of those writers — that examples of the same size are inseparable. In 
the Cenomanian, however, the specimens often reach a larger size than any I 
have seen from the Lower Cretaceous ; in such cases the ventral part of the valve 
is nearly smooth, or has only indistinct ribs. Figures of a large and also a small 
form from the Chalk are given by Groldfuss, and good figures of an Aptian speci- 
men by Pictet and Roux. Peron has named some very small forms from the 
Cenomanian P. Gotteaui, and considers that P. spinosa, d'Orbigny, is an example 
1 Measured obliquely from the umbo to the middle of the ventral margin. 



PLICATULA. 141 

of the same. He admits, however, that P. Cotteaui is practically inseparable from 
P. radiola, d'Orbigny, and gives the name chiefly because it occurs on a diiYcrent 
horizon. Poron considers that P. Cotteaui is distinct from P. inflata : after the 
examination of a large series of specimens of different ages I am unable to accept 
that view, especially in considci-ation of the large amount of variation which occurs 
in the very closely allied species P. gurgitis. P. inflata is distinguished from 
P. gurgitis by the fewer and more regular ribs and the fewer spines ; also by the 
ribs being absent or indistinct on the ventral part of the valves in large specimens. 
Some specimens of P. inflata, with more numerous ribs, approximate to certain 
examples of P. gurgitis which have fewer ribs than usual ; this is more particularly 
seen in some examples from the Upper Greensand. 

Remarks. — The number and strength of the ribs vary in different examples ; 
large specimens are sometimes almost smooth (e. g. PI. XXVI, fig. 9). 

Since two forms were included by Lamarck under the name P. radiola, and 
since uncertainty exists as to which of them his name should be applied to, I follow 
Pictet, Renevier, and Campiche in retaining the name inflata given by Sowerby. 

Types. — P. inflata is from the Cenomanian near Cambridge ; the specimens 
cannot now be found. The type of P. spinosa, Mantell, is in the British Museum. 

Distribution. — Upper Greensand near Nursted and (Chert Series) of the Isle 
of Wight. Rye Hill Sand of Warminster. Chloritic Marl of Maiden Bradley and 
the Isle of Wight. Grey Chalk of Folkestone. Chalk Marl of Ventnor, Folkestone, 
Reach, Burwell, Haslingfield, Harlton, Speeton, etc. Zone of Holaster su]igIobo.''us 
of Hitchin, Totternhoe, Arlsey, Isleham, Burwell, Cherry Hinton, Fulbourn, 
Shelford, Louth, Withcall, Speeton, etc. 

I have seen no examples from the English Lowei" Cretaceous which could l)e 
definitely referred to this species, but Topley (1875) has recorded P. inflata from 
the Hythe and the Sandgate Beds. 



Plicatit.a B.vRKoisi, Pcron, 1887. Plate XXVI, figs. 12—18. 

1846. PucATULA I'ECTINOIDES, A. E. Beiiss (iiou Soicerhy). Die Verstein. der 

biihm. Kreideformat., pt. ii, p. 37, pi. xxxi. 
figs. 16, 17. 
1850. — NODOSA, A. d'Orhigny. Prodr. do Pal., vol. ii, p. 254 {partim). 

1872. — — H. B. Geinitz. Das Elbthalgeb. in Sachsen (Paloeon- 

tographica, vol. xx), pt. ii, p. 32. 
pi. ix, fig. 5. 
1878. — — C. Barrois. Terr. Crct. des Ardennes (Ann. Soc. 

gcol. Nord. vol. v), p. 391. 



142 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 

1887. Plicatula Baeeoisi, A. Peron. Hist, du Terr, de Craie (Bull. Soc. Sci. 

Hist. Nat. de TYonne, ser. 3, vol. xii), 
p. 167, pi. ii, figs. 5—7. 
1889. — liODOSA, A. Fritsch. Stud, im Gebiete der bohm. Kreideformat. 

IV. Die Teplitz. Scliicht, p. 86, fig. 83. 
1895. — ef. NODOSA, B. Lundijren. Mollusk. i Maminill.-oc\\ Mucron- 

zonerna i uordostra Skane (K. Svenska Vet.- 
Akad. Haudl., n. s., vol. xxvi. No. 6), p. 41. 
1897. — Baeeoisi, H. IFoods. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. liii, p. 388, 

pi. sxvii, figs. 18, 19. 

Description. — Shell small, ovate, rounded, a little oblique. Riglit valve inflated, 
with the apical part truncated by the attached surface, which is often fairly large. 
Left valve flattened or slightly concave, often with a subcircular opening near 
the umbo. Both valves ornamented with more or less numerous, strong, nearly 
smooth and rounded ribs, separated by deep and well-marked grooves ; the ribs 
may bifurcate near the margins of the valves, and new ribs may be intercalated. 
Strongly marked growth-lines occur at intervals, and also concentric lamellte, the 
latter beinsf most distinct on the left valve. 

Measurements: 

(1) 
Length .... 5'75 

Height .... G-0 

(1 — 4) from the Chalk Eock, near Winchester. 

Bemarlcs. — This species was described and figured by Reuss as P. pedinoides, 
Sowerby, but it differs greatly from Sowerby's species. D'Orbigny referred it to 
P. nodosa, Dujardin ; ^ Geinitz and Fritsch followed the same course. Barrois, 
although using the name P. nodosa, stated that Dujardin's figure was very 
incomplete, and consequently his specimens could not be identified as belonging 
definitely to that species. Peron subsequently pointed out that the species under 
consideration differs considerably from P. nodosa, Dujardin ; the latter being about 
four times larger, more elevated, and ornamented with large, simple, Avidely 
separated ribs. He therefore described and figured it as a new species — 
P. Barroisi. 

Types. — Reuss's specimens came from the Pliiner-Kalk and Pyrope Sand of 
Irziblitz, and from the Pliiner-Mergel of Weberschan. Peron's figured specimens 
came from the Upper Turonian of Valmy. 

Distribution. — Zone of P. Ciivieri of the Devon coast. Zone of T. gracilis of 
the Devon coast and Dover. Zone of H. planus of Dover, the Sussex coast, 
Twyford (Winchester), etc. Chalk Rock of Winchester, etc. Zone of M. cor- 



(-') 


(3) 


(■*) 


5-5 


5-0 


4' 5 mm, 


G-0 


575 


5-5 „ 



1 < 



Mt'm. Soc. geol. de France,' vol. ii (1837), p. 228, pi. xv, fig. 14. 



PLICATULA.. 143 

testndinarium of Dover and the Sussex coast. Zone of M. cor-anguinum of tlie 
Tlianet coast, the North Foreland, St. Margaret's, and the Sussex coast. Uivtacrinus 
band of Kingsgate. Mnrsiipites zone of the Sussex and Thanet coasts. Zone of 
B. mucronata of Chirendon, near Sahsbury. 



Pr.icATUL.v siGiLLixA, Wooclwdvcl, 1 8G4. Plate XXVI, figs. 19—22. 

? 1852. Spondylus dichotomus, A. Btivignier. Statist, gcol., etc., do la Meuse, 

Atlas, p. 25, ])1. six, figs. 16, 17. 
1864. Plicatula sigillina, S. P. Woodward. Geol. Mag., vol. i, p. 112, pi. v, 

figs. 1-5. 

Description. — Shell small, semi-oval or semicircular in outline, a little oblique. 
Hinge margin long. Right vah'e attached by nearly the whole of its surface ; 
interior with slightly raised radial ribs, somewhat irregular, becoming more 
numerous at the sharp raised margin ; beyond this margin is a Inroad smooth 
sloping border boimded by a raised edge, outside which are, in some cases, radial 
ribs. Left valve slightly convex, ornamented with well-marked concentric lamellae. 

Measurements : 

(1) (2) (3) (4) (.5) (6) (7) 

Length . 14 15 1-5 (ro 11 l(i 9 
Heio-ht' . 12 1-5 17 (> 10 12 9 



'o 



(8) 


(9) 


(10) 


17 


18 


21 mm 


IC) 


16 


18 „ 



(1 — 3) M. cor-testudinarium zouc, Chatham. 
(4 — 6) M. cor-angninnm zone, Gravesend. 
(7 — 10) B. mucronata zoue, Hartford Bridge, Norwich. 

Ajjliuti.es. — The form from the Gault of Clermont and Les Islettes (Argonne, 
Meuse), described by Buvignier as tSjmndi/lus dichotomus, is probably identical with 
this species; it is especially like examples of P. sigillina from the Cambridge 
Greensand and the Gault of Folkestone. 

P. sifjillina differs from the other Cretaceous Plicatulsc here described in being 
attached by almost the entire surface of the right valve, and in the absence of 
radial ribs or folds on the left valve ; in these respects it resembles the completely 
fixed forms of the recent species P. fhilippinarum, Hanley. 

Remarks. — This species occurs attached to Echinocorys, Inoceramus, Belemvitella, 
and other fossils. The fixed valve is common in the Norwich Chalk and the 
Cambridge Greensand. The left valve is nuich less frequently found than the 
right, and at present appears to be known only from the Upper Chalk and the 
ff. pUinns zone. The inner layer of the shell has undoul)tedly disappeared, and 

' Measured obliquely. 



144 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 

consequently tlie character of the hinge and the adductor impression cannot be 
seen. A small oyster, as noted by Dr. S. P. Woodward, is often found in the 
Chalk attached to echinoids, etc., and is similar in general appearance to Plicahda 
siglllina; but it is easily distinguished by its ti'iangular ligament-pit and clearly 
marked adductor impression, by the absence of ribs from the interior of the 
attached valve, and by the more porous structure of the shell. 

Types.— One of the types (Woodward's fig. 1) from Grays is in the British 
Museum. The others, from the Upper Chalk of Norwich and Grays, I have not 
seen. 

Distribution. — Upper Gault (zones x and xi) of Folkestone. Cambridge 
Greensand. Grey Chalk of Dover. Zones of B. Guvieri, T. gracilis, and H.plmius 
of Dover and the Sussex coast. Zone of M. cor-testudinarium of Chatham, Dover, 
and the Sussex coast. Zone of M. cor-anguinu'in of Gravesend, the Thanet coast, 
Kingsgate Castle, St. Margaret's, and the Sussex coast. Zone of Marsupites of the 
Thanet and Sussex coasts. Uintacrinus-hand of Devizes Road (near Salisbury). 
Zone of A. quadratus of the Dorset and Sussex coasts. Zone of B. viucronata of 
the Dorset coast, Hartford Bridge, etc. (near Norwich). 



THE 



PALEONTOGliAPHKLlL S()(^T]^TY. 



INSTiTUl'Kl) MDCCCXLA' 



VOLUME FOR 1902 



I. ON DON 



MDCCCCII. 



A :\J OX () (, K APH 



OF THE 



CI1ETACE0U8 LAMELLIBIIANCHIA 



EN(iLAND. 



BY 



HENRY WOODS, M.A., 

UNIVERSITY LECTUUER I\ I'AL-EOZOOLOGY, CAMBRIDGE. 



PAE'I' IV. 
PKCT I Xl 1)^. 

Pages 145— l!»(j; Plates XXVII— XXXVIII. 



1^ O .\ D (J X : 
PRINTED FOK THE PAL^ONTOGKAPHR'AL SOCJETY. 



PKINTED BY ADLAUD AND SON, 
BARTHOLOMEW ClOSE, E.C. ; 20, HAKOVER SQUARE, W. ; AND DORKING, 



IM'CTKX. 145 



Family— VE("V\X\])J^.,^ LimarrL 

Genus — Pkctkn, MiiJIrr, 177<). 

(' Prodr. Zciol. ])uu..' ]>. 248.) 

Siib-r/enus — Syncvclonkma, /■'. //. Meek, 18C4. 

(' Cheek List of luvort. Foss. N. America, ('ret iuid Jiir..' Smithson, Misc. Coll. 177, pp. 7, 31.) 

Si/nci/cloitrniii slidiild ]ii-(ili:il)l y l>c united -witli Eittnlinm, ;i.s lia.s Ijccii .-^iigo-ested 
by Pliili|i])i, since in tlic fdrnicr the ('(inccntfic ornainentation of the right A'alve is 
sometimes incompletely developed, and the eai's liave, in some cases, a more or less 
well-marked dorsal |)i'olongation ; (Hi the (it her hand, in some forms of EntolinmthG 
dorsal prolongation of the ears is insigiiiticant. Sijncyduneiiiit is the earlier of the 
two names. The type of EntoJium- is IWtcn demissuf^, r]iilli]is ; this has also been 
taken by Verrill '' as the type of Frotamusium. 



Pecten (Syncyci.oxivMa) oi;i;ieui,AKis, Sowerhy, 1817. J'lale XXYll; and Text- 
fig. 1. 

1817. Pecten orbiculakis, /. Sowerlij. Min. Coneli., vol. ii, p. li'S. pi. clx.xxvi. 
1819. — — Lamarclc. Aiiiiii. sans Yert., vol. vi, jit. 1, p. 182. 

1822. — LAMiNosus, G. Jl/rtw/c//. Foss. S. Downs, p. 128, pi. xxvi, figs. 8, 22. 
1825. — ORBICULARIS, Befrance. Diet. Sci. nat , vol. xxxviii, p. 252. 



1 Recent accounts of the classification of the Pectinidae have been given by — A. E. Verrill, " A 
Study of the Pectinidae, with a Revision of the Genera and Sub-genera," ' Trans. Connecticut Aead.,' 
vol. X (1897), p. 41. F. Sacco, " Mollusehi dei Terreni Terziarii del Piemonte e della Liguria ; " pt. 
24, " Pectinida5," 1897. W. H. Dall, " Tertiary Fauna of Florida," ' Trans. Wagner Free Inst, of 
Philadelphia,' vol. iii, pt. 4 (1898j, pp. 689 — 758. E. Philippi, " Beitriige zur Morphologic und 
Phylogenio dcr Laniellibranchier : " (\) " Hinnites und Velopedeji" ' Zeitschr. der deutsch. geol. 
Gesellsch.,' vol. 1 (1898), p. 597; (2) "Zur Stammcsgeschichte der Pectiniden," ibid., vol. Iii (1900), 
p. 64. A. Locard, " Faiiue Malacologique Fraucaise," xi, " Monographic des Espcces appartonant au 
Genre Pecten" 'Ann. Soc. Linn, de Lyon,' vol xxxiv (1888), p 133. C. Deperet and F. Roman, 
"Monographic des Pectinides ncogcnes cle I'Europe et des regions voisines," 'Mem. Soc. geol. de 
France (Paleont.),' vol. x, pt. 1 (1902). 

- Meek, "Gcol. Survey of California," ' Geology,' vol. i, Appendix B (18G5), pp. 478, 479. 

'•'■ 'Trans. Connect. Acad.,' vol. x (1897), p. 71. 



146 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHTA. 

? 1836. Pecten laminosus, A. GoldJ'nss. Potref. Germ., vol. ii, p. 76, pi. xcix, fig. 9. 

— — OEBicTJLAKis, i(n»(f)r7i-. Anini. sans Vert. (ed. 2, liy lU'shaycs and 

Milne-Edwards), vol. vii. p. 159. 
1839. — LAMINOSUS, H. B. Geliiitz. Cliai-. d. Seliieht. \i. Petref. dos Si'iclis. 

Kreidegeb., })t. 1, p. 23. 

— — ciRcuLAEis, Geinifz. Ibid., p. 23. 

1841. — OEBicuLARis, 7^. ^. i^cVfifer. Die Verstein. nord-deutsch. Kreidegeb., 

p. 49. 

— — LAMINOSUS, Rijmer. Ibid., p. 49. 

1843. — ORBICULARIS, H. B. Geinitz. Die Versteiii. von Kicsliugswalda, 

p. 16. 

1844. — — A. (VOrhigny. In X. Honimaire de Hell, Les Steppes 

de la Mer Caspienne, vol. iii, 
p. 439, pi. vi, figs. 18—20. 
? 1815. — — E.Forhes. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soo., vol. i, p. 249. 

1846. — — A.E.JReusg. D e Verstein. derbuhm. Kreideformat., 

\>t. 2, p. 27, pi. xli, figs. 18, 19. 

— — LAMINOSUS, Efvg?. Ibid., p. 27, ]il. xxxix, fig. 5. 

1847. — ORBICULARIS, A. d'Orbigiii/. Pal. Franc. Terr. Crct., vol. iii, ji. 597, 

pi. ecccxxxiii, figs. 14 — IC. 
? • — — LAMINOSUS, /. Mi'dler. Petref. Aachen. Kreideformat., pt. 1, p. 31. 

1848. — ORBICULARIS, H. G. Bronii. Index Palfeont., vol. i, ja. 928. 

1850. — — H. B. Geinitz. Das Qiiudersandst. oder Kreidegeb. 

iu Deutscliland. p. 180. 

— — — -A. d'Orbigiiy. Prodr. de Pal., vol. li, p. 1C9. 

? 1852. — — R. Kner. Deuksclir. d. k. Akad. d. Wissenscli. 

Matli.-nat. Classe, vol. iii, p. 315. 

1854. — — /. Morris. Cat. Brit. Foss., ed. 2, p. 177. 

1855. — — G. Cotteau. Moll. Foss. de I'Tonuo, p. 116. 

1863. — — A. V. Stromheck. Zeitsclir. d. deutseli. geol. 

Gesellscli., vol. xv, p. 108. 
1868. — — E. Eivhwald. Lethoea Eossiea, vol. ii, p. 423, pi. xx, 

fig. 4. 
18C9. — suBLAMiNosus, E. Favve. Moll. Foss. Craie de Lemberg, ji. 143, 

pi. xiii, fig. 1. 

1870. — G-RBicvhAuifi, F. J. Pictet and G. Canqnchc. Foss. Terr. Cret. Sto. 

Croix (Mater. Pal. Suisse, ser. 5), p. 2U6. 

— — — W. A. Ooster. Protoz. Helvet., vol. ii, p)- 57. 

1871. — (Syncyclonhma) oebiculaeis, F. Stolicz/M. Palseont. ludica, 

Cret. Fauna S. India, vol. iii, 
p. 428. 

1872. — LAMINOSUS, H. B. Geinitz. Das Elbthalgeb. in Sachseu (Palaeonto- 

graphiea, vol. xx, pt. 1), p. 192, 
pi. xliii, fig. 14. 

1873. — opERCULARis, W. Diimef:. Zeitsehr. d. deutsch. geol. Gesellscli., 

vol. XXV, p. 68 ; ibid , vol. xxvi, 
p. 763 (foot-note). 

1874. — (Amusium) ORBICULARIS, Dailies. Ibid., vol. xxvi. ji. 703. 



TK.'TKX. 14; 

1874. Pkctkn i.aminosus, Dames. Ibi.l., |.. TCI. 

I8(H. — _ H. Deicke. Die Toiirtia von MiUlaini a. <1. Ilulir. ].. -20. 

^^"- ~ — A. Fiitsch. Stud, ill! Gcbiotedfiljiiliui.Kivi.Uforiiiaf.: 

II, Die AVeisseuberg. und Malnitz. 
Scliifbt., p. 13(5, fijr. \-H\. 
— — mi\in:v\.Miiti, a. Boehm. Zoit.sehr. d. deiitseli. geol. Go.'^i-llseh , 

vol. .\.\ix, j>. 233. 
''^''^' — •' Klesow. Schrift. d. iint. Ge.sellsc-li. iii Daiizi-r. 

N. v., vol. V, p. 415. 

1882. — er. oRi!icLi,.\ui.s, K. WimJnwlkr. Jalirb. d. k. preussisch. j,'ool. 

Laudesanst. liir 1881, p 20. 

1883. — ori!I(;ui..m:is. var. mag.nus, W. Ktcpiu<j. Foss., t-tc, Nooe. Upware 

aud Briukiiiil, j). lOG, pi. v, fij,'. 1. 
188.5. — (Syncyci.om-m.vj okbicui.aius, /-'. NoUukj. Die Fauna d. baltisch. 

Cenoniau (Palaeout Abhaiidl., 
vol. ii), p. 19, pi iii, figs. 4, 5. 
— — i,AMiNosus. Nofliii,/. Ii)id., p. 19, i>l. iii, a.^. 3. 

'f — Synoyoi.onkma suiu.amino.sa. /. Jl.lnn. Veiliau.ll. drs i at. Vereins d. 

]iieussi.srli. lilicinl., vol. .\lii, p. 83. 
1^ 1889. Pecten lami.no.sus, L'. lUmpfd. Die Mdlusk. Aachen. Kreide (Palu^- 

oiitographiea, vol. x.xxv), ji. 231. 
1893. — oiuiicuLARi.s, B. Micha,}. Z.'il.sehr. d. deutsch. geol. Gesellscb., 

vol. xlv, p. 23(!. 

— - i.A.MiNosus. .U/rA,;,/. 1 1 lid , | .. 2:;."). 

•' ''"*'■"■ - oitiii.in.AKi.s, ,1. IhuHui. Ue(,l. F.lren. i HloeKliolm Fuibandl.. 

vol. xvi, p. .519. 
1895. — CoTTALDiNu.s (,'. Maa^. Zeits.hr. d. .leulseli. -eol. Gesellseli., v.d. 

xlvii, p. L'(;9. 
1895. — oKiucui.Aiu.s, \ar. LoiiMAN.Ni, .1, WolUmomt. Ibid., vol. xlviii, j,. 

839, pi. xxi, fig. 1. 
^'''■''- — -- U. Si,hh. Geoguost. Jahi-esliefte, N. J. (1896;, 

p. 40. pi. iv, fig. 8. 

— Syncyclonicma oititicui.AKjs, I{. B. Newton. Proe. Dorset Nat. Hist, and 

Anticj. Field Club, vol. xviii, 
p. 84, pi. iii, fig. 9. 
19(11 Picii N- ,;i:KMAN,,rs. .1. \V..lhm„,n,. Die IJiv. u. Gastrop. d. deutsch. 

n. luiUiind. Neoeonis (Abliandl. d. k. 
preussiseh. geol. Land., N. F., pt. 31 ), 
p. 41, ].!. viii, figs. 13—19. 

Non 1827. PiiCTEN orbicularis, .S'. Nihson. Petrif. Suecaua, p. 23, pi. x, fig. 12 

(= P. Nihsoni, Goldf.). 
— '84(5. — — ?, E.Forbes. Tnins. Geol. Soe, ser. 2, vol. vii, p 154 

(= Amusiiim sulcatelliim, Stol.). 

Vr.srrljil it'll..- SIk'II ovate (ir iu'ai-l\ (.i-liicular, iicarlv ciiuilakTal ; lirio-ht a little 
oivalcf lliaii Icimlli; margins on eacli .sii|,. of tin. iiiiilio .straii^-liteiKMl, Hint on the 
posterior side l)eing slightly luiigef llian t he eorrc'^iiondiiig aiitt'iior part. Valves 



148 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 

flattened, compressed near the straiglit margins ; the left valve sometimes rather 
more convex than the right. Ears rather small, nearly equal, the anterior slightly 
larger than the posterior, both often slightly produced dorsally ; external margins 
usually curving, sometimes nearly straight ; those of the posterior ears somewhat 
more oblique than those of the anterior. Surface of ears smooth or with gi'owth- 
lines, and occasionally radial sti'ia?. Umbones sharp ; apical angle varying from 
99° to 115°, average 106°. No l)yssal sinus. Hinge similar to Amusimn. 

Right valve ornamented with l)road and usually well-marked concentric ridges 
and fvu'rows, varying in number. Ridges flat, and, in well-preserved specimens, 
with a ventral laminar portion projecting over the next furrow ; the furrows are 
narrower or absent near the antero- and postero-dorsal margins. The ridges are 
ornamented with fine concentric grooves, and with finei' radial striae, the latter being- 
seen best near the antero- and postero-dorsal margins. 

Left valve appears almost or (juite smooth to the naked eye, but with a lens is 
seen to be ornamented with numerous fine concentric grooves, and sometimes with 
fine radial stria3. 

Measurements : 

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) (16) (17) (18) (19) (20) (21) (22) (23) 
Length . 25-.5 24 22 155 13-5 215 31 47 40 39-5 55 30 26 24 15-5 44 73 22 13 69 34 31 23 5 mm 
Height . 27-5 26 25 17 15-5 25 34 50 43 42 56 33 28 26 17 47 76 23 14 70 36 33-5 26 



(1 — 4) Tealby Limestone. 

(.5) Folkestone Beds, Folkestone. 

(6, 7) Greensand (Chert Beds), Haldou. 

(8 — 11) Upper Greeusand, Ventnor. 
(12, 13) „ „ Warmiuster. 



(14—16) Gault, Folkestone. 

(17-19) Chalk Marl, Folkestone. 

(20, 21) Chalk Marl, Burwell. 

(22, 23) 'I'otternhoe Stone, Burwell. 



Affinities. — P. germaiu'cus, WoUemann, from the Neocomian of Brunswick, 
fippears to be inseparable from this species. The characters regarded as distinctive 
l)y Dr. Wollemann, such as the fine concentric strife on the left valve, the more 
laminar character of the concentric rijjs on the right, and their radial strise, are 
also found in many specimens of P. ort>icuIa)-is ; their presence and distinctness 
depend mainly on the state of preservation of the sjiecimens. Dr. Wollemann has 
examined a specimen from the Tealby Limestone (similar to PI. XXVII, figs. 1,2), 
and informs me that it is undoubtedly identical with his i*. germanicus ; he has also 
kindly sent me specimens of the latter from near Brunswick, and they seem to be 
quite inseparable from P. orbicularis. The difference in horizon is mentioned by 
Dr. Wollemann as giving some support to his view that the Neocomian form is 
distinct, Init since P. orbicularis ranges, without a Ijreak, from the zone of 
//. bruiisvicensis to the zone of Holasfer subglobusu^, we must rather regard the con- 
tinuous distribution as favourable to the identity of the earlier and later forms. 

/'. orbicularis, var. magnus, Keeping, from UpAvare, is a large variety of this 
species, and is similar to a form found in the Chalk Marl (Text-fig. 1). In the 



PKCTHX. I I'.t 

spcciiiRMis wliicli I liave seen, tlie concentric oniamcnt on tlif riulit valve i.s indis- 
tinct, owinsi,- to tlu' iiiipcrt'cct preservation oF tlie surface of tlie shell, litit in sevei'al 
cases the fine concentric grooves are clearly shown on tlie left valve. 

Fectrii Dariux, d'Oi-ljio'iiy,' from the Albian, is a closely allied form, but at 
present is known only by the brit'f desci-iption in the ' I'rodrome.' The form from 
the Ganlt of Cosiie, desci'ilied by l)e hoi'iol" as /'. Dariitu, a])])ears to differ from 
J', orbini/iiris in the iiiei|iiality of ils ears; the ti^'ures do net show the cliaraelei- 
of the ornaineiitation satisfactorily. Aiiiusinm ^ulcnfellnm, Stoliczka,'' and J'. 
coucL'iitricc-sulcatns, Miiller,' appear to i)e eloselv allied to /'. (irhiculnris. 

The Senonian s])eeiiuens descrii)ed liy (ioldfiiss, Holzapfel, etc., as J'.himinostis, 
Cioldfuss, and Ijy Favre and Htilini as /'. siibldininosuft, seem to agree with those 
forms of /'. orhiciihti-i.s- which have more iiumerons ribs than nsnal, and pai-ticnlarl\' 
with som(> examples from the W'ai-minster (ii-eensand and theChloritic .Marl of .Maiden 
15radley. Professor Ilol/.aprel has kindly sent me eight specimens from the Aachen 
Greensand, but it is difficult to compare tlu'in satisfactorilv with Hnglish examples 
owing to their different mode of preservation. There does not, however, api)ear to 
be snfficient reason to regard them as distinct from the Cenomanian forms of 
]'. orhiculiiris. The ears in the example figured by Goldfnss are larger than is usual 
in /'. iirhiciild vis. 

J'. mcinJjnniiifi'Ks, Xilsson," is similar in form to /'. orhirnhi ris, but has the eon- 
centric ornamentation xcry fine, so that the shell apjiears to be almost smooth. 
r. Nilssoui, Goldfnss," is also distinguished by being nearly smooth, and (judging 
from Goldfnss' fig. HA) is still further separated from this group by its deep bvssal 
sinus. 

/'. «'0/(;/(«/"r/.v, ■ Fischer de Waldheim,' is a closely allied form, but without 
seeing a series of specimens 1 am unable to make a compai'ison. 

/'. (Ai/iKfiuim) hdlticns, Dames. ^ is probably ideiuieal with /'. (irliinihiris. 

' 'Pi-odr. de Pal.,' vol. ii (lS.50), \<. l:i\>. 

- •• Fauiu' du Guull de Cosne," ' Mt'in. Soc. I'al. Suisse.' vol. ix, 1882, p. 84, i)l. x, fiij. 6. 

•■' 'Fallout. ludica, C'rot. Fauna S. India,' vol. iii (1S71). ]>. 136, pi, xxxi, fv^s. 12, 17. 

' 'Molluslc. Uutcrsenon von iSraunsihweig u. Il.sede ' (18!I8). p. o4, pi. v, fij^. 9. 

•' ' Pelrif. Succ' (1827), p. 23, pi. ix, fig. 1(3 (lower fiLrure). See also Heuuig, Holzapfel, Zitlel, 
Geiuitz, Goldfuss, etc. 

" 'Peti-ef. Germ.,' vol. ii (llSoC), p. 7(i, pi. xeix. tig. 8. 

^ Fischer de Waldheim, 'Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. de Moscou,' vol. xvi (1843), p. 135, pi. v, fig. 4; 
d'Orliigny, in Muvchison, de Verueuil, and Kevserliug, ' Gi'ol. de la Eussie,' vol. ii (184.5), p. 475, 
pi. xli, tigs. 20—23, and figs. K)— 19 {P. deiuismts) ; d'Orljiguy, ' Prodr. de Pal.,' vol. i (1849), p. 373 ; 
Trautsiliold, ' Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. de Moscou,' vol. xxxviii (1865), p. 23, pi. iii, rig. 2 ; Nikifin, " Les 
Vestiges de la Pcriode Cn't. dans la Kuss. Ceutrale," 'Mem. Com. Gi'ol.,' vol. v, 1888, p. 73; 
P. demissvs, TrautschoM. • Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. de Moscou,' vol. xxxiv (1861), p. 268, pi. vii, fig. 4. 

8 'Zeitschr. d. driUsrh. gcol. Ge.sellscli.,' vol. xxvi (1874), p. 762, pi. xxi, fig. 1. Niilliug, 
" Baltischcn Cenouian.," " Palaeont. .Vliliandl.,' vol. ii, p. 17, pi. ii, Iv^. 7. 



150 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 

BemarhK. — The appearance of the shell differs considerably according to the 
state of preservation ; the fine concentric grooves on the right valve are seen 
chiefly when the ontermost layer of the shell has been removed ; when a thicker 
layer has disappeared this valve may become almost smooth. 

This is one of the commonest and most widely distrilmted of the Cretaceons 
Pectens ; it varies considerably in size, in proportions, in the nnmber of con- 
centric ribs, and also to some extent in convexity. Some of the varieties are more 
abnndant at certain horizons than elsewhere, but are seldom, if ever, limited to one 
level, and are doubtless accounted for liy the varying conditions under which the 
deposits were laid down. Some of these varieties are here briefly noticed. 

1. Tciilhy Limestone (zone of Bel. hninsvicensis:). — The forms found at this 
horizon never reach a large size (PI. XXVII, figs. 1, 2), and on the average 
are smaller than those found in the Cenomanian ; they are also slightly higher in 
]iroportion to their length, and often rather more convex. The number of con- 
centric ribs is not so great as in many Upper Greensand and Cenomanian forms. 
Near the umbo there is usually seen a fairly large, smooth portion of the shell 
without ribs, which at first sight appears to be a distinguishing feature of the 
forms from this horizon. But the examination of a large series of specimens 
shows that this is due to imperfect preservation ; the same feature has been noticed 
by Dr. WoUemann in Brunswick specimens. The size of this smooth area varies 
very considerably in different specimens, and occasionally nearly all the concentric 
lilis have disappeared ; moreover, an identical smooth portion is sometimes seen in 
specimens from the Gault and Chalk Marl. 

2. FolJcestone Beds. — Eorms very similar to those from the Tealby Limestone 
and of about the same size occur in the Folkestone Beds of Folkestone, but do not 
appear to be numerous. The number of ribs is sometimes greater, sometimes less 
than in the Tealby specimens. 

3. 6-'(n(//.— The forms in the Gault (PL XXVII, fig. 3) are, on the average, 
of aljout the same size as the Tealby specimens, but some larger examples also 
occur ; they sometimes possess rather more numerous ribs, and in some cases 
the valves are quite as convex as in the Tealby forms, but usually rather less. 

4. Upper Greensand. — The forms from Ventnor are noteworthy for the large 
size which they reach ; the numl)er of concentric ribs is variable, and on the largest 
specimens the later part of the valve (PL XXVII, fig. 7 n) is smooth and without 
ribs, and in the ribbed part two (bstinct stages may sometimes be noticed, an 
earlier with close-set ribs, a later with more widely separated ribs (i'l. XXVII, 
figs. 8, 9). Sometimes the grooves are widely spaced and the ribs broad (fig. \)a). 

r. orhicularis seems to be rare at BlackdoAvn, and the forms seen are rather 
small, with lunnerous ri])S. The exami)les from the Chert Beds of llaldon 
(PL XXVII, fig. 4), of which there is a good series in the Exeter jMuseum, have the 



pe(;ten. l-.l 

oars iniicl: 1;ul;'ii' llian usual, .ilso a sinalka' apical auyle, and straig'lit aiitero- and 
postero-dorsal niai'gins ; the shell is rather hiiiii in pinportion, and the rilis are 
nnnicrons. Since all the Ilaldon specimens agree in these respects, and are readily 
distinguishal)l<' fioni those found elsewhere, they may be regarded as a local 
variety, and named /'. ()r1)iciilnris, var. Jiahioneii-fi.^ : this variety I'csembles the form 
From the Ceudmanian ot' Uavaria tigurcd by S()h1e (1 S'.l7). The forms found in 
the I"p])i'i- (ireensand ol' Warminster ai-e I'allier larger than most of those in the 
(lault and Lower Cretaceous, and often ha\'e numerous ribs. 

■ ). Cciiomaituin. — Small forms, with a variable number of ril)S, occur commonly 
in th(> Chalk Marl, and rarely also a very large variety, sometimes reaching 7() mm. 
in height i^Text-fig". \). In the If. sulxjlohotius ztme the average si/,e is rather 





Fio. 1. — PectcH (Syncydonema) orhicularis. Sow. Chalk Mail, Folkestone Woodwarilian Museum. 

Natural size. 



larger than in (!ault and Lower Cretaceous, but no forms as large as tho.se in the 
l^p|)er (ireensaud meiilioncd above have been seen. The nund)er of ribs is 
variable. 

Ti/pen. — The type, from the Cppei' Greensand of Devizes, appears to have l)een 
lost, and the same is the case with the types of /'. laminosns from the Chalk .Marl 
of llaniscy and Stoneham. 

hi^lrlhuHon. — Folkestone Beds of Folkestone. T.ower Greensand of Upware. 
Spilsby Sandstone of Donnington and Spilsby. (Taxby Ironstone of lienniworth 
Ifaven. Tealby Limestone (zone of //. bransvicrnais) of Xorth Williiigham and 
Claxby. Speeton Series (.same zone) of Speeton {jhlc Lamplugh). 

Also recnrdcd in the (Geological Survey Meiuniis from the Pn-na-hQ([ of Atlicr- 



152 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANGHIA. 

field and Saiidown ; tlie Ferruginous Sands of Shanklin ; tlie Carstone of Bon- 
cliurcli, etc. ; tlie Hythe Beds of Hytlie, Maidstone, Godalming, and Pulborough ; 
and the Sandgate Beds of Sandgate and Parham. I have not seen the specimens 
on which these records are based. 

Gault of Folkestone (zones i — iii, ix — xi), and Black Ven. Zone of IT. inter- 
ruptus of Okeford Fitzpaine. Recorded by the Geological Survey from the Gault 
of Compton Bay, Culver, Blackgang, Niton, and Bonchurch, and from the Red 
Limestone of Hunstanton. Cambridge Greensand (derived from the Gault). Upper 
Greensand (zone of Srlihrnhacliia rostrata) of Blackdown, Devizes, Ventnor, 
Selborne, and the Devon coast. Upper Greensand (zone of Pecten asper) of 
Haldon, Warminster, Ventnor, and Niton. 

C!hloritic Marl of Maiden Bradley and Ventnor. Chalk Marl of Folkestone, 
Hamsey, Blue Bell Hill (Burham), Burwell, Madingley, and Hauxton. C-eno- 
manian of Wilmington. Unwer Chalk (? Chalk Marl) of Stoke Ferry. Totternhoe 
Stone of ('herry Hinton, FuUjourn, and Burwell. Zone of U. suhglohosiis of Cherry 
Hhiton. 



Pecten, sp., cf. Nilssoni, Gohlfuss, 1836. 

A species, apparently Itelonging to this group, has been found by Mr. R. M. 
Brydone in the Chalk of Trimingham ; it has a smooth, or nearly smooth, thin 
shell, with nearly equal ears, and seems to agree with P. Nilssoni, Goldfuss,^ but I 
am unable to say whether it possesses a byssal sinus as is shown in the figures of 
Goldfuss and Ravn. It also resembles P. vienilminacrus, Nilsson (see p. 140), but 
appears to have been proportionately longer, and has consequently a larger apical 
angle and smaller ears. Only three incomplete specimens have been seen, the 
largest having a length of aliont 53 mm. 



Sub-gemis—CAUVToNiicriiii {Agassiz MS.), F. IJ. Meel; 1864. 

('Cheek List of Invert. Foss. N. Auu-rica, Cret. and Jiir.,' Smithsou, Misc. Coll. 177, pp. 28, 39.) 

Pecten (Camptonectes) cinctus, Soiverhy, 1822. Plate XXVill; and Text-fig. 2. 

1822. Pecten cincttjs, /. Soiverhy, Miu. Couch., vol, iv, p. 96, pi. ccclxxi. 
1825. — — Befrance. Diet. Sei. nat., vol. xxxviii, p. 254. 



1 Muller (1827), p. 23, pi. x, fig. 12. Goldfuss, vol. ii (1836), p. 76, pi. xeix, fig. 8. Hennig (1897), 
p. 45, pi. iii, figs. 18, 19. Vogel (1895), p. 21, pi. i, fig. 17. Eavn (1902), p. 9, pi. ii, figs. 3—5. See 
also Rcjmer (1841), Reuss (1846), Favre (1869), Geiuitz (1872), Brauus (1876), Fritsch (1877-97), 
Behreus (1878), Griepeukerl (1889), StoUey (1892), Leouhard (1897). 



p 

18(5S, 



I'KCTEN. ]:,:! 

18:39. Tecten crassitesta, F. A. BDmer. Verstein. nord-deutscli. Oolith.-gcb. 

Nacbtrag, p. 27. 
IS 11. — ciNCTus, F. A. RJimer. Die Verstein. noi-d-deutsch, Kreidegeb,, 

p. 50. 
184G. — iMPERiALis, yl. JTM/ser/mgt. Petschoraland, p. 295, pi. xv. 
1847. — CRASSITESTA. A. iVOrhigmj. Pal. Fran^. Terr. Crct., vol. iii. p. 584, 

pi. cccoxxx, figs. 1 — 3. 
? 1854. — CINCTUS, J. Morrlx. Cat. Brit. Foss., ed. 2, p. 176 (not from flic 

locality and horizon given). 

CRASSITEST ', 3/o»TIS. 11)1(1., p. 176. 

— — F. Ficlncald. Lctliaia Eossica, vol. ii, p. 4i7. 

1870. — — /•'. ,/. Pictd and G. Campiclie. Foss. Terr. Cret. Sto. 

Croix (Matrr. Pal. Suisse, ser. 5), p. 
212. 

1871. — (Pseudamusium) CRASSITESTA, F. &Yo/i«A-n. Palaeont. Indica, Cret. 

Fauna S. India, vol. iii, p. 428. 
ISSt. — CRASSITESTA, 0. Wctrtli. Dio Fauna des Ncoconi. iin Teutolmrg. 

Waldo (Palaeont. Abhandl., vol. ii>, p. 58. 

— — RoEMERi, Weerlh. Il)id., p. 54. 

1895. — (Syncyclonema) crassitesta, F. Vogel. IloUiind. Kreide, p. 54. 

— — CRASSITESTA, G. Moas. Zeitsclir. d. dcutsdi. geol. Gesellscli., 

vol. xlvii, p. 299. 

1896. — — A. WoUemanii. Ibid., vol. xlviii, p. 838. 

1899. — — G. Maas. Ibid., vol. li, p. 249. 

1900. — — A. Wollrmann. Die Biv. u. Gastrop. <1, doulsdi. u. 

holliiud. Neocoms (Abliaudl. d. Ic. 
preussisch. geol. Land., N. F., 
pt. 31), p. 39. 

Vescript ion .—^hc]] very large, stout, rather convex, oval or nearly circular, 
almost equilateral, length sometime.^ a little greater than height, sonietime.s a little 
less. ITnibo pointed, with the margins on each side straight or slightly concave. 
Apiciil angle tVoiii 1:1:1" to I N- in the longer forms; from 1 20'^ to 127^ in the 
shorter and higher forms. Kars long :iihI low, nni'i|na]. 

Right valve moderately convex, witii a nearly smootli surface; ornamented 
Avith very regular concentric linear grooves l)et\veen Avhich are flat interspaces, the 
ventral edges of which are .sometimes i)roduced as laminje over the grooves. The 
interspaces are ci'ossed by numerous radial striae, which sometimes extend only part 
of the di.stance from one concentric groove to the next; also faint concentric ridges 
are sometimes seen. Anterior ear larger than posterior, with a well-marked bvssal 
sinus, ornamented with close-set siinious ridges. Posterior ear with the outer 
angle i-ectangular or slightly olituse, ornamented witli ridges crossed bv radial 
stria;. 

Left valve more convex than the right, with simihir ornamentation, but havino- 
the concentric grooves more distinct, the lamina) often more prominent, and the 

20 



154 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 

radial strife usually less distinct and sometimes al)sent except near the uml)o. Ears 
slightly unequal, with ridges and j'adial grooves. 

A B 

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (G) (1) (2) (3) (1) (5) (6) (7) 

Length . 57 118 118 120 132 191 ... 52 150 T.H 105 204 212 2:U mm. 
Heiglit . 62 1*25 120 127 145 207 ... 52 145 179 LSI 192 201 220 „ 

A. The liit;'lier and shorter forms. (1) Tealhj Limestone : (2--(>) ClaxLy Ironstone. 

B. Tlie lower anil longer forms. (1) 'J'ealby Limestone : (2 — 7) Claxby Ironstone. 

Affinities. — Goldfuss' P. circidaris^ was regarded by Romer and Bronn as 
identical with /'. crassitesta, Romer; subsequently both were considered by Romer 
as synonyms of P. ciiictiis, 8owerl:)y. The example figured Ijy Goldfuss is stated 
by him to have come from the Greensand of Dorsetshire ; but no species of this type 
appears to have been found in the Greensand of that district, whereas the similar 
form- 7'. lameUostiH, Sowerby, from the Portlandian, is common there, and Goldfuss' 
figure agrees more closely with that than witli P. cinctus : this view was evidently 
held by Morris, since he gives P. circuJaris as a synonym of P. hiincUosuf!. 
P. lamellosus, Sowerby," is undoul)tedly closely allied to P. ciudiis ; the ornamenta- 
tion is practically identical in both, for although the radial strias on the former are 
usually less distinct in specimens from the Portland Limestone, they are quite as 
well-marked in specimens from the Portland Clay as in P. einctuti. P. iamellosns 
may, however, be distinguished l)y its greater obliquity, smaller apical angle, and 
proportionately higher ears (especially the anterior). The shell never attains 
the same size as P. Ginctns, its average being much less ; the height apjjears to 
be nearly always greater than the length. 

BemarJiS. — There are two forms of this species which differ in the ^proportions 
of length and height, as Avill be seen from the figures, and from the measurements 
(a and r,) given above. Li one (a) the height is greater than the length, and the 
valves are oval in outline, witli a smaller apical angle and more elevated ears 
(Text-fig. 2). The right valve is rather more convex than in the otlier form. 
This form (a) was figured liy Sowerby as P. cindus. In tlio other form (i;) the 
length is greater than the height, and the valves are more nearly circular in 
outline, with a larger apical angle and lower ears. The convexity of the valves 
is less, and the anterior and posterior parts are more compressed (PI. XXVlll). 
This form was figured by d'Orbigny as P. crassitesta. 

Since the forms a and b agree in all the details of ornamentation, and also 

1 'Petref. Germ.,' vol. ii (1836). p. 76, pi. xcix, %. 10. 

' ' Miu. Conch.,' vol. iii (1819), p. 67, pi. ccxxxix. See also do Loriol and Pellat, " Mon. de I'l'tago 
Portlaudien de Boulogne-sur-Mer " ('Mem. Soc. Phys. et d'Hist. nat. de Geneve,' vol. xis, 1866), 
p. 103, pi. X, fig. 4. 



PECTKX. ] 



)■) 



occur on tlie suiiie gvf)li)i;ic;il Iiori/.oiis, and since each sliows some variation in tlic 
])i'(i])iirt ions of leng-lh ami liciglit, there seems no reason to regard tlieni as more 
than vai'ieties oF one .species. 

Tiie concentric grooves arc generally more widely .sei)aratcd in the speciraeus 
from the Speeton Clay than in those Avhicli come from tlic Cla.\by Ironstone. 

This species has usually bjen known on the Continent as P. cnninteiita, owing, 
no (loulit, to the fact that the type of P. ciiirtK.'i came from the Drift, and it.s true 
horizon was for some time thought to he Middle Jurassic; also to the fact of its 



V 









V 



\ 



Fiu. 2. — Pcctcn (Camptoiicclcs) cincius. Sow. Claxtiy IronstoiH', Claxliy. WuuJwaidiau Museum. 
The higliL-r and sliorter foi'in uf tho spocics. x j. 

being ihc form with a higher shell, which is rather less commnn than the other 
variet3^ 

Tiijtc. — In the I'litish Museum; from the Drift — probably derived frt)m the 
Claxby Ironstone. 

Distrihiiflon. — Cla.Kby rronst')ne (zone of Ihl. Iith-rnlis) of Claxby, A'^orth 
Willingliam, Tealby, Donnington. Tealby Limestone (zone of /)'<•/. hrtmsvicrnsis) 
of Claxbv. Speeton Series (zone of Bel. jacidani, 1* 1. D I-, D ■>) of Speeton. 



156 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 



PjiOTEN (Camptonhctes) CoTTALDiNUS, d'Orhlijiii/, 1847. Plate XXIX, figs, 1, 2 a, b, 

3 ((., h. 

1845. Pecten cieculaeis, E. Forbes. Quart. Jonru. G-ool. Soc, vol. i, p. 249 

{lion Goldfuss). 
1847. — C'oTTALDiNus, A. d'Orbiijiiy. Pal. Prau^. Terr. Crct., vol. iii, 

p. 590, pi. ccccxxxi, figs. 7 — 11. 
1850. — — — Prodr. de Pal., vol. ii, p. 83. 

1855. — — G. Colteau. Moll. Poss. de I'Youne, p. 115. 

1861. — — P. de Loriol. Auim. Invert. Foss. Mt. Salcve, 

p. 103, pi. xiii, fig. 3. 
1868. — — F.J.P'ielet. Melanges Pak'out., pt.4, p. 261,pl. xl, 

figs. 6, 7. 
— — — ■ E. Elchwald. Letlisea Eossica, vol. ii, p. 431. 

1870. — — F. J. Picfet and G. Campiche. Foss. Terr. Cr6t. 

Ste. Croix (Mater. Pal. Suisse, ser. 5), 
pp. 197, 212, pi. clxvii, fig. 3. 
? 1871. — — W. A. Ooster. Protozoe Helvetica, vol. ii, pp. 105, 

125, 141. 
— • — (Syncyclonema) CuTTAijVmvs, F. Stoliczha. Paloeont. Indica, Cret. 

Fauna S. India, vol. iii, p. 428. 
1^^)00. — CoTTALDiNus, G. MitUev. Verstein. d. Jura u. d. Kreide. In W. 

Bornhardt, Zur Oberflaclieu u. Geol. 
Deutscli - Af rikas (Deutscli - Ost- 
Afrika, vol. vii), p. 551. 

Non 1895. — — G. Haas. Zeitsclir. d. deutscli. geol. Gesellsch., 

vol. xlvii, Y). 269. 

Description. — Shell ovate, rather higher than long, inequilateral ; autero-dorsal 
margin slightly concave, and longer than the postero-dorsal, which is slightly 
convex. Convexity of valves^ small. Ears very unequal. 

Right valve slightly convex; surface almost smooth, ornamented with numerous 
fine, regular, concentric grooves, which become more closely placed in passing 
from the umbo to the margin of the valve. The interspaces are flat and sometimes 
produced as slightly projecting laminge next the concentric grooves. Near the 
umbo the interspaces are crossed by very fine, close-set radial strias. Anterior ear 
large, produced, with a very deep byssal sinus, and a sulcus near the junction of 
the ear and valve ; surface with many concentric narrow ridges. Posterior car 
small, triangular, outer angle slightly obtuse, with concentric ornament. 



I'ECTEN. 157 

liC'ft valvf iiiodci'atc'ly convex, \vitli onianuMitation similar to tliat of the right, 
liiit the concentric grooves arc rather more distinct and not so close together; the 
radial striaj are more distinct and cover a larger ])ai-t ' oF ihe valve. Anterior car 
large, triangnlar, outer angle about i)0°, height nearly or (|uite e(|Ual to lengtli, 
with concentric ridges and radial strite. Posterior ear much smaller and lower. 
MritsKrrmrnfd : 

(1) (^) (3) (t) (5) («) 

Length . o5'5 . [■') . 4U . ')'■) . 'u . 7<i mm. 

Height . 37 . 4'.) . -ji . .")(; . do . 7s-.") „ 



o 



(1-5) PcriiaAxA of Atlicrlirl.!. 

((J) Lowlt CTiveu.sauil of Wliale C'hiuc. 

Ajjinitir.-i.- 'Phis species is allied to /'. fijicfiis, hur dilTt'i's in lieing less convex, 
higliei' than King, distinctly ineijuilateral, smallei', in having the concentric grooves, 
and nsnally also the radial stria) closer together, the ears more uneijual, and the 
byssal sinus deepei'. 

Ui'inar],-^. — A few small s|)e;-imeus (10 to 17 mm. lung) from the Atlierfield 
Ueds of Kasl SliaHnrd, in the .Meyei' Collection, may l>e young examples of i'. 
Cottiddiaus, but they also closely resemble /'. (Ireppiiii, Pictet and iicnevicr.- 

Typcs. — D'Orbigny's siiecimens came from the Neoconn'an nf Auxerre, etc. 
The specimen referred to /'. rircularu by Forbes is in the ]\Iuseum of the Geological 
Society (No. 2030). 

JJistfihiifidii. — rrniit-]>vi} of Atlierlicld. I.nwer Grocnsand (cither Scaphifcs or 
lidwei' ('rlorrrd.s (.li'DUps of Kilton) nf W'liaii' ('liine. HcroiHled b\- 'r(ipl(_'\- (l87o) 
from the Atherlield l>eds of I'easmarsli and Slialfurd. 



Pl'XTEN (CaMLTONECTEs) STIilATO-l'UNt'TATUS, IluilUT, 183'.). Plate XXIX, iigs. ill,/', ■), G. 

1839. Pecten sriuATo-i'UNci'ATU.s, F. A li'imer. Die Versloin. il. iioid-iltnitscli. 

Oolith.-;,'cb. Nachtrair., [>. 117. 
ISU. — — — Die Vorsliiu. i\. uorJ-(.loiit!i« h. 

Kruidi'geb., p. 5(i. 
1»47. — — A. d'Oihiijiii/. I'al. Frunv- Terr. Cret., vol. iii, 

p. .5!12, pi. ecce.\xxii, figs. 4 — 7 
18.5(1. — — — Proilr. de. Pal., vol. ii, pp. 

8:J, ll;). 



' Perhaps the whole in perfeetly pre-serveil spoeiiiieus. 

- ' Foss. Terr. Aptieii Je la Pede dii Rhoue, etc.' (1858), p. 1;! I, pi. .\i.\, Ug. t. Pictet ami Cain- 
plchc, -Terr. Cret. tie Ste. Croix' (1«70), p. 198. 



158 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 

1854. Pecten steiato-pukctatus, /. Morrln. Cat. Brit. Foss., ed. 2, p. 177. 
1SG8. — ARZiEEENSis, P. He Loriol. Valaiigien d'Arzicr, p. 47. pi. iv, 

figs. 3 — 5. 

1870. — STRIATO-PUNCTATUS, F. J. Pictft and G. Camjiiche. Foss. Terr. 

Crct. Ste. Croix (Mati'r. Pal. Suisse, 
ser. 5), pp. 196, 211, pi. cl.xsi, figs. 
4, 5. 
— — ARZIEEENSIS, P('f/t< a«tZ C'a«i^<u7ie. Ibid., pp. 195, 211, pi. clx.\i, 

fig. 3. 

1871. — (Camptonectes) striato-punctatus, F. Stoliczka. Pakeout. 

Indica, Cret. Fauna S. 
India, vol. iii, p. 428. 
1877. — .sTRiATo-PDNCTATUs, G. Pii/(»n. Zeitsclir. d. deutscli. gcol. Gcsellscli., 

vol. xxix, p. 233. 
1884. — — 0. Weerth. Die Faima des Neocom. im Tcuto- 

burg.Walde (Palaoont. Abliaudl, 
vol. ii), p. 53. 

1888. — ARziERENSis, S. Niliitiii. Lfs Vest, de la Pt'r. Cret. dans la Eiiss. 

centralo (Mem. Com. Geol., vol. v), 
p. 73, pi. ii, fig. 12. 

1889. — LENS, var. morini, G. W. Lanijiliiijh. Quart. Jouru. Geol. Soc, 

vol. xlv, p. 615. 

1895. — (Camptonectes) striato-punctatus, F. Voyd. Holliiud. Kreide., 

p. 54. 

1896. — striato-punctatus, A. WuUcmann. Zeitsclir. d. deutscli. geol. 

Gesellsch., vol. xlviii, p. 840. 
1900. — — — . Die Biv. u. Gastrop. d. deulseh. 

u. liolliiud. Neoeoms (Ab- 
liaudl. d. k. preussiscli. geol. 
Laud., N. F., pt. 31), p. 49. 
? 1900. — — G. MiiUer. Versteiu. d. Jura u. d. Kreide. lu 

W. Bornhardt, Zur Oberfliielien u. 

Geol. Deutsch-Afrikas (Deutscli- 

Ost-Afrika, vol. vii), p. 550, pi. 

xxiv, fig. 7. 

Descrlptliy]}. — Slu'll nvatc, a little liigLer than loiit>', nearly e(iuilateral, convexity 
small, mai'gins roundetl, durtial portion pointed. Ears nneqnal. 

Riglit valve flattened, anterior ear with a deep sinus. Left valve rather more 
convex, anterior ear with the outer angle nearly rectangular, posterior ear with 
obtuse outer auo-le. 

Both A^alves ornamented with numerous flattened radial riljs, which curve out- 
wards from the median part of the valves, and sometimes bifurcate, or have new 
ribs intercalated. Ribs separated by narrow, shai'ply marked punctate grooves. 
At intervals a few distinct growth-lines occur. Ears with I'adial ribs crossed by 
concentric growth-ridges. 



Measurcvioiff 



•S' ; 





I'KCTK 


.V. 






(1) 


(2) 




(3) 


(4) 


•M} 


25 




22 


] •") linn. 


4(» 


27 




20 


19 „ 



1 T)'.) 



Lengtli 
Hciglit 

(1) B. lah-yaJis zouo, Spootou. 
(2, 3j n. jacuhim zone, Speelou. 

(4) Claxby Ironstone, Bonniworth Haven. 
'Iliese iiieasuiiMieiits are ajiproxiniate only, on account of the inijierfection of tlic specimen.-;. 
Consideralily larger examples than (4) occur in the Cla.Kln" Ironstone. 

Afihiitlex. — I have seen only a few s|)eeiine)is of tliis species, iin<l niost nf tlicni 
ai'e very imperfect, coiise(|ueiitly 1 am uiki1)Ii' to make a detailed comparison willi 
ailii'il fi)rins. The species ^vliicli appears to appi'oaeli most nearly /'. .sfrintn- 
jmiiclatas i.s P. Morini, de Tjoriol;' it is found in the I'ortlandian of Swindon, 
TIart well, etc., and seems to diffei' fi'om /'. sh-iatn-jtinirfdlits in ])eino- less equilateral, 
owing to the greater proportionate li'ugth and inward curvature of the antero- 
dorsal mai'gin ; the ril)s are also, on the average, more nnmei'ons and closer 
together, l)ut vary somewhat in this res[)ect. 

./'. ririjnins, Nilsson, and /'. cnrvutux, (jleiuitz (see below), are also related to /'. 
atriato-ptinchttiii^. 

h'cmarJifi. — Romer figured no examples of this species, hut erroneonsly referred 
to (ioldfuss' figure of a Jurassic form (/'. Ii iis). A small form found rarely in tlie 
Gaidt of Folkestone is ])ei'ha|)s referahle to I', xfriafo-puncfafiis. 

Ti/pcs. — From tlie llils-congloinerate and Ilils-clay of Sehan(U'la]i, Schoppen- 
stedt, and Elligser Uriiik. D'Orhigny's sjx'eiiuens were olitained from the Aptian 
of St. Dizier (Haute Marne). 

l)istiibution. — Speeton Clay (zones of //. hitcndix, D 1, and of !>. jacnlwm, C 11) 
of Speeton. Claxby Ironstone (zone of /A 7. hdcralis) of Bemiiworth ITaven. 
? Upper Ganlt (zone viii) of Folkestone. 

RecoiMU'd by Topley (lS7o) from tlie .\lheriield Heds of IVasmarsli ami l^ast 
Shal ford, and from the Folkestone Bed.s of l-'olkcstonc. Itcconh'd by ]\lorris from 
tlu; Lowei' (jreensand of Folkestone. 



Ti/'TKN (Camptonectes) criawTi's, Geinifz, \S4'^. Vhito XXIX, figs. 7*/, /< ; I'hite 

X.X.WII. lig. ](■,. 

1833. Pecten arctjatus, A. GohlfKnti. Petref. Germ., vol. ii. p. 50, pi, xci, fig. G 

(non Nilsson). 
? 1841. — — F. A. Rnitier. Die Verstcin. d. nonl-deutsdi. Kreidegcb., 

p. 51. 



1 De Loriol and Pellat, " Portlandien do Boulogno-sur-Mer " (' Mem. Sec. Phys. et d'Hist. nat. 
Geneve,' vol. xix, ISdi',), p. Iu7. 1.1. X. fig. C. 



ir,0 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 

1842. Pecten striato PTJNCTATUS-, iZ". J?. Geinitz. Char. d. Scliicbt. u. Petref. des 

Si'Lclis.-bolim. Kreidegeb., pt. 
3, p. 83. 
? 1843. — cuEVATus, //. B. Geinitz. Die Verstein. von Kieslingswalda, p. 16, 

1)1. iii, fig. 13. 
18 in — mvABiCATtrs, ^. i?. i?c7(.<;.«. Die Verstein. der bolim.Kreideformat., 

pt. 2, p. 28, pi. xxxix, fig. 6. 
? — — AECUATU.s, Beiis-9. Iliid., p. 27. pi. xxxix, fig. 7. 

— — cuEVATUs, H. B. Geinitz. Grundr. der Veri^tein., p. 468. 

? 1847. — ARCUAT-os, /. Miitler. Potref. der Aaclien. Kreidef., pt. 1, p. 32. 

— — viKGATTJS, J. d'Orhiriiiy. Pal. Fran9. Terr. Crct., vol. iii. p. 602, 

pi. ccccxxxiv, figs. 7 — 10. 
1848. — CTJRVATUS, H. G. Bronn. Index Palseout., vol. i, p. 922. 
1850. — viRGATUs et CUEVATUS, H. B. Geinitz. Das Quadersandst. oder 

Kreidegeb in Deutsclilaud, ]>. 180. 
F — — cvRYKiTjs. A. (T Orhicjnij. Prodr. de Pal., vol. ii, j). 197. 

? — — DivARicATUS, A. d'Ofhigni/. Ibid , p. 252. 

? 1870. — VIRGATUS, F. Bihner. Geol. von Oberschles., p. 333. 

— • — CUEVATUS, F. J. Bictct and G. Gampiche. Foss. Terr. Cret. Ste. 

Croix (Mater. Pal. Suisse, ser. 5), p. 217. 
1872. — — H. B. Geinitz. Das Elbthalgeb. in Saclisen (Palfeonto- 

grapliica, vol. xx, pt. 1), p. 193, pi. 

xliii, fig. 15. ; pt. 2, p. 33, pi. x, fig. 1 . 

? 1876. — (Camptonectes) cuevatus, B. Brawns. Zeitschr. f. d. gesaiumt. 

Naturwissenscli., vol. xlvi, p. 390. 
? 1877. — cvRYXivs, A. Fritsch. Stud, im Gebiete der bolim. Kreideforniat. : 

II, Die Weissenberg. und Maluilz. 
Schiclit., p. 136, fig. 127. 
? 1882. — VIRGATUS, H. Scliri'idcr. Zeitschr. d. deutsch. goel. Gesellseh., vol. 

xxxiv, p. 270. 
? 1883. — CURVATUS, A. Fritsch. Stud, im Gebiete der biJhm. Kreideformat. : 

III, Die Iserschicht., p. 116. 

1885. — (CAMrTONECTEs) DIVARICATUS, F. NlJtHng. Die Fauna d. baltisch. 

Cenoman. (Palaeont. Abhandl., 
vol. ii), p. 17, pi. ii, fig. 6. 
i^ — Camptonectes CURVATUS, /. Bi'ilim. Verliandl. dos naturhist. Vereins d. 

Eheinl., vol. slii, p. 78. 
? 1887. Pectbn (Camptonectes) curvatus, F. Freeh. Zeitschr. d. deutsch. geol. 

Gesellseh., vol. xxxix, p. 155, 
jjI. xix, fig. 18. 
? 1889. — VIRGATUS, E. Holzapfeh Die Molluslc. Aachen. Kreide (Palaeouto- 

graphiea, vol. xxxv), j^. 229, pi. xxvi, 
figs. 7—9. 
? — — (Camptonectes) viegatus, 0. Griepenlcerl. Die Verstein. der. 

Seuon. von Konigslutter (Palaeont. 
Abhandl., vol. iv), p. 46. 
? — — CUEVATUS, j4. _Fr (7 f!(7/. Stud, im Gebiete der bohm. Kreideformat. 

IV, Die TcpUtz. Schicht., p. 85. 



im:('ti:\'. im 

1892. Pecten virgatus, F. Vogel. Verhantll. nat. Vereins d. preussisch. Rbeinl., 

vol. xlix, p. 55. 
? 1893. — cf. cuEVATUs, B. Michael. Zeitschr. d. deutsch. gool. Gesellsch., 

vol. xlv, p. 236. 
? — — cuitvATUs, ^. J';//c'r/(. Stnil. im Gebicteder bohm. Kroideformat. : 

V, Prieseu. Schicbt., p. 100. 

? 1895. — (Camptonectes) virgatus, F. Voijel. Holliiudiscb. Krcido, p. 23. 
? 1897. — cuRVATus, A. Frilt'ch. Stud, im Gebiete der biihm. Kreideformat. : 

VI, Die Cbloinck. Schicbt., p. 68. 

? — — VIRGATUS, A. Rutot. Bull. Soc. Beige Geol., etc., vol. x, p. 30. 

? — — — B. Leonhard. Die Kreideformat. in Oberschles. (Pala- 

outograpbica, vol. xliv), p. 26. 
? 1900. — — ■ C. Gagel anclF. Kannhowen. Jabib. d. k. preussiscb. geol. 

Landcsanst. u. Bergakad. fiir 1899, p. 231. 

Noil 1827. — ARCDATUs, (S. iViVsKOJi. Petrif. Suecana, p. 22, pi. ix, fig. 4. 

— — — viKGATUs, Nilsson. Ibid., p. 22, pi. ix. fig. 15. 

— 1837. ^ — W. Illt'iiiijer. Letbaea Suecica, p. 52, pi. xvii, fig. 3. 

— — — ARCUATUS, Hisiiiijer. Iliid., p. 52, pi. xvii, fig. 2. 

? — 1846. — viRGXTVs, E. Forbes. Traus. Geol. Soc, vol. vii, p. 154, pi. xv, fig. 22. 
? — 1852. — — F. Bonier. Die Kreidebild. von Texas, p. 66, pi. viii, fig. 5. 

— 1866. — — K. A. Zittd. Die Biv. der Gosaugcb. II (Denkscbr. d. k. 

Akad. Wissenscb. Math.-uat. CI. Wicn, 
vol. XXV, pt. 2), p. 109 (33 of reprint), 
]il. xvii, fig. 8. 
? — 1871. — (CvMPTONECTEs) CURVATUS, i"'. <S7'v?iV;j/i-rt. Palffiout. ludica, Cret. 

Fauna S. India, vol. iii, p. 433, 
pi. xxxi, figs. 15, 16; pi. xli, 
figs. 4 — 6. 
F — 1884. Camptonectes curvatus, J. F. Whiteaves. Mesozoic Fossils, vol. i, pt. 3 

(Geol. and N. H. Survey, Canada), 
p. 242, pi. xxxii, fig. 4. 

— 1897. Pecten virgatus. y1. ?A'»h/;/. Revis. Lamellibr. i Nilsson's ' Petrif. Suec' 

(Kon. Fysiogr. S.-illsk. Lund. Handl., 
N. F., vol. viii), p. 41. j.l. li. figs. 28, 33 ; 
1)1. iii, figs. 32, 33. 

Bemarlci^. — 'I'liis species closely i"eseinl)les V. striato-punctafus, Riimer, but 
generall}' possesses fewer 7-il)s, ami i.'^, on the average, of smaller size. I have 
seen only two English specimens. One is a right valve from Great Haklon, 10 mm. 
in lengtli and 1 1 mm. in height, with well-marked radial ribs on the cars crossed 
l)y much smaller concentric ril)s. Another example, from the Cliloritic Marl of 
Eastbourne, is i> nun. in length and also in lieight. Without more English speci- 
mens, and without the op])oitunity of comparing them with collections of the 
foreign forms described as /'. rirgafas, etc., it is useless to attempi to discuss the 
relation of lliis to othei- Up|)er ("retaceoiis species. 

21 



1G2 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 

Distribution. — Upper Greensand of Great Haldon. Cliloritic Marl of East- 
bourne. 



Pectkn (CAirrTONECTEs) PUBRisiENSis, sp. nov. Plate XXIX, figs. 8 a — c. 

DescrijitbOii.—'^heW ovate, heiglit a little greater than length, almost equilateral, 
margins evenly rounded. Umbones pointed. Apical angle about 117''. Ears 
rather large, unequal. 

Right valve flattened, nearly smooth, with a few radial ribs near the antero- 
dorsal border, and occasional fine curving radial ornamentation like that on the left 
valve. Antero-dorsal margin slightly concave. Anterior ear long, with a deep 
byssal sinus, very sinuous growth-lines, and well-marked growth-ridges. Posterior 
ear triangular, with radial ril:)s and grooves. 

Left valve moderately convex— the convexity greatest in the dorsal third, the 
ventral portions more compressed. Greater part of the surface smooth or nearly 
smooth ; a few faintly marked growth-lines. Ornamentation seen on the sides of the 
umbonal region, also at the ventral edge, and for a short distance on the inner margin 
of some of the growth-lines ; it consists of faintly marked outwardly curving ribs, 
sepai'ated by very narrow grooves, which are somewhat irregular and (in well- 
preserved specimens) punctate. Anterior ear large, not sharply separated from the 
rest of the valve, ornamented by a continuation of the radial ribs and grooves of 
the umbo, some of which cut the dorsal margin obli(iuely ; the ribs are crossed by 
faint oTowth-ridires. Posterior ear smaller with similar ornamentation. 

Measurements : 

(1) (2) (3) (4) 

Length . 58 . 58 . 42 . 32 mm. 

Height . 03 . 59-5 . 4(3 . 35 „ 

(1) Totterulioe Stoue, Cherry Hiutou. 

(2) Chalk Marl, Burham. 

(3) Totternhoe Stoue, Burwoll. 

(4) n. subrjlobosus zone, Hitchin. 

Affi'nities. — The ornamentation is much less developed than in P. sfriato- 
punctatas ; the shell is also larger, with a wider apical angle, less elevated ears, and 
with the left anterior ear indistinctly limited. 

Remarks. — This is a comparatively rare form, which appears to be confined to 
the Chalk Mai'l and the zone of H. subglohosus. 

Type.— Chalk Marl of Dover, British Museum, No. 38248. 

Distribution. — Chalk Marl of Dover and Blue Bell Hill, Burham. Totternhoe 



PECTEX. 103 

StoDc oF Clici'i'v llinldu ami IJin'wcll. Zoiu; of //. suhijlobosus of llitchin. Lower 
("lialk of \\\'st Row near Mildciiliall, and Stuke I'Vri'y. 



PeCTUN (("AMl'TdNKCTKS ?) CAIILTINUS, Sp. IIOV. Plate XXX, figs. 1 (I, l>, 2. 

Jjt.'scyijilinti. — Slic'll small, oval, a little higher than long, eoiive.xity small ; 
somewhat i!UM|uilat(ial, the antero-dorsal border slightly concave and longer than 
the postero-doi-sal, whieh is slightly convex. Ears very unequal. Apical angle 
from '.15° to l(l(/. 

Right valve flattened, nearly smooth, with faintly marked, nearly straight 
radial ril)s near the anterior and ])osterior ])orders, sepai'ated by narrow punctate 
grooves; ribs and grooves absent or indistinct on the middle of the valve, except 
near the umbo. Anterior car long, with a deep sinus, and three or four radial ribs 
crossed by gi-ow th-ridges. I'ostei'ior ear small, with its outer angle obtuse. 
Left valve rather moi'e convex, with similar ornamentation. 
Mcdsurcincnls : 

(1) (2) (3) (4) 

Length . 22 . L") . M . 17 mm. 

Height . 19 . 17 . Ki T.) „ 

(1— :5) Gault, Blaclc Veu. 
(4) Gault, Follcostoue. 

Ji'fiiuirk.s. — This species differs from the typical ('(implonectes in having the 
punctate grooves nearly straight instead of curving outwardly. 
Types. — In the Woodwardian Museum, Cambridge. 
Distribution.- — Gault of Folkestone and Black Ven. 



Sub-(jenus — Ciii.amvs, ./. F. Ikdtvn, 1 7'J8. 
(' Musi'iiiii Bultcuiamiiii,' [). 1G.5.J 

Pecten (Chl.vmys) KissK'OSTA, Etheriihjc, 188L Plate XXX, figs. 3, 4, 5 a, //, 

(ja-c, 7.8. 

1881. Pecten FISSIC03TA, B. Eiherklgc. In W. 11. Penninf,' auJ A. J. Jukes- 

Browuc, Gool. of CauibrRlge (Mein. 
Gl'oI. Survey), ip. Ill, pi. ii, lif,'. 1 ; 
pi. Lii, fig. 1. 



164. CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 

Description. — Shell ovate, slightly inequilateral ; height greater than length, the 
difference increasing with age, usually in the proportion of !) : 7 or 9 : 8, but in small 
specimens of 5 : 4-5. Valves compressed, the right flatter than the left; antero- 
and postero-dorsal margins nearly straight, the remainder regularly rounded and 
with corrugated edges. Apical angle about 90°, but larger (sometimes 100") in 
small specimens. Ears unequal. 

Ptight valve ornamented with strong, rounded, radial ribs, usually from sixteen 
to eighteen in number, but sometimes fewer or more (twelve to twenty-three). The 
libs are separated by rather deep, rounded furrows, which are rather narrower 
than the ribs. At a distance from the margin of the valve, which varies in 
different specimens, some of the ribs are usually divided by a narrow groove, some- 
times median, sometimes on one side ; towards the umbo this groove becomes 
I'elatively more important, and divides the main i-ib into two equal and narrow 
riljs ; and at the same time another similar rib may appear in the main furrow, 
giving the appearance of numerous slender ril.)s. All these ribs seem to die 
out before reaching the umbo, Avhere the shell (to a length of about 5 mm.) 
is apparently smooth.' At distant intervals well-marked growth-ridges are 
seen, and also (in some cases) very fine concentric lines. The surface of both 
ribs and furrows (but especially the latter) is covered by close-set radial stria?, 
which at the middle of the valve are parallel with the main ribs, but, in jDassing 
to the anterior and posterior margins, become more and more ol:)lique to the 
main ribs, and also more irregular and less continuous. Antei'ior ear large, 
produced, with a deep byssal sinus ; surface with sinuous growth-lines (some 
strong), and two or three faintly marked radial ribs at the middle of the ear near its 
apex. Posterior ear smaller, not produced, triangular, with from seven to nine faintly 
marked radial ribs and growth-lines (two or three being strong) ; on the ventral 
part of the ear the fine strise of the I'est of the shell are continued, and cut the 
ribs obliquely. 

Left valve with ribs similar to those of the right, but rather narrower, and 
separated by broader furrows. The ribs are sometimes divided Ijy a small groove, 
which may reach the margin of the valve. In the main furrows there is frequently 
a small radial rib, which often ends at varying distances from the margin, but some- 
times is continued, becoming stronger. Close-set radial striae, like those on the 
right valve, occur on both ribs and grooves. Fine concentric ribs occur in places, 
especially on the earlier parts of the valve, and also, at intervals, strong- growth- 
ridges. Ears triangular; the anterior larger, and with radial ribs and growth-lines ; 
the posterior nearly smooth and with faint ribs. 

^ This may, however, be due to imperfect jjreservatiou. 



hLca-surcmcnts ; 








(U 


(-') 


lifii^Htli . 


l-r, . 


1.0 


lleiulit . 


o2 . 


1-7 



TKCTHN. 1(5--) 



(:i) (I) (5) 

(1) Tcjtturiilioe Slouo, ClieriT Hiulon. 
(•2—7) „ „ Burucll. 



(«) 


(7,1 


27 , 


2*) mill. 


;'.] . 


. 2ii „ 



A jji II it !(■■■<. — I'. ftssicD.sfn is readily distiiiguisluMl IVdiii I lie (illicr s])efic'.s with 
strong i-ibs by its iiiinicroiis radial striae and l)y the lission of some of the main 
ribs. 1'. Junilcroiiensii<, l)t' Loriol,' resemljlt's this species in foi'm, liut possesses a 
stront^-ly marked concentric ornanientation. The radial striaj of 1'. fissicosla 
resemble those of ('(iinploiiccti's as well as those seen in /'. liolnnaldinus, etc. The 
varieties, with few and nndivided ribs (I'l. XXX, fig. 7), approach P. dcccmcostalus, 
(joldfuss (references on p. 1<)7), but the vah'cs are higher. 

Ti/pi'S. — I'^roin the Totternhoe Stone, Harwell; in the \\'oodwardian Museiun. 

Dlstrlhutloii. — ( 'lildi'itic iMai'l of N'entnor. Chalk Marl of Eggardon 11111 
(Dorset), Folkestone, and lilne l)ell Hill, IJiii'liam. Totteridioe iStone of Arlesey, 
Cherry Hinton, Burwell, Orwell, and Stoke Kerry. Zone of //. suhijlobosus of 
Cherry Hintou. 



Pkctmn (Cj[i,amvs) I'izosiANUs, Miithrroii, 1842. Plate XXX, figs. '.)(/, A, 1 <^ ?<, 

11, 12. 

1842. Pkoten Puho.sianus, /'. Matheron. C'atal. Foss. dos Bouclies-Ju-Kliuue, 

p. 18.5, j)l. XXX, figs. 1 — 3. 
1847. — —A. il'Orh'ujinj. Pal. Fraui^. Terr. Crct., vol. iii,i.. 610, 

pi. ccccxxxvii, figs. 1 — 4. 
1850. — — — Prodr. de Pal., vol. ii, j). 197. 

1870. — — F. J. Pldct and G. Campiche. Foss. Terr. Crct. Ste. 

Croix (Malt'r. Pal. Suisse, ser. 5), p. 215. 
1896 — cf. PuzosiANUs, A J. Jukes-Broivne and W. llill. Quart. Jouru. 

Geul. Soc., vol. Hi. p. 1-"j1. 

Description.— yihcW ovate, higher than long, nearly equilateral and eipiivalve, 
dorsal portion pointed; antero- ami postcro-dorsal margins long. Convexity 
small, valves bent near the antero- and j)ostero-dorsal margins. Apical angle id)out 
UO . Kars large, unecpial. 

Right valve slightly convex, with numerous narrow ribs, which on the mid- 
dorsal parts of the valve are alternately large and small, but elsewhere l)ecoine 

■ Dl^ Loriol and Gillii-rou. ' Urgoii. Infer, de Laudertui ' (1869), p. 22, pi. i. lig. 19; Pictet and 
Campiche, "Terr. Cret. do Ste. Croix" ('Mater. Pal. Suisse,' ser. 5, 1870), p. 187, pi. elxix, fiys. 6, 7. 



KWi CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 

more nera'ly equal in size. Surface witli concentric ridges or growtli-liiies, wliicli 
sometimes develop into small spiny projections where tliey cross the ril >s. Anterior 
ear lai-ge, rising dorsally, with a deep byssal sinus. 

Left valve rather more convex, with usually from thirty-eight to forty-four ribs 
at the margin, where they are separated by very narrow grooves. Most of the ribs 
are of nearly equal size, but occasionally smaller ones occur ; they are rounded on 
the early parts of the valve, but become flattened and l)roader ventrally, and also 
anteriorly and posteriorly. Secondary ril^s are introduced at a short distance 
from the umbo. The grooves become narrow ventrally. Surface of ribs and 
grooves with close-set, concentric, linear riljs, which are better marked near the 
umbo than elsewhere. The bent antero- and postero-dorsal margins are without 
ribs, but have numerous radial strige ; these striae appear on some of the ribs also. 
Anterior ear more elevated and larger than the posterior ; both with a few broad 
radial ribs. 

Measurements : 

(1) (2) (3) 

Length . 42 . 39 . 35 mm. 

Height . 50 . 49 . 42 „ 

(1) Cfiiomaniaii (Bed 11), Duuscombe. 

(2) Cenomanian, Wilmington. 

(3) Ceuoinauian (A. ManteUl zone), Beer Head. 

Afjinitie^. — The ribs ui this species are more numerous as a rule, and the 
concentric ornamentation much less well-developed than in /'. EsjKoillaci, d'Orbigny. 
The ribs are much more numerous than in P. fissicosta, Etheridge, and the radiating 
stria3 much less developed, being apparently confined to the anterior and posterior 
part of the valves. 

BemarJcs. — The English specimens are smaller than those figured by Matheron 
and d'Orbigny, and, as pointed out by Jukes-Browne, agree better with the figures 
than with the descriptions given by those authors, but specimens obtained from 
France leave no doubt as to the identity of the English form with IMatheron's 
species. I have not seen the arrangement of the ribs shown in Matheron's section 
(fig. 3), but there is sometimes an alternation of large and small ribs. 

Ty2)es. — Cenomanian (Chert Beds) of Les Martigues, XJchaux, and Mornas Sault. 

.Distribution. — Cenomanian of Wilmington. Cenomanian (Beds 10, 11) of 
Beer Head, and (Bed 11) of Duuscombe. Chloritic Marl of Melbury (Dorset) 
and Maiden Bradley. 



'ECTKX. 1G; 



PEcrriiN (CiiLwivs) ukitannicus, s]). nov. Phitc XXXI, figs. 1 ", li, 2<i,h. 

Descripfioii. — Shell tliick, ovate, flattened, with even margins, slightly inequi- 
lateral, antero-iloi-sal iiiai-gin a little longer than the postero-dorsal, apical angle 
about '.»(V. 

Lett valve with sixteen oi- more (sometimes probably thirty) strong, rounded, 
radial ribs, separated by dee}) grooves, which arc frerpiently as bi'oad as or 
broader than the ribs. The ribs merge into the smooth margin of the shell; 
they do not bifurcate, and only rarely is a new rib introduced between two 
others. Both ribs and grooves are inai'ked by concent I'ic, linear ridges, which are 
inure distinct in the grooves than on the ribs, and arc placed close together at 
regular intervals; the ridges iml)ricate upwards. Anterior ear moderately large, 
with the outer angle nearly rectangular, and one or two radial ribs. Posterior 
ear not seen. 

Right valve not seen. 

Measurements : 

Ijcnccth ........ 2(V0 nini. 

Height 28-5 „ 

From M. cor-anijiiiniim zone, Soutli Crovdon. 

Ajjin'd'u's. — This species resembles /'. KKpnilhu-i, d'Orl)igny,' from the Senonian 
of Dordognc and Charcntc-Tnferieure, but it differs from the French form in 
posses.sing fewer ribs, with a stouter .shell and thick margin (instead of a sharp and 
corrugated edge) ; also in the concentric ridges imbricating upwards, instead of 
{lownw^ards. A specimen of /'. Espaillaci from the I )ni'd(ininn has been sent me 
by ^1. A. de Grossouvre, and its concenti'ie ridges are nuieh bettei- developed on the 
ribs, and in places are more scale-like, than in our species. 

/'. ileccmcosfatas, Goldfuss,^ possesses fewer ril)s and is ap])nr(>ntlv without the 
fine concentric ridges. 

L\ Jlssicosta, Ethcridge (p. l<);i), jiresents iconic resemblance to this species, but 
is easily separated by the divided and us\ially fewer i-ibs; also by the corrugated 
margin and the much hss distinct concentric i-idges, and by the occurrence of 
fine radial stria\ 

1 ' Pal. Frani;. Terr. Civt.,' vol. iii (1847). |>. 014. pi. cccc.xxxix, fii;s. 1 — t ; d'Orbi','nv, ' Prodr. de 
Pal.,' vol ii (18.50;, p. 2.51 ; F. .T. Picfet iuid «. C;un|.ich(', " Foss. Torr. Crrt. Ste. Cniix" (• Mater 
Pal. Suisse," sor. .5, 1870), p. 21.5. 

2 ' Petref. Germ.,' vol. ii (18-33), p. 53, pi. xcii, % 2 ; Grinitz, ' Daa Ell)flialt,'el). Suchs.n.' j.t. ii 
(1872), p. 3.5, pi. X, fifjs. 8, 9. 



168 CRETACEOUS LAMBLLIBRANCHIA. 

A specimen from Lewes, figured by Mantell/ may perhaps be an example of 
this species. 

Remarhs. — Only three specimens have been seen, all coming from nearly the 
same horizon. The number of ribs on those from Haling and Gravesend is fewer 
than on the specimen from Stratford, jjut in other characters they agree. 

Types. — In Dr. Blackmore's collection, and in Mr. Gr. E. Dibley's collection. 

Distribution. — M. coy-angni)runi zone of Haling pit, South Croydon, of 
Gravesend, and of Stratford, near Salisbury. 



Pecten (Chlamys) MiLLERj, Sowerbij, 1836. Plate XXXI, figs. S a, h, 4, 5, 6 .7, A. 

1836. Pecten Milleeii, J. de C. Sowerhy. Trans. Geol. Soc, ser. 2, vol. iv, p]). 

241, 342, pi. xvii, fig. 19. 
18.50. — — A. (VOrlnijny. Prodr. de Pal., vol. ii, p. 169. 

1854. — MiLLEEi, /. Morris. Cat. Brit. Foss., ed. 2, p. 176. 
1870. — — F. J. Picfct and G. Camjiiche. Foss. Terr. Cn't. Sto. 

Croix (Mater. Pal. Suisse, ser. 5), p. 214. 

Bcscription. — Shell rather small, ovate, nearly equilateral, the dorsal third 
narrowing rapidly ; height greater than length. Margins well rounded, but the 
antero-dorsal and postero-dorsal more or less concave, and the former longer than 
the latter ; inequivalve. Apical angle about 99°. Bars very iinequal. 

Right valve slightly convex, flattened, with numerous slightly elevated, rounded 
radial ribs, which are smooth or slightly scaly, and separated by broader, shallow 
grooves. Anterior ear long, with a well-marked sinus ; posterior ear much smaller, 
triangular, with outer angle obtuse. 

Left valve much more convex than the right, especially in the median line 
towards the umbo ; ornamented with numerous (usually 45 to 54) radial I'ibs, 
which are slightly elevated, flattened or rounded, and smooth (except a few of the 
posterior ribs) ; on the dorsal part the furrows are narrower than the ribs, and 
pitted, but ventrally they may be broader, and are always shallow. A secondary rib 
may appear in the furrows towards the ventral border. Anterior ear considerably 
larger than the posterior, with seven or eight radial riljs and a few growth-lines ; 
its outer ane-le almost rectano-ular. 



Measurements : 










n — 




(1) 


(2) (3) (4) 


(5) 


(6) 




Length 


. 28 


. 26 . 21 . 20 . 


13 . 


12 mm. 




Height , 


. 32 


. 29-5 . 24 . 23 . 

(1 — 6) All from Blackdowu. 


15 , 


. 14-5 „ 





' Foss. S. Downs ' (1822), p. 203, pi. xxv, fig. 6. 



I'KCTEN. lii'.i 

li emu lis. — 'I'hi' riylit valve is less common tliaii the left. Tlic state of prcsrr- 
vatimi (if llic slicll, and coiiseciueiil ly tlu' appearance of tlie oi'namentatioii, varies 
a l;'ii(i(I (leal. 

7///'^.— i''rom lilacktlown ; in the Uristol Museum. 

Dififrihiifhni. — Blackdown (ireensand (Bed 10). Recoi'dcd liy Dnwnes (1882) 
fi'iiiii llalddii, and liy .lukes-IJrdwne (I'.'IXI) frdui the I pper ( !i-eensand of Lulworth 
and Warniinstci'. 



I'lOi'TKN (CllLAMYS) SI i;a(|;ti s, Luiiiiirr/.-, i8L'J. I'hite XXXI, li^n's. 7",//, S// — (-,9. 

iSl!). I'kcten sL'iiicuTUS, Ltumirrl-. Auim. saus Vert., vol. vi, p. 181. 

I8;!i;. — — Ibid., ed. 2 (bj' Desliaves and Mibie- 

Edwards), vol. vii, p. 158. 
181-7. — — ,1. iVOihUjtiij. Pal. Franc;. Terr. Civt., vol iii, ^). G05, 

pi. ecctxxxv, figs. 5 — 10. 
':' — — BuoNuNiARii, .1. iVArchiac. Mc'm. Soc. <;i'ol. de Fraucf, ser. 2, 

vol. ii, p. ol<>, pi. xvi, fig. 4. 
\ST){). — — H. H. Giiiill:^. Das Qiiadcisaudst. odd- Krt'idogub. 

iu DoutsL'hlaud, p. 183. 
1870. — scii.vcuTus, F. J. I'iclil and (1. Campiche. Foss. Terr. Cn't. Sfe 

Croix (MatiT. Tal. Suisse, ser. 5), pp. 214, 218. 
1872. — — //. B. Gciiiitz. Das Elbtlialgeb. iu Sachseu (Pala;onto- 

graphica, vol. xx, pt. 1), p. I'.'S, pi. 
xliv, fig. 5. 
1877. — — .1 J. Jiih-n-Biynnic. Quart. Jouru. Geol. Soc. vol. 

xxxiii, p. 501. 
18!»(!. _ — _ and W.Hill. Ibid, vol. Iii. p. 1.51. 

Drscrq)lioii. — Shell o\ate. pninlcd thir.sally, much higher than long, nearly e(|ui- 
latei'al. convexity small. .\pieal angle about 80'. 

liight valve with almut twenly-three strong ril)s, whieli are sli-aight or slightly 
curved, and ha\'e usually sharp summits, but are sometimes rounck'd ; thegroo\'es 
separal ing the ribs are iimad, wilh i-numled ui' angular liases. .\ear the antenm- 
and pdsteriiii' margins the ribs are rat her smalli'r ; near the umbn t hey are tdlen 
more rounded than elsewhere. Uoth ribs and grooves are crossed l)y numerous, line, 
close-.set, wavy, laminar ridges, which are more regular and distinct near the umbo 
than venti-ally. The ribs usually bear along their sunnnits many .scaly knobs or 
short spines, which are often dist ribnted at fairly regular intervals ; sometimes tlicso 
scab spines are absent avvv part or almo>t the entire shell, .\nterior v.w large, 
with a deep siims ; growth-ridges well-marked, radial ribs indistinct. Posterior ear 
nmch smaller. I rianeular, with radial rii)S. 



170 CRETACEOUS LAMEI.LIBRANCHIA. 

Left Aiilvc a little more com'ox, with similar unianiL'iitatioii ; ears slightly 
unequal. 



McasKvemciiti 



(1) (2) (3) 

Leno-th . 37 . 34 . 24 nun. 



o 



Heidit . 49 . 43 . 31 



^tj 



(1) Greeiisaiid, llalddii. 
(2, 3) Chalk Marl (Bud 11), DuiiSL-ombe. 

Affinities. — Z'. (icnmi)tatu.s, Geinitz,' resembles closely this species, but seems to 
differ from it in having few or no scaly spines on the ribs, and also in having the 
concentric ornament somewhat coarser ; the ribs, as a rule, are also less sharp and 
somewhat less numerous. The state of preservation of the spines in P. xiihuriiins 
varies a good deal in different specimens ; in some cases (as in tig. 8) they are 
absent from the greater part of the surface. It seems probable, therefore, that the 
comparison of good series of specimens might show F. acumiiKifns and I'. xiilHicntnt; 
to be identical. 

The form from the Cambridge Greensand, refei'red to this species by Jukes- 
Browne, possesses the characteristic concentric ornamentation, but has rather more 
numerous ribs ; only three specimens have been seen, and since they are rather 
imperfectly preserved, the determination of the species cannot be regarded as quite 
certain. 

TiJiJe. — From the Cenomanian of Le Mans. 

Didribation. — Cenomanian : — Bed 10 of Hooken, Beds 11 and 12 of Dnnsconil)e, 
Bed 12 of Branscombe. Greensand of Haldon. ? Cambridge GreensauLl. 



PjiCTEN (CiiLAMYs) ELuNGATUS, Larnavck, 181',). Plate XXXI, figs. 10, 11 (/,//, 11 a,]), 

13; Plate XXXII, figs. l,i,h, 
2a,li, da,h. 

1819. Pecten elongatus, Lamarck. Auim. saus Vert., vol. vi, y. 181. 
1822. — OBLIQUUS, /. de C. Sowerhy. Miu. Conch., vol. iv, p. 9.5, pi. ccd.\.\, 

fig. 2. 

' G-eiuitz, 'Char. d. Schicht. u. Petref. des silchs-biihni. Kreidegeli.,' pt. 3 (1842), p, 84, jjl. xxi, 
fij^-. (3; Eeiiss, 'Die Verstein. der bohm. Kreidcfonuat.,' pt. 2 (1816), p. 29, pi. xxxix, figs. 20, 21; 
d'Arrhiac, ' Mciii. Soe. grol. de France,' ser. 2, vol. ii (1847), p. 309, pi. xvi, fig. 3 ; Kuuth, ' Zeitschr. 
d. deutsch. geol. Gesellsch.,' vol, xv (1863), p. 725 ; MicLael, ibid., vol. xlv (1895), p. 235 ; Kilmer, 
' &eol. V. Oberschle.?.' ( 1870). p. 333, pi. xxvi, fig. 3 ; Geinltz, *• Das Elbth;ilgeb. in Sachseu " (' Palscouto- 
graphica,' vol. xx, pt. i, 1872), p. 194, pi. xliii, fig. 16; pi. xliv, fig. 1 ; Frit.scli, ' Biihni. Kreideforinat. 
III. Iserschicht.' (1883), p 116, fig. 89; NGtliug, "Die Fauna d. balliseh. Ceuomau." (' Palaeout. 
Abhandl.,' vol. ii, 1885), p. 19, pi. iii, fig. 2; Leonhard, "Die Kreideformat. in Oberschles." (' Palaeouto- 
graphica,' vol xliv, 1897), p. 26. 



PKCTEX. 171 



:t)o. 



182.">. Pecten elongatus, Defrance. Diet. Sci. nat., vol. xxxviii. p. 20 

1833. — CRETOSU.S, A. Gohlfnss (non Defrance). Petref. Germ., vol. ii. p. •'iS, 

pi. xciv, fig. 2. 
183G. — Ei.ONGATUs, LainarrJ:. Aiiiiii. sans Vert., ed. 2 (bj' G. D. Deshavos 

ami H. M. Edwards), vol. vii, p. 158. 
1830. — cuETOSus. H. B. Gclnltz. Char. d. Seliiclit. ii. Petrof. des Siiclis. 

Kreidegel)., ]>t. I, ]>. 22. 

1841. — cnisrva, F. A. Rliiiier. Die Versteiii. d. imrd-dcutsili. Kreidp;:,'el)., 

p. 51. 
-^ — coMANs, R'.mer. Ihid., p. 51, pi. viii, fi<,'. G. 

1842. — Famjasi, H. B. Gcinifz. Char. d. Sidiiiht. n. Petref. des sjiclis!.- 

biihin. Kreidei^el)., i)t. 3, p. 83. 

— — COMANS, Geiiiih. Iliid.. p. 83. 

1846. — PAUJAsr, //. B. Geinitz. Gruudriss der Versteiu., p. 468. 

— — cRifivvs, A. E. Reiin''. Die Versteiu. der hiilim. Kreidcforniat., pt. 

2, p. 30. 
? 1847. — ELON(iATU.s, A. (VOrlujnij. Pal. Franc. Terr. Cret., vol. iii, p. CO", 

pi. cccLXXXvi, fii;s. 1 — 4. 

— — liAui.iNiANUs, d'Orhiijtii/. Ibid., p. 595, pi. ceccxxxiii, figs. G — 9. 
1850. — Ei,oN(!ATUs, d'Orhifjiiy. Prodr. de Pal., vol. ii, p. 169. 

— — ciiispcs, d'Orhiijnij. Ibid., p. 1G9. 

— — Raulinianus, d'Orhujmj. Ibid., p. 139. 

— — ELONGATUS, H. B. Geitiifz. Das Quadersand^t. oder Kreidegeb. in 

Deutschlaud, p. 182. 

— — COMANS, Geinitz. Ibid., p. 180. 

1853. — Raulinianus, F. J. Pidct and W. Ronx. Moll. Foss. Gres verts 

de Geneve, p. 510, pi. xlvi. fig. 2. 

1854. — ELON0.\Tus, /. Morris. Cat. Brit. Foss.. ed. 2, p. 176. 

— — Maerotianus, Morris (non d'Orhi(jnij). Ibid., p. 176. 
''' — — Raulinianus, Morris. Ibid., p. 177. 

1870. — oDLiQUUs, F. J. Pictet and G. Campickc. Foss. Terr. Cret. Ste. 

Croix (Mater. Pal. Suis.se. ser. 5). 
p. 214. 

— — ELONGATUS, Pirfct and Campiche. Ibid . |ip. 214, 218. 

— i; vui.iNlANU.s, Pictet and Campiche. Ibid., pp. 202, 213. pi. clxxii. 

figs. 5-7. 
l'^72. — ELONGATUS, 7f. B.Gcinifz. DasElbthalgeb, in Saehseu (Pala'onto- 

graphica, vol. xx. pt. 1), p. 195. 
pi. xliv, figs. 2—4. 
187G. — cRispus, H. Deicke. Die Tourtia von Miilheini a. d. Kvdir. ji. 21'.. 

1877. — IvAULiNiANUK ?. A. ./. J iihes-Browne. Quart. .Jouru. Geol. Soc, 

vol. xxxiii p. 501. 

1878. — ELONGATUS, C. Barrois. Ann. Soc. gi'ol. du Nord, vol. v. p :>18 

(foot-notf 4). 
? 18S1. — of. ELONGATUS. ,7. Kie.ton: Seliriff. der nat urf.Gesellscli. in Danzig. 

V(d. V. ]). 415, fig. 11. 
1883. — Kaui.intanis. IT. Keeping. Foss., efe., Neoe. Upware and liriek- 

liill. 1.. lill-. 



172 CRETACEOUS LAMET.LTBRANCHIA. 

? 1886. Pecten elongatus, F. Niitliiuj. I)io Fauna d. lialtiseli. Cfuomau. (Palac- 

ont. Abhaudl., veil. ii). p. 2n, pi. iii, 
lig. 6. 
1887. — —A. Peron. Hist, du Terr, do Craie (Bull. Soc. Sci. 

hist, et nat. de rYoniit', ser. 3, vol. xii), 
p. 163. 
1893. — — E. Michael. Zeitschr. d. deutscli. s;l'o]. Gesellseh , 

vol. xlv. p. 235. 
ISOr). — (Chlamts) elongatus, E. Tiessen. Ibid., vol. xlvii. p. 468. 
1896. — ELONGATUS, A. J. Julees-Bvowne and W. Hill. Quart. Jouru. 

Geol. Soc, vol. Iii, 
p. 151. 
1900. — — Jul-cs-Browne. Cret. Eoclcs of Pritaiu (Mem. Geol. 

Survey), vol. i, p. 451. 

Nou 1833. — ■ — A. Gohlfms. Petref. Germ., vol. ii. p. 59, pi. xciv, 

— 1844. — — F. M-Ciiij. Carb. Limest. Foss. Ireland, p. 92, pi. xvi, 

fig. 9. 

— 1846. — coMANS, A. E. Reuss. Die Verstein. der lioliiu. Kreidef'ormat., pt. 

2, p. 29, pi. xxxix, fig. 13. 
? — — — OBLiQuus, Betisg. Ibid., p. 29, pi. xxxix, fig. 18. 

— 1871. — ELONGATUS, J. Phillips. Geol. Oxford, etc., p. 441, ]il. xvii, 

fig. 19. 

Bescrlptlnn. — iSliell ovate, pointed dorsally, higher than long, of little convexity, 
nearly equilateral. Eai'S rather large, very unequal . Apical angle ivom 78° to 
about 90°. 

Right valve flattened or slightly convex, ornamented with numerous riljs, A\hicli 
are frequently grouped in triplets — a larger central ril) with a smaller on each 
side — but sometimes occur in pairs or singly. The smaller ribs appear at varjang 
distances from the uml)o in different specimens. Each rili bears many lappet-like 
scaly projections placed transversely ; these are sometimes close together and 
arranged very regularly, but may be more distant and somewhat irregular. In 
places fine growth-ridges are present. The grooves between the ribs are rather 
narrow and rounded. Narrow portions of the valves at the antero- and postero- 
dorsal margins are without ribs, but are covered by numerous fine grooves placed 
nearly perpendicularly to the plane of junction of the valves. Ears with radial ribs, 
which are often indistinct, and with well-marked growth-lines ; on the posterior ear 
strifB (like those on the margin of the valve) are sometimes seen crossing the ribs ; 
anterior ear large with a deep sinus, posterior ear smaller, triangular. 

Left valve of moderate convexity with ornamentation similar to that of the right 
valve. Ears triangular, with many spiny ril)s ; the anterior larger than the 
postei'ior. 



rHCTKX. 17:1 

Mefiftvremenl)^ : 

(1) (2) (3) (4) (3) (0) [7) (8) (9) (10) fll) (12) (13) (14) (15) (10) (17) (IS) 

r;.>ni;tli . 43 41 37 33 20 3> 5(i GO 56 40 38 285 13 36 50 60 35 55 mm. 
Hci-lit . 53 51 17 11 ."■. 25 44 65 73 06 50 49 31- 17 47 58 74 45 (55 .. 

(1-5) Gault. F..li;.>.st()iie. (1^-13) Grey Ciialk, Dover. 

(6) Upper Guviisanil. Waniiiiister. (14) Chalk Marl. Ventuor. 

(7) „ ,. Veutuor. (15—17) Lower Chalk, Bui-uell. 

(8) Malmstone, Wiltou. 1 (18) Totternhoe Stone, Arlesoy. 

.l///y////r.v;.— The c'.\;nn|ilcs tVimi the (laiilt Hi.<ually uamfd /'. Iiiiiilinlcniiis) hiivi' 
hi'cii r('L;-ai-(l('i| as ili.-^t iiict IVuni those fouml in lla- r|>iici' (ireensaml and Clialk (/'. 
rJoiiijiitiis) ; in IIk" Foi'iiicr tlie ribs usiinll\- appear to be more prominent owing to 
tlie longer and more |)oiiited scales, and generally the trii)le arrangenient of the 
ribs is not so well-mai'ked as in the latter. 'I'hc first difference is, I think, readily 
explained by the less perfect preservation fif the spiny scales in speciinen.s from the 
pervious beds of the U])pei- (Jreensand and Chalk ; the triple arrangement of the 
I'ibs \aries considei-abl\- in different specimens of /'. I'loiH/nfiis from the Chalk and 
(Jreensand. and some forms with less regular tri|)lets seem to be (juite in.separable 
from the examples found in the (lault ; on the otiici- hand, a few tlault specimens 
have the triplets well and regularly develo[)ed. Mr. Jukes-J^rowne and J)r. F. L. 
Kitchin have examined earefully a number of specimens, and agree with me in 
considering that the differences between /'. eloiigatns and P. UauUniamis are not of 
speciHc \alue. 

/'. ]fiirrotiaiHis, (rOr])igny,' from the Upper Senonian of Dordogne, resembles 
/'. c/oiiififK.^, but is appaivntly distinguished by the cars being less unequal, and by 
the anterior left ear having fewer and more distinct ribs ; also the scales on the rii)s 
of tlu^ valve ai'e closer together and more numerous, and in the grooves between 
the triplets of ribs there are, in the adult, two small ribs. 

/'. /W/z/V/.s/, Defrance,- from the //. mucronata Chalk of Maestricht, approaches 
verv closelv those foiwus of /'. chmgainx which have the trijile ai'rangement of the 
libs well de\elnpe<l, but appears to differ in having fewer ribs. 

/i'''/;i'f/A,-.s-.— The specimens figured as /'. Jianliwanns by Pictot and Roux, and 
])y Pictet and Campiche, seem to differ IVom the Knglish forms in having fewei- 
ribs; in this respect, however, the figures of those wi'iters do not agree with their 
descriptions. But since Pictet and Campiche olitained specimens from Folkestone 
for compai-ison it is ])i'obable that their determination is correct. The example 

' ■ Pal. f'raue. T.rr. Cn'i.,' vol. iii (1847). p. 612. pi. cccexxxviii, figs. 1—6. 

- l''aiijas-St.Fouil, ' Hist. Nat de la Mont, de St. Pierre de Maestricht' (1700), p. 153. pi. xsiv, 
fig. 5 ; Defrance, ' Diet. Sci. uat.,' vol. xxxviii (1825), p. 265 ; GolJfiiss, ' Petref. Germ.,' vol. ii 
(1833), p. 57, pi. xciii, fig 7 ; V Keuss, ' Versteiii. hohni. Kreideformat.,' pt. 2 (1846), p. 30 ; Schroder. 
'Zc-tschr. d. deiitsc-li. geol. Gesellsch.,' vol, xxxiv ( 1882), ]>. 265 ; Vogel, ' Verhaudl. nat. Vereins d 
preiLssisch. Rheiiil..' vol. xlix (1802). p. 59. imd ' Ilollandiseh. Kreide' (1805), j.. 24. i)l. i. fig 22. 



174 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 

fio-ured as P. t'longnfus hy d'Orbigny appears to belong to another species. P. 
ohliqnns, Sowerby, is prol)ably identical with /'. eJomjafiifi ; the type, however, is 
missing, and the figures do not show the character of the ornamentation satis- 
factorily, but it is clear from the description that the ribs were in triplets and 
covered with numerous scales. 

This is a moderately common species in the Upper Creensand and Lower 
Chalk. In a specimen from the Chalk Marl of Ventnor (PL XXXI, fig. 12) 
the sliell is proportionately higher, and has a smaller apical angle than usual ; 
it is near to the form figured by Geinitz (1872, pi. xliv, figs. 2, o). Other 
specimens connect this high form with those of normal proportions. A few 
specimens from the Lower Greensand of LTpware — now in the Woodwardian 
Museum, and in Mr. J. F. "Walker's collection, were referred by W. Keeping to 
/'. liiiulhiiroins ; their state of preservation is less satisfactory than that of Upper 
Cretaceous examples, but they approach closely some forms of P. elongatus from 
the Upper Greensand and Chalk, and are probalily correctly referred to that 
species. 

Tifpe^. — The type of /'. elungafn^ came from the Cenomanian of Le Mans. 
The type of P. ohliqnus from the Upper Greensand (? Devizes) cannot be found in 
the Sowerbv collection. The types of P. lianUuianus came from the Albian of Grand 
Pre and Macheromenil (Meuse). 

Distribution. — Gault of Folkestone (zones viii and xi of Price). Cambridge 
Greensand. Upper Greensand of Ventnor. Malmstone of Alton. Chloritic Marl 
of Maiden Bradley. Rye Hill Sand of Warminster. Chalk Marl of Ventnor, 
Folkestone, and Burwell. Totternhoe Stone {H. sulnjlohosus zone) of Arlesey and 
Burwell. Lower Greensand of Upware (see " Remarks" above). 



PkctI'IN (Cur.AMVs) cuetosus, Drfrnnce, 1822. Plate XXXII, figs. 4 « — a, 5 r^ A, 

C> a—r ■ Plate XXXIII. 

1822. Pecten cbetosus, Defrance. A. Brongniart. Descript. gcol. Eiivir. de 

Pai'is (ill Cuviers Ossein, foss., vol. ii), 
pp. 251, .598, pi. iii, fig. 7. 

— — .\KArHNOiDES, Di'france. Broncjniart. Ibid., pp. 2.51, .599, pi. iii. 

fig. 8. 

— — NiTiDA, Q. Maiitell. Foss. S. Downs, p. 202, \A. xxvi, figs. 4, 9 

(?fig. 1). 

1823. — NiTiDus, /. de C. Sowerlnj. Miu. C'iuk-Ii., vol. iv. ji. P'O, \i\. ci:-f'\(.'iv, 

fig. 1. 
1825. — CRETOsus, Defrance. Diet. Sci. uat., vol. x.xxvili, p. 2(i7. 
.— — AEACHNoiDEs, Dc/rdncc. Iliid., p. 2()G. 



PECTIvX. 17-. 

IHII. PiifTEN NiTiDus, /•'. A. Rniner. Die Vorslfiii. iKud-doiitscli, Kr.i.l..^'. 1.., 

181-5. — UNDUi.ATUS, .1. il'Odnijnij. Ill Miircliisuii, ilu- Vcnifiiil, ami dc 

Ki'^sorliug's Gi'ol. lJus.s. d'Euro[«', 
vol. ii, ]). -19(>, pi. xliii, figs. 8— lo. 
LSH;. — NiTiDu.s, ,1. E. lUiif^. Die V'ci-.xfcin. iIit IkiIihi. Krcidcfcjniiiit., 

I.t.-2. ].. lis. 
1817. — cKETosus, A. (/'Orhlijiiij. l'a\. Vnuu;. IVrr. Civt., vol. iii. \<. (>\7, 

]•] tccoxl, fij^s. 1 -". 
1848. — NITIDUS, 11. U. Tin, III,. 1iii1l-.\ Pala^ont., vol. i, p. 1127. 
18.50. — cEETosus, K. B. Geiiiitz. Das QtuuliTsiiiulst. odor Kreidegeh. iu 

DeutsclilaiKl. p. 18l'. 
- — — — A. d'Orhlijiii/. I'rodr. dc Pal., vol. ii, p •J.51. 

— — NITIDUS, A. (rOihlijiiy. ll)id., p 2^)'2. 

'Akisskhi. A. Allli. Geog.-pal. I!fs(lir.il). dor uiiclist. Uinu'cli. v..ii 
Li'iiilHTt; ( llaidiiii^fi-'s Nalurwiss Abhaudl., 
Vol. iii, pt. ii), J). •21-1>, pi. xii, fit,'. 3(j. 
' — — AKcuATU.;, AUh (noil Soircrhi/). ll)id., ]\ 245, pi. xii, fii,'. 29. 

— — MuiiiNTi;ifSTKiATUs, F. Bl.i oil (luin d' ArrJiMt) . Geol. Sussex, p. 0.5(5, 

pi. xxviii, fit,'. 19. 
18.54 — .MTiDus. ./. 3/„j;/s. Cat. Brit. Foss., cd. 2, p. 176. 

— cKETosus, Moni.'<. Ibid., p. 17(i. 

' 18(iO. — — K. A. Zittd. Dio Biv. dcr Gosaut,'el). (Doiikschr. d. k. 

Akad. Wissuiisili. Matli.-uat. Classi-. vol. 
XXV), 2>- 112 (ot) of reprint), pi. xviii, 
111,'. 2. 
l8i;'.i. — /las.N'KUi, E. Farrc. Moll. Foss. de Lcml>ei_i.', p. ]4t). pi. xiii, IIl'. 2. 

1870. — CKETOSUS, /''. liiiiiici: Geol. Oberscbles., p. olG, pi. xxxvii, fi!,'. (j. 

— — — /•'. ./. rictet and G. Campiclie. Foss. Terr. Cret. Ste. 

Croix (MaU'r. Pal. Suisse, ser. 5). pp. 21.5. 218. 

1871. — — F. SfuUczJca. PaliKout. Indica, Cret. Farniii S. ludia, 

vol. iii, p. 428. 

— — tiiiiDvs. Stulic-J.a. Ibid., p. 428. 

1872. — cuETOsus, H. B. Gcinilz. D.is Elljtbalgeb. iu Sachseii (PaUronto- 

grapliica, vol. xx. pt. ii), p. 34, 2>1. x, figs. <5, 0. 
1882. — — II. Schriider. Zeitsehr. d. deutseh. geol. Gescllseb., vol. 

xxxiv. p. 2(5-5. 

— — — var. NiTiDA, Srhriider. Ii)id., p. 2(5(5! 

1887. — —A. Perot, L'Hist. Terr, de Craie (Bull. Sou. Sci. hist. 

et nat. de I'Youne, ser. 3, vol. xii), ji. 1G4. 
1889. — (). Gnepenkefl. Seiioii. von Kiiuigslutter (Pahuout. Ab- 

liaudl., Vol. iv), J). 41 (not the syuonvuiy). 

— — — A. Frilxch. Stud, iiu Gebiete der luilim. Kreideforuiut. : 

IV, Die Teplilz. Sehielit., p. 85. 
1892. — (Chlamys) CKETOSUS, E. Stulhij. Die Kreide Schleswig-Holsteins 

(Mittii. Min. Insl. Kiel. vol. i), p. 239. 
1897. — CKETOSUS, 11. Leoiihuid. Kreieleforuiat. iu Oberscbles. (Pula;outo- 

graphiea, vol. xliv), p. 45. 



17G CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 

? 1897. Pecten CEETOStrs, vai-. NiTiDA, ^. Heiiiii(j. Revis. af Lamell. i Nilssdu's 

' Petrif. Sufcaua ' (Kou. Fysiogr. Sallsk. 

i Liiiiil Haudl., N. F., vol. viii), p. 49. 

1898. — — G. Miillor. MoUusk. d. Uuterseuon v. Braimschwein- 

etc. (Abliand. d. k. preussiscli. geol. Laiide- 
sanst., N. F., Heft 25), p. 31, pi. v, fii,'. ]. 
1900. — — var. Zeisnebi, C. Gagel and F. Kaiuilumvn. Jahrl). d. 

k. prenssiscli. geol. Laudesanst. u. 
Bergak. fiir 1899, p. 229. 

— — — A. WoUemann. Die Faima Seuoiis von Biewende 

(ibid., 1900), p. 16. 
1902. — — J. P. J. Kami. Mollusk. i Danniarks Kridtafi. I 

Lamellibr. (K. Danske Vid. Skiift. 6 
Eaeklce. iiat. niatli. Afd., vol. xi), 
p. 88, pi. i, fig-s. 11, 18. 

— --- — var. NiTiuA, Rava. Ibid., p. 88, pi. i, figs. 12, 13, 21. 

Noil 1833. — —A. Goldfwss. Petref. Germ., vol. ii, p. 58, pi. xeiv, fig. 2 

( = cri.ijms, Eomer, and chingafiit:, Lamarck). 

Desci'iptioii. — Sliell tliiii, ovate, higher than loiiy, sHghtly ineqiinateral, rounded 
ventrally, aiitero-dorsal margin slightly concave, postero-dorsal margin ytraight or 
slightly convex. Valves of slight convexity. Apical angle varying from 90° to 
105°. Ears moderately large, unequal. 

Right valve flattened or slightly convex, Avith numerous narrow ribs which 
may be very slender or moderately strong; the interspaces are sometimes liroader 
than the ribs, l)ut narrower Avhen the ribs are more numerous. In the intersjiaces 
are numerous regularly placed, linear, concentric ridges, which may be confined to 
the neighbourhood of the mnbo, or may cover a larger part, or even the entire 
surface of the valve ; these ridges are usually closer together ventrally than near 
the umbo. At some distance from the umbo, in a few or in many of the inter- 
spaces, new ribs appear, and sometimes remain throughout smaller than the 
primary ribs, but in other cases rapidly become of the same size as the primaries. 
Near the antero- and postero-dorsal edges of the valve the radial ribs are alisent, 
and numerous fine strias are 2:)laced nearly j)erpendicular to the edge. The ril)S 
bear numerous spiny processes, which are usually scale-like and placed transversely, 
but may be more pointed or roimded and nodular ; these processes may occur over 
the entire surface or be confined to parts, and they vary in size on different 
specimens. Anterior ear long, Avith a deep sinus ; dorsal portion smooth, Ijut 
between that and the sinus are from three to five spiny ril)s, Avliich are usually 
rather indistinct. Posterior ear smaller, ti'iangular, witli the outer angle slightly 
obtuse ; with seven or eight radial ribs liearing scaly or nodular processes, and 
sometiiues crossed by concentric ridges. 



!'[•:( 'TK\. 177 

TjcFt valve I'litlici' iiku-c convex than the i\i;'lit, and with similar uniamentation, 
hnt tln' I'ihs usually rather stronger, and sometimes more numerous; tlie concentric 
ridges are often less distinct, e.\ce])t near the unibo; ventrallv, tlicy :ire often 
j)]aeed very close together. Anterior ear with the outer edge convex, and eight to 
eleven radial ribs which are slightly spiny; the dorsal margin without i-i])s. 
Posterior ear smaller, with the outer angle ol)tuse, and with eight or nine ribs 
wliich are slightly spiny. 

MeaHuramentu : 

M. cor-anguinum Marsxtp^tcs 

zone. zouo. A. quadratus zono. B. mucronata zone. 

(1)(2)(.3)(4) (r>) ((i) (7)(8) (9)(10)(ll)n2'.(i:i)(l-t)(15)(lC)(l-) (1S)(19)(20)(21)(22)(2.3H24)(25) 

LcmfTth ;n :i2 :il 28...27 .36 ... 24 27 2"-5 32 .3.3-5 3.5 38 11 12 ^i 19 ... 23 24 25 25 28 3G .37 41mm. 

llpij;lit 3S 37 38 33 ... 28-5 42 ... 28 .32.33 3fi 39 4<) 42 47 48 48 .55 ... 27 28 .30 3! 33 42 « 48 „ 

(1) M. cor-aiujuiniim zone, Portou, Salisbuvj. 
(2, 3) ,, ,, Gravesend. 

(4) „ .. Nortlifleet,. 

(5, 6) Marsupileit zone, Witlu'ringfoii, Salisbury. 
(7—17) A. qiiadratiM zone. East Hariihain, Salisbury. 
(18 — 25) if. mncroiiala zone, Norwicli. 

Remarlis. — This species varies greatly in the details of its ornamentation, and 
to some extent also in the ])r(ipoi-ti(ms of lieight and length. The number, close- 
ness, and strength of the ribs differ considerably; near the venrral margin of the 
valves they may be of (Mpial size, or alternately large and small. (j\\ ing to the later 
ribs still remaining smaller than the earlier ones. When the ribs are relatively few 
in number the flat intei'spaces nvc broader than the ribs, as in the form named 
/'. (irachnnhlrx, Defrance ; when the I'ibs are more numerous the interspaces are 
narrower than thi' ribs. For a short distance ventrally to a strong growth-line the 
rilis are sometimes deflected to one side. The miri'ow concentric ridges are usually 
distinct near the umbo, and may be absent or indistinct on the I'cst of the shell, or 
they may extend to varying distances from the umbo, and in some cases cover the 
entire shell. U.sually the concenti'ic ridges are well-spaced near the umbo, and 
become closer together ventrally, but sometimes the}' ai"0 equalh' distant all o\er 
the shell, or even become more widely sepai-ated ventrally. Spines are usually 
present near the \imbo, and may be al)sent from all the rest of the shell, ov may 
recur at the ventral border only; often they extend to about one-third of the 
distance from the umbo, or even cover the entire surface. In some cases alternat- 
ing spiny and sinooth concentric bands occur, the change taking place at well- 
marked growth-lines, ''. (j. spines near the umbo, in the niidiUe of the valve and at 
the ventral border, separated by two smooth bands. In other cases the spines 
may be absent from the greater ])art of the valve, 'i'he "spines" vary in form, 
being usually scaly, but somctitncs more pointed or nodular ; in some cases they are 

23 



178 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 

rather irregularly developed, but in others they are phiced at very regular intervals, 
and are of very uniform size. The differences in the spines are in some cases 
connected with the state of preservation of the specimens. Nothing less than a 
large series of micro-]>hotographs would illustrate adeipuitely all the differences in 
the ornamentation of this species. 

A few large specimens (length 67 mm., heiglit 72 mm ), from the Tl. mncronata 
zone of Norwich, appear at first sight to differ greatly from this species, on 
account of the greater part of the valves being nearly smooth, or marked with 
linear radial grooves separating flat interspaces ; these forms agree perfectly in 
outline and in the form of the ears with some of the large examples of P. crcfosus, 
and I l)elieve they are only lai'ge and much-worn examples of that species, since 
the characteristic ornamentation sometimes occurs in the neighbourhood of 
the umbo for a distance of about 10 mm. (Norwich Museum, No. 218'J), or, 
in other cases, just below well-marked growth-lines near the ventral border 
of the valve, where the shell has undergone less wearing (Norwich Museum, 
No. 2188). 

In this variable species the extremes differ to such an extent in their orna- 
mentation that, Avhen considered separately, they appear as distinct species, but 
on examining a large series of specimens ^ a complete gradation is found to exist 
between the different forms, which we must therefore regard as merely modifications 
of one species.^ The different forms, moreover, are not confined to one horizon or 
one locality, and it seems therefore hardly necessary to give them distinct names ; 
l)utfrom the same zone and the same spot {e. g. East Harnham and Norwich) extreme 
forms and connecting links may sometimes be found. Moreover, in some cases two 
types of ornamentation appear on different parts of the same shell. The form with 
numerous strong ribs agrees with the type of P. cretoaus, Defrance. /'. arachnoide.i, of 
the same author, is the variety with relatively few and narrow ribs, with the spines 
poorly developed, and A\ith regularly-placed concentric ridges. A variety with 
very slender and nuniei'ous I'ibs (found at Trimingham, etc.) agrees with the 
example figured as J', inuhilntus by Holzapfel. Another form Avitli numerous 
well-developed, regularly placed, spiny scales on the fairly numerous ladial ril)S 
apj)roaches P. serrafus. 

It is very difficult to decide wliich of the two names, crelo>ius or utfiilii^, has the 
priority, since the exact dates of jmblication of the works of Cuvier and Mantell 
cannot be determined at present. Mantell's preface is dated May 1st, 1822, 
and the work was received by the Geological Society before the end of June of 
that year. Mr. C. D. Sherl)orn informs me that the work of Cuvier was noticed as 

1 I have had the opportunitv of studying over 200 examples. 

- Dr. Blackniore, who has made a very large collection of P. cretosua, has iudependentlv come to 
the same conclusion — that all are forms of one species. 



PKCTKX. 17'.' 

|Mil>lislic(| ill the • l!ilili()ur;iiiliic dc la Fi'aiicc ' foi- June Stli, 1822, and lie is inclined 
Id lliiiik tliat it a|)|K'ai-t'il sdincwlial carliri' lliaii .Maiiti'lTs lidok. 

Aiyinitic^. — i'. uiidnliiliii<, Xilsson,' and /'. srrruhis^- Nilsson, are very closely 
allied to /'. rrdofias, hut tlie examination of a larj^-e series of specimens conlil alone 
enable ns to determine tlieir exact relationships. 

Tji/ii's. — Tlie ty|ii's (if /'. iiitidii.i (tVoiii Lewes aiul IJiiniiton) caiimit l)e fuiind, 
l)iit till' specimen i'rDiii (iravesend tiyiiied l)y Sowerliy is in the British .Museum. 
The types of I'. rrcfonH.s and /'. urachnoldcH came from the Upper SeiKmian of 
Menddu. I have not seen the ty])es, lint specimens frdiii the same locality are in the 
AViltsliire Collection, and another has been sent to lue by M. A. de Grossouvre. 

Pi.-ilrihiifhii. — R. Cnmi'ii zone of Dover. 7'. gvacili.'f zone of the Dorset coast and 
Dover. 7/. j>/nHMS zone of the Sussex coast and Dover. M.cor-tedud'uutrium zone of 
the Sussex coast, Dover, Pnrley, and Ilitchin. M. cor-angniimm zone of the Dorset 
coast, Wineliester, I'diton (Salisliury ), the Sussex coast, St. ^Margaret's, Thanet, 
.N'oitlifh'el, riiiley, liabiin- I'it (South Croydon), Bromley. Marsnpites zone of 
the J)orset coast, Winchester, Witherington, the Snssex coast, and Thanet. J. 
(jiii(drafns zone of the Dorset coast, Winchester, Ea.st Harnham (SalisbniT), and 
the Sussex coast. //. nnicnuuild zone of the Dorset coast, Clarendon and Alderbmy 
(Sali-sbury), and Norwich. Chalk of Triniinghani. 



Pkctkn (Ciii.AMVs) Maxtki,i,ia\i:s, d' Orhi'jiu/ , IS 17. Plate X.X.XIN', figs. 1 ", /', 

2, o ((—(•, 4—6. 

1833. Pecten concentkicus, S. WuotliranJ. Gcol. Norfolk, \>. 48, jil. v, ligs. 

27, 28. 
1817. — Mantellianus, A. d'Orhiijui/. Pal. Fraii^-. Terr. Crct., vol. iii, 

p. (U'.t, }>1. cL-ccxl, flip's. 8—11. 
1850. ._ _ _ Piodr. do Pal., vol. ii, p. 251. 

1854. — CONCENTKICUS, /. Afwms. Cat. Brit. Foss., fil 2, [i. 17(i. 
187U. — Mantellianus, F. J. Pktet and G. Campiclu: Foss. IVrr. Cn't. 

Sto. Crokv (Mati'r. Pal. Suisse, ser. 5), p. 215. 



• • Pelrif. Suecaiia ' (1827), p. 21, pi. i.\, fig. 10 ; Holzapfel, " Mollusk. Aachen. Kreide" (' Palscou- 
tograpliica,' vol. xxxv, 1889), p. 235, pi. xxvi, figs. 1, 2 ; Hoiiuig, Revision af Lamell. i Nilsson's 
'Potrif. Suecaua' (1897), p. 48, pi. iii, figs. 9—11 ; Strombeck, ' ZoitscLr. d. deutscli. geol. Go.solLscli.,' 
vol. XV (1863), p. 154; Schroder, ibid., vol. xxxiv (1882), p. 266. 

- Op. cit. (1827), p. 20, pi. ix, fig. 9; Holzapfel, op. cit. (1889), p. 236, pi. xxvi. fig. 16; Hemiig, 
oil, eit. (1897). ]). 50. pi. iii. lig. 15 ; Stolley, • Die Kreide Sclileswig-Holsteius ' (1892), p. 238 ; Kavii, 
'Mollusk. i Damuarks Kri.llali.' (1902). p. 89. 



180 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 

1871. Pecten Manfellianus (= concentricus), F. StoUczlca. Palseout. Indica, 

Cret. Fauna S. India, 
vol. iii, p. 428. 
1879. ■— ef. coNCENTRicus, C. Barrois. Auu. Soc. gi'ol. du Nord, vol. vi, 

p. 452. pi. xii, fig. 4. 
1889. — Mantelli, E. Holzapfel. Die Mollusk. Aachen. Kreide (Palaeonto- 

graphica, vol. xxxv), p. 235, pi. xxvi, fig. 6. 
1892. — (Chlamys) Mantellianus, E. Stolley. Die Kreide Selileswig- 

Holsteins (Mittlieil. Min. Inst. 
Kiel, vol. i), p. 237. 

Non 1822. — concentkictjs, T. Say. Jouru. Acad. Nat. Sci. Pliiladelpliia, vol. 

ii, pt. 2, p. 259. 
— 1825. — — Bef ranee. Diet. Sci. uat., vol. xxxviii, p. 253. 

_ 1837. — — F. G.L.Koch and W.Diiiiher. Beitr uord-deutscli. 

Oolithgeb., p. 43, pi. v, fig. 8. 

Descri-ption. — Shell rather small, thin, ovate, dorsal third pointed ; ine(|uikiteral, 
higher than long ; postero-dorsal margin straight or slightly convex, and longer 
than the antero-dorsal, which is straight or slightly concave. Apical angle from 
8()° to 90°. Ears moderately large, rather high, unequal. 

Right valve flat, with several (usually from three to five) strong growth-ridges 
separated by considerable intervals, and fine radial and concentric ornament, which 
is often indistinct or absent on the later parts of the valve. Radial ornament coia- 
sists of about eleven very slightly elevated ridges or folds, which become indistinct 
ventrally; on the summits of the ridges there are usually two fine linear I'ibs, and 
others (two or three) of the same kind in the shallow furrows ; near the anterior 
and posterior margins the radial ridges are replaced by ribs. Concentric ornament 
consists of fine, close-set, regular, linear ridges, which bear minute pointed granules 
where they cross the radial ribs. Anterior ear consideraljly larger than the 
posterior, and slightly produced dorsally, with a distinct, but not deep, sinus ; 
surface with growth-lines, which become sinuous near the valve^above the 
sinuous part there are faintly marked radial ribs. Posterior ear Avith an outer 
angle of about 90°, and with well-marked growth-lines. 

Left valve convex, with several strong growth-ridges at intervals. Ornamenta- 
tion consists of seventeen or eighteen main ribs, which are narrow and but little 
raised ; they are separated by broad, very shallow furrows. In the middle of each 
furrow is a similar but smaller rib, which, near the ventral border, sometimes be- 
comes almost as large as the main rib. At some distance from the umbo other 
smaller linear ribs (two to five) are introduced. In some cases all the radial ribs 
become indistinct near the ventral border, Avhere the shell is then smooth, except for 
concentric ornament. The concentric ornament consists of regularly-placed, fine, 
linear ribs, which are more widely spaced near the umbo than elsewhere, and form 



PKC'I'KX. 



181 



a i)()iii(cil Liiniiulc w licic tliev cross tlic i-adial I'ilis; UL'ar tlio vt'iitral hnidci- tlie ril)s 
are often vei-y closely placed. Ears triangular, with a \\'\v growtli-lines ; tlie 
aiitei'ior with grannlai' ribs and neai'ly rectangulai' oiitei- anule, the posterior sniallei- 
and with obtuse outer ano'le. 



Measurements 



Length 
Heio-ht 



(1) 
39 



(a) 
38 



(3) 



■>/ 



(4) 


(5) 


(«) 


(V) 


(8) 


32 . 


3(1 . 


■2H . 


2(; 


2n luni. 


3.-. . 


3.-) . 


31 . 


:51 


. 2:! ., 



(1 — Hj Jl. inucroiiata zoue, near Noiwitli. 

Afliiiifics. — [n form, and in the possession of similar radial and concentric 
ornamentation, tiiis species resendjlcs some of tiie varieties of P. cretosus, but is 
easily distinguishal)le by the stronger radial ridges, etc. 

liemarlis. — The differences in the appearance of the ornamentation in this 
species seem to depend nuiiidy on tlie state of preservation ; in some cases the 
right valve is almost smooth. Frecpiently in the larger specimens the later part of 
the vnlve is almost without ornament, iiy far the larger mnnber of sj)ecimens 
which I have seen were obtained from the neighbourhood of Xorwich, where 
it is <i characteristic fossil. 

Type. — The type of /'. coiiceufricux, Woodw:ird, came from the Chalk of 
Xorwich, but cannot now be found. The tvi)es of I'. Maufcllianiis, d'Orbi^-nv, 
came from the St'iiouiau of (.'havot ( .Mai'ue). 

iJistribniiuii. — M. cor-diigainuDi zone of Stnith Croydon (Haling I'it). 
1). mncroiiaia zone of Clai'endon (near Salisl)uryj, of ilartfijrd Bi'idge and various 
other localities near Xorwich. Upper Chalk of Su.ssex. 



Pkcten (Chi.amys) RoiiixAUiiNus, (VOrliujiiij, is 17. Plate X.XXIV, tigs. 7 ii,h, 

8a,h, 9u,h, ]0„,l>, U, 
12n—r; Plate XXXV, 
figs. 1 — 10. 



1842. Pecten iNTEKsruiATUs, .1. Leymerie. Mi'm. Sjc. m'ol. do Fniui-i', vul. v, 

p. 10, pi xiii, %. 1 (uou inter- 
niriatKs, Miiustir). 

1845. — OBLiQUus, E. Forbes. Quart. .lourii. Gool. Soc, vol. i, p. 2-lt) (nou 

obliqiiiiit, Sowerb}'). 

1847. — RoiiiNAi.DiNvs. .1. d'Orhiijnij. Pal. Fraui;. Terr. Crt't., vol. iii, 

p. 587, pi. ccccxxxi, fiys. I — 4. 

INTEKSTItlATUS, (/"Oc/zl^/Hy. ll>ill., p. 5!* I-, pi. CCCX'XXxiii, fij,'S. 1 5. 

1850. — APTIENSIS, A. d'Orhignij. Proilr. do Pal., vol. ii. p. 11!'. 



182 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 

1852. Pecten aptiensis, F. J. Pictet and W. Uoux. Moll. Foss. Givs verts de 

Geucve, p. 511, pi. .\Ivi, fig. 3. 
1854. — iNTEBSTKiATUs, /. Morris. Cat. Brit. Poss., ed. 2, p. 176. 
? 1861. — KoBiNALDiNus, P. de Loriul. Aniiii. Invert. Poss. Mt. Saltve, 

p. 101. pi. xii, figs. ;», lU. 
? — — Baeeetti, H. G. Secleij. Anu. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 3, vol. vii, 

p. 118, pi. vj, fig. 1. 
? I860. — EoBiNALDlNUS, P. de Loriol and V. Gillii'ron. Urgon. luf. de 

Laiiderou (Me'iii. Soe. lielvct. Sci. 
nat., vol. xxiii), p. 22. 
1870. — — F. J. Pk-tet and G. Camplche. Poss. Terr. Crt't. 

Ste. Croix (Mati'r. Pal. Suisse, ser. 5), 
p. 188, pi. clxx, figs 1-5. 
1877. — KYii'E'ssiB, A. J. Jukes-Browne. Quart, Jouru. Geol. Soc, vol. xxxiii, 

p. 500. 
V — — Barketti, Jiilces-Brcwnc. Ihid., ]i. 500. 

? 1883. — Dutemplei, W. Keeinnrj. Poss., etc., ISTeoe. Upware and BriL-l;bilI, 

p. 105. 
188-1. — RoBiNALDiNus, 0. Wt'eHli. Die Fauna des Neoooui. ini Teutoburg. 

Walde(Palaeout. Abhandl., vol. ii). 
p. 53. 

1895. — — 6?. Maas. Zeitsclir, d. deutsuh. geol. Gesellscli., 

vol. xlvii, \). 260. 

1896. — — A. WoUemann. Ibid,, vol. xlviii, p. 840. 

— — Galliennei, Passyi, et suBiNTERSTEiATrs, J.. /. /w7(;es-5roi('?(e a»ifZ 

W. Hill. Quart. Journ. Geol. 
Soc, vol. lii, p. 150. 
1900. — RoBiNALDiNus, ^4. U'ollemann. Die Biv. u. Gastrop. d. deutsch. u. 

bolliind. Neocouis (Abbaudl. d. 
k. preussisch. geol. Land., N. P., 
pt. 31), p. 47. 
h 1900. — cf. EoBiNALDiNus, G. Miillef. In W. Bornhardt, Zur Oberflaclien 

u. Geol. Deutsfli-Afrikas (Deutseb- 
Ost-Afrika, vol. vii), p. 551. 

Description. — Shell ovoid, pointed dorsally, liiglier tliau long, sliglitly inequi- 
lateral, of moderate convexity. Apical angle from 80^ to 85°. Ears rather large, 
unequal. 

Right valve ornamented with numerous narrow, slightly raised ribs, which are 
sometimes wavy, and are separated by flattened spaces, often of greater width than 
the ribs. The ribs bear numerous small, scaly spines, which are placed transversely 
and are generally close together, but sometimes more widely and regularly sepa- 
rated. Spaces between the ribs covered by numerous striae, which in the middle 
of the valve are more or less parallel with the ribs, but become more and more 
oblique in passing towards the anterior and posterior borders. Anterior ear large, 
with a large sinus, well-marked growth-lines, and faint radial ribs. Posterior ear 



PKCTEN. 183 

inucli sm;illci'. triaiit^iilar, (lutrr aiiu'lo dlituse, iiiai'kcd with imlial sti'ia' like those 
on the valve. 

Loft valve rather uun'e cniivc>\'. ornamenteil with similar hut fewer rihs, Ijearing 
scaly spines whieh are dl'ten plaeed at fairly i'e,L;ular intervals. Inters])aces Avith 
striic as on the riu'ht valve. Rihs generally of nearly nnifurni size; hut in sonic 
cases smaller rihs are interealated at some distance frdui the umlio, s(i that alteniat- 
ing lai'u'er and smaller rihs are clearly seen. .Xai'i'ow concentric ridges, placed at 
regular intervals, are sometimes present near the uniho. Anterior ear large, Avith a 
few radial rihs — usually near the valve only, leaving the upper part smooth; riljs 
crossed hy ()i)li(pie stria'. Posterior ear small, with outer angle ohtuse, and marked 
with stria?. 

lleinurli'H. — This species varies greatly ; the nundu'r of rihs on the left valve 
I'anges from '-V) to .^7, and consequently the width of the interspaces also varies. 
Sometimes smaller rihs ai'(> intercalated hetween some of the others. The spines 
on the rihs may he close together and luunerons, oi- fewer and more widely sepa- 
rated, and sometimes they have a fairly distinct concentric arrangement; in some 
cases the rihs on ])ai-t of a valve, oi' on almost the entire surface, are without 
sjiines. Such smooth or nearly smooth foi-ms oeeur in the llythe Beds of Hythe, 
thr Chloritic .Marl of Maiden P>i-a(l]ey, the Rye Hill Sand of Warminster, the 
("enomanian (Hed \'l) of lieer Head, etc. The sharpness of the sjjines varies in 
different specimens, and is partly dependent on the nature of the cTiclosing rock. 
Some e.\am])les from Faringdon and also some from the L'p[)er (Jreensand 
(I'h XXXV, fig. •'?) have lihs over the whole of the anterior left ear, and the 
I'ihs on the \al\'e are numerous with the spines ii'regularly placed; 1 ha\"e not 
sufficient specimens lo determine whether these are distinct from the other forms, 
or merely a variety. Sojne foi'ms (PI. XXXV, fig. 1) with few and strong rihs, 
and well-deyelo[)ed scales, also ajjpear at fii-st sight to he distinct, hut it is difficult 
to draw a line hetween them and the normal form.' A much larger series of 
specimens is reipiired to determine whether these forms are really distinct, or 
merely \'arieties. 

^li'. .iukes-l'i'owne now agrees with me in regarding the foi-ms which he named 

' \ form similar to this, liiit liaviu<| more numerous ribs uud with the spines usually more 
jiointeil ami erect, obtained from the Cenomanian Sandstone of Wilmington, etc. (PI. XXXV, 
fig. 10) has been referred by Jukes-Browne to P. Iiispidiig, Goldfuss. The state of preservation of the 
specimens is not sufficiently good to enable me to decide as to their affinities, but I am inclined to 
regard them as constituting only a variety of P. liohinahliiuii'. In some e.\amples of the latter the 
spines are almost, if not quite, as large as in th(> former. 'I'hey agree l>etter with the figures of 
Gcinitz than of Goldfuss, but the rilibing appears to vary considerably. Goldfufes, • Petref. Germ.,' 
vol. ii (1833), p. .'iO, pi. xciv, fig. 4; Pictet and Campiche, ' Foss. Terr. Cn't. Ste. Croix' (1870). 
p. 21-5; Geiuitz, 'Das Elbthalgeb. in Sachsou ' (' Palffioutograpliica,' vol. xx. pt. 1, Isr-J). j). I'.i". 
pi. xliv. fig,«. 9. 10 ; .Tukes-Browno. ' Cret. Rocks ,>f Britain ' vol. i (]'.MW). p. t.^-J. 



184 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHTA. 

(in 1897, sec synonymy) (iaUicnnci, Fas^yl, and snhinterstriatna as identical with 
P. Bohinaldinns. 

The larger number of the specimens seen were obtained from tlie Ferna-hed of 
Atherfield, the Rye Hill Sand of Warminster, the Chloritic ]\larl of Maiden Bradley, 
and tlie Cenomanian of the Devon coast. 

Affinities. — This species is closely related to (and probahly identical -with) 
several forms described by d'Orbigny, d'Archiac, etc. 

Peden Passyi, d'Archiac,' from the Tourtia (Cenomanian) of Tournay, varies 
considerably, Imt is perhaps distinguished from P. Pmlnnuldinus by the smaller 
intercalated ribs being more numerous and more distinct ; in some cases (as in the 
type specimen) spines are absent from most of the ribs, l)ut in other examples 
from Tournay, which I have seen, they are as numerous as in most specimens of 
P. Piohinaldinus. 

P. suhinterstriatvs, d'Archiac," from the same horizon, appears to differ only in 
having very numerous ril_is. 

P. Diitemplei , d'Orbigny,^ from the Gault, seems to ])e indistinguishable from 
P. llohinaklinus, except perhaps (as suggested by Pictet and Campiche) by the 
occurrence in 7'. Dufemjdei of about fifteen ril^s distributed over the whole surface 
of the anterior left ear, whereas (according to the same writers) in P. Bohinaldiniis 
seven or eight ribs only occur, and are confined to the lower part of the ear. But 
it is doubtful whether these characters are constant : in Leymerie's figure the ribs 
seem to be distributed over the whole ear; while in d'Orbigny's figure of /'. Rnhinal- 
dinus the ribs, although only six in number, are also distributed over the entire ear. 

P. Galliennei, d'Orbigny,* is probably only a variety with rather fewer ribs on 
the valve, and with four or five ribs distril:)uted over the antei-ior left ear. It is 
recorded by Pictet and Campiche from the Upper Greensand of Ventnor. 

P. rliotomagenis, d'Orbigny, ° from the Cenomanian of Rouen, is another similar 
form with numerous ribs. 

T'. Oosteri, de Loriol," is likewise closely related to P. Bohinaldinns. 

The form figuretl by d'Orbigny as P. i liter striatus, Leymerie, is probably only a 
variety, but it possesses fewer ribs than any English form Avhich I have seen. It 
approaches, however, some examples found in the Upper Greensand. 

The name aptiensis was proposed by d'Orbigny (1850) for the interstriatus of 

1 ' Mem. Soc. geol. de France,' ser. 2, vol. ii (.1847), p. 309, pi. sv, fig. 9. 

2 Ibid., p. 311, pi. XV, fig. 10. 

•" 'Pal. Franc. Terr. Crct.,' vol. iii (18-t7), p. 596, pi. ccccxxsiii, figs. 10—13. 

■* Ibid., p. 608, pi. ccccxxsvi, figs. 5 — 8. 

5 Ibid., p. 609, f>l. ccccxxxvi, figs. 9 — 11. 

'^ ' Anim. Invert. Foss. Mt. Saleve ' (1861), p. 102, pi. xiii, figs. 4 — 8; de Loriol and Gillieroii^ 
' Urgon. infer, de Landeron ' (1869), p. 23, pi. i, fig. 18 ; F. J. Pictet au.l G. Cami)iche, ' Foss. Terr. 
Cret. Ste. Croix' (' Mater. Pal. Suisse,' ser. 5, 1870), p. 192, pi. clxx, fig. 6. 



PECTEX. 18.') 

Lcvmei-ie (iwu Miinst(>r) ; but h'nJiiiiahllnns, wliicli is one of tlir foi'ins oF this species 
with Irwcr and cdai'ser rihs, has the |iriorit_v. /'. (i/ilirusis is placcil li_v riclct ami 
Ciuiipiclie as a synonym of Ixiih /'. Ii'oliiiidldiiiux ami /'. Dntcmplci. 

INforfis I'coaidcd /'. Diihui jilri an<l /'. (idllienm'i as synonyms of interstriatiif^, 
Leynieric, ami inc-huhd in it liDth i'jjpcr and liowcr Grccnsfind forms. 

/'. Jhirrcffi, Scidcy, IVuni the Camhridgo (Troonsand, is foundeil on a wnrn 
spi'c-imcn, hut is |)i-(ihalily i<l('ntieal w itli /'. Robh}<ihlhiHi<, nnless the iiunierons ribs 
on llic antcridi' left car l)c r('L;-ard('(l as a dist ini;'uishiiiti' cluiracter. 

Ti/jirs. — 'j'hc type (tf /'. iiilrrslriiihi.s-, ricymcrie, came from fvcs Crofites, Aubc. 
I )"( )r])is>;-ny's specimens of /'. Ii'iiliiinihlimis \\v\v nbtaincd IVdui tlie Xeocdinian of 
St. Sauvcur, etc. 

Disfrihiilt'd/i. —l'rriiii.\H'i\ oF Atherfield and ivist Shalford. Atherfield Beds of 
Sevenoaks. Ilythc Beds oF 1 lythe and Lympne. Lower Greensand of Faringdon, 
and perhaps I'pware. Ferrnginous Sands of Shanklin. 

Chloritic .Marl oF Maiden liradley. I'pper (Jreensand oF Venlnor. Rye Hill 
Sand (iF Warnn'nstei-. Chalk Mai'I, zone oF .1. Mantelli (Meyer's Beds 11 and 12) 
of Dunscombe, ami l>t'd I 1 dF I'eer Head. 



Pecten (Chl.\mys) Stutchbitbiands, /§ou'ct%, 1836. Plate XXXV, fig. 11 . 

183fi. Pecten Stcttchburiensis, J. fZe C <SoweW*7/. Trans. Gcol. Soc, ser. 2, vol. 

iv, p. 342, pi. xviii, fig. 1. 
— — Stdtchburianus, Sotverhij. Ibid., j). 300. 

1854. - — J. Morrla. Cat. Brit. Foss., ed. 2, p. 177. 

BescripHon. — Shell large, ovate, higlier than long, flattened, convexity small. 
Ornamented with inimcrous slightly-i'aised ril)s, which on the greater part oF the 
valve are alternately broad an<l very narrow, and are separated by narrow grooves ; 
but towards the margin the alternation of ribs may be less distinctly marked, and 
the interspaces broader with indications of obliqnc stria3 : the larger ribs have 
flattened or rounded summits, and are ornamented with transversely-placed scales. 
Umbones pointed ; apical angle rather small (abont 85'') ; ears high, not very dis- 
tinctly separated from the i-est of the valve. 

Measurements (approximate) : 

(1) (2) (3) (4) 

Length . 00 . 79 .^)0 . .58 mm. 

Height . 112 . '.10 . r.7 . 68 „ 
(1—3) Haldoii. (4) Blackdown. 

AJJiniiies. — Xo definite' opinion can hr given as to tlu' affinities of (his form, 

24 



186 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 

since only imperfectly pi-eserved specimens have been seen. The oblique stria?, 
and the scales on the ribs, however, seem to connect it Avith /'. Rohinaldinus, but it 
appears to be distinguished by the regular alternation of large and small ribs, and 
by its greater size. P. Stutchhiirianns presents some resemblance to one of the 
specimens from the Tourtia figured by d'Archiac ^ as P. ac.xminatus, Geinitz, l)ut 
differs in the ribs being closer together and alternating in size. 

Remarks. — The examples from Haldon differ from the type in having the scales 
on the ribs indistinct, but this difference is probably due to imperfect preservation. 

Ti/pe. — Blackdown Greensand ; in the Bi-istol Museum. 

Distribution. — Greensand of Haldon and Blackdown. 



Section iE^iuiPEOTEN, P. Fischer,- 188G. 
(' Mauuel de Couch.,' p. 944.) 

Pecten (^quipecten) AsrEii, Lamarck, 1819. Plate XXXV, fig. 12 ; Place 

XXXVI, figs. la,h, 2, 3,4. 

1770. M. Lister. Couch., pi. cccclxx, fig. 28. 

1813. OsTREA MUKICATA, /. ToivHsend- The Character of Moses established for 

Veracity as a Historian, vol. i, pi. i. 

fig. 2. 

1819. Pecten asper, Lamarck. Auim. sllus Vert., vol. vi, p. 180. 

1820. Pectinites aspkr, E. T. v. Schlotheim. Die Petrefactenkimde, p. 226. 
1822. Pecten asper, /. de C. Sowerhy. Miu. Couch., vol. iv, p. 95, pi. ccclxx, 

fig. 1. 
— — —A. Brongniart. Descr. geol. Envir. de Paris (in Ciivier's 

Oss. Foss., vol. ii), pp. 320, 603, pi. v, 
fig. 1. 
1825. — — Defrance. Diet. Sciences uat., vol. xxxviii, p. 261. 

1832. — — G. P. Deshaijes. Encyc. Mcth. Vers, vol. iii, p. 728. 

1833. — —A. Goldfuss. Petref. Germ., vol. ii, p. 58, pi. xciv, fig. 1. 

1836. — — G. P. Beshayes and H. Milne Edwards. Ed. 2 of Lamarck's 

Auim. sans Vert., vol. vii, p. 157. 

1837. — — F. Dujardin. Mem. Soc. gtol. de France, ser. 2, vol. ii, 

p. 228. 
? — — — var. POLONICA, G. G. Piisch. Polens Palaeont., p. 41, pi. v, 

fig. 7. 
1839. — — H. B. Geinitz. Char. d. Scliicht. u. Petref. des siichs. 

Kreidegeb., pt. 1, p. 23. 

' ' Mem. Soc. geol. de France,' ser. 2, vol. ii (1847), pi. xvi, fig. 3 (on the left-hand side, not the 

other fig. 3). 

■■^ 1 follow Dall ill regarding ^/juijiecteii as only a section of Chlamys. Sre 'Trans. Wagner 
Free lustit. Science of Philadelphia,' vol. iii (1898), p. 695. 



l^EPTEX. 187 

1841. Pkctkn AHVKR, F. A. Rijiner. Die Versfciu. J. iiurd-dLutscli. Kieidegeb., 

p. 53. 
liS-iO. — — //. ij, Gcinitz. Grundriss der Verstoiii., p. 4(50. 

— — — A. E. Ri'ngs. Die Versk'iu. dor Ixihm. Kivi<l(_'fonnat.. pt. 2, 

p :J0. pi. xl, fig. 1. 
181.7. — _ A. d'Orhiijii;/. Pal. Fraiu;. Ten-. Crut., vol. iii. p. .509, 

j)l. cfccxxxiv, figs. 1 — 6. 
18.iO. — — J[. ]>. (u'iiiil;:. Das Quadersaudst. odor Kreidegeb. in 

Deutschland, p. 184. 

— — — .1. <rO,-huii,ii. Pnnlr. dc Pal., vol. ii, p. 168. 

185-2. — — R. Kiu-r. Deiikschr. J. k. Akad. d. Wisseuscli., Math.-uat. 

C'l., Vol. iii, p. :jl7, pi. xvii, fig. 6. 

1854. — — J. AlorrU. Cat. Brit. Foss., ed. 2, p. 175. 

1855. — — G. Cnftemi. Moll. Foss. de I'Yonuc, p. 116. 

1863. — — A. Kiiiith. Zoitsclir. d. dcutscli. geol. GeselLsch., vol. xv, 

p. 724. 

1870. — — F. J. Field and G. Campu-he. Foss. Terr. Cret. Ste. Croix 

(Mati'r. Pal. Suisse, ser. oj, pp. 208, 213. 

1871. — (Chlamys) asper, F. Sfoliczka. Pala-out. ludica, Crct. Fauna S. 

India, vol. iii, p. 428. 

1872. — ASPEE, H. B. Geinitz. Das Elbthalgeb. in Sacliseu (Palaeonto- 

grapliica, vol. xx, pt. 1 ), p. 108. 
1876. — — //. Dcickf. Die Tourtia von Miilheiiu a. d. Ruhr, p. 26. 

1878. Chlamys ASPEE, E. Bttijic. Explie. do la Carte geol. de France, vol. iv, 

lit. 1 (Atlas), pi. cxxii, fig. 1. 
1803. Pecten ASPEE, 7?. Michael. Zeitschr. d. deutseb. geol. Gesellsch., vol. 

xlv, p. 234. 

Non 1830. — — //-(/■/ (li<]e (VOrhifinij). 

— 1852. — — L. Reeve. Coueh. leon., vol. viii. pi. ii. fig. 1(1. 

]>cxrrijitl<iit. — Shell iisiKillv I'atlici' lai'o-c^ iienvly fii'culai', iMnulatcral, aliiKi.st 
C(|iii\ al\t' ; antoi'o- and postero-diu'sal iiiai'o-ins of r(|ual length, sti'aio'lit or slit^litly 
concavo. Valves iiiDilci'atcly convex — ri_o-lit valvL' a little more conve.v llian the 
left, liengtli e((iial to, or slightly greater than, height. Umhones sliai'|). Apical 
angle al)ont lO.")^. Ears moderately large, iniecinal. 

Surface of lioth valves ornamented with about sevenU'en main rihs, which are 
angular and elevated ; near the anterioi- and postei'ior hoi'ders they are sometimes 
rathi^T smaller than elsewheix; ; on the rihs are numerous sharj), hollow, ventrally 
directed spines. Near the umho only tliesi' main I'ihs occui-, hnt at a little dis- 
tance from it another similar Imt smaller rih, with similar spines, is iutroduceil 
on each side of the main lib ; and later other ribs usually appear .succcssivelv 
• — often one or two, but sometimes three or more on each side of the main rib. 
These lateral ril)s are not always of equal size, and not always placed at eipial 
distances iVoni one another. Tlu' anti'ro- and })ostero-dorsal margins of the valves 



(") 


(«) 


CJ) 


UO) 


GO 


57 


55 


41) uim. 


GO 


56 


55 


^7 „ 



188 CRETACEOUS LAMBLLIBRANCHIA. 

are bent nearly perpendicularly to tlie plane between the valves, and this narrow, 
bent portion is ornamented with close-set grooves only, placed nearly per- 
pendicularly to the line between the valves. 

Bars ornamented with radial spiny ribs. Posterior ears triangular ; anterior 
ears laro-er— the right with a well-marked sinus. 

Measurements : 

(1) (2) (3) (t) (5) (6) 

Length. . 76 71 67 67 05 02 
Height . . 74 71 'iO 05 00 00 

(1) From the Ceuomauiau of Wilmington. 
(2 — 10) From Warminster. 

Affinities. — See P. ^Jt',rai«.s (p. 190). 

Bemarks. — The number of lateral ribs varies to some extent, and in a few cases 
only one is found ou each side of the main ribs throughout their length. 

This species is abundant in the Upper Greensand of the south of England, 
especially at Warminster. It occurs less commouly in the Chloritic Marl, but is 
al:)undant in the Cenomanian of Devon.' 

Ti/jv'. — From the Cenomanian of Ferte Bernard (Sarthe). The specimen 
figured by Sowerby, from the Upper Greensand of Horningham near Fronie, is 
in the British Museum. 

Bistrihution. — Higher part of the Ui)per Greensand of Melcombe Bingham, 
Ballard Down, Ventnor, Savernake, Maiden Bradley, and Warminster. Eye Hill 
Sand of Maiden Bradley, Rye Hill, and Warminster. Chloritic Marl of Maiden 
Bradley and the Isle of Wight. Cenomanian (Meyer's Beds 11 and 12) of the 
Devon coast and of Wilmington. 



Pegten (iE(iUii'ECTEN) Beavekf, SdicerJii/, 1817. Plate XXXVIII. 

1817. Pectbn Beaveei, /. Soiwrhy. Miu. Coucli., vol. ii, p. 1:11, jil. clviii. 
1822, — — G. Mantell. Foss. S. Downs, p. 127, pL xxv, fiy. 11. 

1825. — — Defrance. Diet. Sci. uat., vol. xxxviii, p. 264. 

? 1833. — — A. Gohlfuss. Petref. Germ., vol. ii, p. 54, pi. xcii, fig. 5. 

— — DEPEESsus, Gohlfiiss. Ibid., p. 53, pi. xeii, fii,^. 4. 

1837. — Beaveki, H. G. Bninn. Letbtea Geog., p. 677, pi. xxx, fig. 19 

(eJ. 3, vol. ii, pt. 6, p. 273j. 

1 Peden conqKisitus, Sowerliy (' 'J'l'ans. Geol. Soc ,' ser 2, vol. iv, 1836, p. 342, pi. xvii, fig. 20), 
from Blaclcdowu, is jiroljably a Lima related to L. ccnomanein^i^, d'Orbiguy. The type is in the 
Bristol Museum. 



im:ctk.v. 189 

1841. Pix'TEN BE,vvKki,7''. .1. llmni-. Dii' Vcisti'in. d. iionl-ileutsi-li. Kreidogeb., 

,,. .>!.. 
18.50. — ? Beaveui, a. d'OMijiiij. I'rodr. de I'.il., vol. ii. p. ICf). 
— — JUGOsus, /. dc C. Soiverbi/, iu F. Dixon. Geol. Sussex, p. 317 fp. 

382, ed. i), [d. .x.xviii. li- ^(J. 
1854. — Beaveki, /. Morrix. Cat. Brit. Foss , ed. 2, p. 175. 
18(J3. — — A. r. SIromher/,-. Zeitsi-lir. d. devitscli. geol. GcsuUstli., 

vol. XV, p. 108. 

1870. — — F.J.Pirtrt amia.Campiche. Foss. Terr. Cn't. Stc. Croix 

(Mater. Pal. Suisse, ser. 5), pp. 214, 218. 

1871. — — F. StoUczka. rahooiit. ludiea, Cret. Fauua S. India, 

vol. iii, p. 428. 

Descri/)tinii. — Slicll lar^r, thin, oval oi; nearly circular ; liciu'lit usiiallv sliu'litlv 
^i^'ivatci' lliaii Iciintli; inarn'iiis evenly rounded except at tlie junctinn with the 
ears. Valves conipre.ssed, neai'lv c(|ual, sli^'htlv ine(|uilateral. Apical auLile large, 
from I Is to ]-2') . Kars long, low, a little uneipial. 

Right vahe wuli hroad radial rihs, which have sharp and sometimes slightly 
irregular suuuiiits and gently sloping sides; there are also similar smaller ril)s, 
which do not reach the umbo. The ril)s are smaller anteriorly and posteriorly. 
The surface of the valve is ornamented with fine, close-set, concentric, linear 
ridges, and sometimes with radial ridges. Anterior ear with a well-marked sinns, 
ornaniente(l with scaly ribs except near its junction with the vah'c. I'osterior 
ear smaller, outer angle nearly a right angle; surface with ribs, sometimes obscured 
by concentric lamelhv. 

Left \'al\'e with about seventeen main ribs, whicli -aw narrow, elevated, and 
sliarp, sometimes slightly serrate at the summits; separated by bi'oad furrows. A 
smalli/r rib is often introduc(.'d iu the middle of the fui-row at a distance from the 
umbo, and on the sides of the ribs other still smaller ribs n'lay occur, .\iiteriorly 
and posteriorly the main ribs become smaller. 'I'he ribs and furrows are crossed 
by many fine, close-set, regular, concentric ridges, which are seen most distinctlv 
in the furrows. .\iiterior ear a little more elevated than the posteiiur; both with 
radial rii)s and sliai-p outer angles. 

Mi-asurriiicuts .- 

(M (2) {-.i) il> 

Length . HI . 8() . 88 . UMi 
llei"-ht . 80 . 88 . KM . Kk; 
(1, 2) CIkiII; ^Fail, Folkestone. 

(3) „ „ Meldreth. 

(4, 5) Totteinhoo Stone, Burwell. 

(()) H. snhijlohosus zone, Chenv HiiUciii. 

Aljinitii's. I', ilcjircasus, (Joldfnss, seems to be scarcely distinguisiiahle from 
/'. I'lriircri. 'i'lie specimen iigured by (iohlfuss as /'. //cf/rc/v' dot's not show tiie 





lil'.t mm 


1)8 


. lOil ., 



190 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 

small I'iljs on the sides of the main I'ibs, and may jDerhaps lie distinct, but this can 
be determined only liy an examination of specimens. 

Types. — The type was obtained from Lower Chalk of Childrey, near Wantage, 
and is said to be in the Oxford Museum. The type of P. jugosus is missing, and 
the locality from which it was obtained is not given by Sowerljy. Mantell's 
figured specimen, from the Chalk Marl of Hamsey, also appears to have been lost. 

Distribution. — Upper Gault (zone x) of Folkestone. Red Limestone of 
Hunstanton {fiih Survey Memoirs). Chloritic Marl of Blackgang and Niton. 
Clialk Marl of Ventnor, Folkestone, Meldreth, Hunstanton, Stoke Ferry, etc. 
Totternhoe Stone of Cherry Hinton, Burwell, Dersingham, and Hunstanton. 
H. suhgluhosus zone of Blue Bell Hill (Burham), Shelfoi'd, and Cherry Hinton. 



Pecten (^quipecten) pexatus, sp. nov. Plate XXXVI, figs. 5a,b, G, 7 ii,h. 

? 1850. Pecten Dujakdini, /. de C. Soiverhy, in F. Dixon. Geol. Sussex, p. 356, 

pi. xxviii. fig. 4 (? locality). 
1897. Chlamys ternata, H. Woods. Quart. Jouru. Geol. Soc, vol. liii, p. 382 

(not the synonymy). 

Description. — Shell small, ovate or nearly circular, pointed dorsally, equi- 
lateral, and almost equivalve; of slight convexity. Length usually a little less 
than height. Apical angle about 104°. Ears fairly large. 

Both valves have radial folds, of slight elevation, and usually eleven in number. 
The entire surface is ornamented with numerous narrow, elevated, and sharply 
limited ribs, which are placed regularly, are of slightly unequal size, and l)ear many 
short, hollow spines, which are generally directed ventrally, but are sometimes 
nearly perpendicular. At the summit of each fold is a rib rather larger than the 
others, and bearing longer spines ; other ribs occur on the sides of the folds, and 
are introduced at different distances from the umbo, the latest rib Ijeing the 
smallest. On each side of a fold, near the margin of the valve, there are generally 
three, but sometimes more I'ibs. 

Ears slightly unequal, ornamented with four or more radial spiny ribs, and with 
a row of spines at the dorsal edge ; byssal sinus moderately deep. 

Measurements : 

(1) (2) (3) (4) 

Length . 24 . 20 . 16-0 . IPO nun. 

Height . 25 . 20-5 . 16-75 . 11-5 „ 

(1, 3) H. jjlanus zone, Cheveley. 
(2) Upper Chalk, near Salisbury. 
(4) A. qiiadratus zone, East Haruham. 



PECTEN. I'.n 

/I///// (7/r.s'. -'Iain's s]iccios resciiiblcs /'. riffprr (scop. ISfi), but is much smaller, 
less convex, witli I'ewtT folds (or inniii ril)s), and, in specimens of the same 
size, w illi nuii'e numerous and moi'c closeh' placecl ril)S. 

When di'scribinjr the Molhisca of tlie Chalk Ivock (1897), T referred this species 
to /'. fcviKilns, (xoldfuss, which was founded on a cast from the Quader Sandstone 
of Schandan (Saxony), and appears to be the form usually known as /'. Dujuriliii-i. 
On further examination this determination did not seem altogether satisfactory, 
and I have recently, through the kinchiess of iM. Raoul Fortin and M. A. de 
Grossouvre, received specimens of P. Ihijurdini fi-om !•' ranee ; I'rofessor Deicli- 
nniller has also sent me casts of Geinitz' figured specimens. 1 am now able 
to say that /'. Dujanlini differs from F. jjcxaliis in having much stronger and more 
distinctly separated folds, with less distinct ribs and spines, and in having closely- 
placed concentric lamelhie ; in specimens lai-ger tlian those figured by d'Orbigny 
the ventral inargins of tlie valves ai'e sharply bent. Two of the specimens figured 
by ({(Muitz' (figs. 1", llj may belong to I', jir.rafiis, ]mt ihvy show the interior of 
the valves only. /'. Ihijardini appears to be min-e neai-ly i'elate<l to /*. xitplem- 
plicatus, Nilsson, than to P. pexatus. 

Difitribnfion. — Zone of T. gracilis of Hooken (Devon). Zone of //. planus of 
Chevcley (Xcwmarket). Chalk Kock of Wincliester and Clotliall (Baldock). 
Uinfacrinus zone of Devizes Road (Salisbury). Zone of .1. qnadratus of East 
llarnhani. Zone of /.'. mucronata of Clai'endon (Salisbui'y), and of Shute-end I'it, 
Aldei-l)Ul'V. 



Pecten (^QUirECTRiN), sp. Plate XXXVI, figs. ^a,h. 

Descviftion. — Shell small, flattened, ornamented with fi-om ten to thirteen 
narrow, elevated ribs, wdiicli are se])arated by bi'oad, fiat interspaces. itd)s with 
hollow, curving spines, placed at regular and fairly distant intervals. 

Jveviarhs. — This form, of which I have seen three specimens oidy, appears to be 
distinguished from /'. asrihis, Sowerby,- by the spines on the libs. It differs from 
P. rarispinus, Reuss,^ in the absence of radial folds. 

Distribution. — Chalk Rock of Winchester. .1. i/iiaJraliis zone of East llaiiiham 
(Salisbury) and near Winchester. 

' ' Das Elbthalgcl). iii Sachson ' (1872), pt. 2, pi. x. figs. 10, 11. 

= J. do C. Sowerby, in F. Dixou, • Geul. Sussex' (1850), p. 348 (p. £83, cd. 2), pi. xxviii, fig. 5. 
The locality and horizon of P. asellus are not given by Dixon, and the tyi* cannot now be ftxiud. I 
have seen no example which could be referred to this species. 

^ 'Die Verstein. der bohm. Kreideformat.' (1846), pt. 2, p. 31, pi. xx.\i.\, fig. 1.5; Geinilz. ''Das 
Elbtlialgcb. in Sachsen" (' Palocoutogniphica,' 1872, vol. xx, pt. 2), p. 36, pi. x, fig. 13. 



192 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 



PkCTEN (^QUirECTEN) SAKFMENSIS, Sp. HOY. Plate XXXVTT, fio-s. 1, 2(1, h, o. 

Description. — Hliell small, sli<>'litly inequilateral, lieii;'lit ami leiig'th nearly equal, 
outline roimded, convexity small. Apical angle M)7' to 111°. Ears rather large. 

Right valve ornamented with very nnmei'ous (fift\' to sixty) narrow, well- 
marked, radial ribs, Avhieh are separated by deep, narrow grooves. The ribs are 
often slightly unequal, sometimes alternately, the smaller ribs being introduced 
later than the larger. The ribs bear numerous small, similar, spiny scales, placed 
either vertically or sloping, and sometimes having a roughly concentric arrangement ; 
near the umbo concentric lamellaj occur. Postero-dorsal margin with fine oblique 
stria?. Anterior ear long, with a deep sinus and four radial ribs with spines. 
Posterior ear much shorter, with three or four radial, spiny ribs. 

Left valve not seen. 



{easvremi'utK : 












(1) 


(2) 


(3) 


(4) 


Length 


8-0 


7-0 


(■) 


5-25 mm 


Height 


8-0 


G-75 





5-0 „ 



(1 — 4) A. quadrat IIS zoue. East Haruham, Salisbury. 

Affinities. — In form this species resembles P. campaniensis, but is easily 
distinefuished by the nnich laro'cr number of ribs. The ornamentation resembles 
that of P. pcxatns, Ijut the shell is without radial folds, the ribs ai'e fewer, and the 
apical angle larger. Radial folds occur on even the smallest specimens of 
P. pexatus. 

Types. — Li Dr. Blackmore's collection. 

Distrilndion. — A. quadraius zone of East Harnham (Salisbury). P>. mucronata 
zone of Clarendon (Salisbury). 



Pecten (^quipecten) campaniensis, (VOrhifiny, 1847. Plate XXXVIT, figs. 4 — 8. 

1847. Pecten campaniensis, A. (VOrhigny. Pal. Fraui,". Terr. Crct., vol. iii, p. 

620, pi. ccecxl, figs. 12—16. 
1850. — — — Prodr. de Pal., vol. ii, p. 251. 

1870. — — F. J. Pidet and G. Oampiche. Poss. Terr. Cn't. Ste. 

Croix (Mater. Pal. Suisse, ser. 5), p. 215. 
1887. — — A. Peron. Hist. Terr. Craie S.E. du Bassia Anglo- 

Parisieu (Bull. Soc. Sci. hist, et nat. 
de I'Youne, ser. 3, vol. xii), p. 163. 
1889. ' — — 0. Griepenl-erl. Senon vou Kimigshittcr (Palaeout. 

Abliandl., vol. iv), p. 44. 



I'KCTK.X. 193 

Dr^cription. — Shell small, nearly equilateral, nearly circular, length efjual to, or 
slightly greater than the height. Antero- and postero-dorsal margins straightened. 
Convexity small. A|iiL-al angle about lOfT. Ears moderately large, uneqiial. 

Right valve with ahout twenty-four strong, rounded ribs at the margin, some 
of which may be formed by bifurcation at some distance from the umbo. The ribs 
may be all of nearly ('([ual size, or those foi'uied by bifurcation may be somewhat 
smaller and clo.ser together. Grooves between the ribs are deep, but rather narrower 
than the ribs. Both grooves and ribs are crossed 1)V concentric lamellar ridges, 
which ai'c especially distinct near the umbo, and may be absent or indistinct 
veutrally; these ridges are continuous, and placed at regular intervals. Anterior 
eai' long, with a di'cp siiuis, and two or thi'ee serrate ribs radiating from its apex 
and crossed I)y hne concentric ridges. Posterior ear smaller, triangular, nearly 
smooth. 

Left valve Avith similar ornamentation, but rather narrower ribs, some of which 
do not reach the neio-hbourhood of the umlu). Anterior ear rather loui^, with three 
or four well-marked radial ril)s crossed by concentric ridges. Posterior ear 
smaller, with rather less distinct radial ribs and concentric rido-es. 

Meaaiiremeuts : 

Length . n-o . '.)•() .7.7 . b . .5-(» nun. 

Heio-ht . ll-<' . 8-75 . 7 . (i-7-3 



D 



(•">) 


(6) 


b , 


, .5-0 


() , 


, 4- 75 



(1.2) D. mncrininfa zone, Norwich. 

(8, 6) „ „ Cliireudon, Salisbury. 

(4) Uhit(icrinii>< zone, Devizes Road, Salisbury. 

(5) A. quadratus zone, East Haruham, Salisl)iu-y. 

Affi)iitirs. — This species reseml)les both P. acute-pl'watns, Alth,' and P. leopo- 
licnsh, Alth," but is distinguished from both l)y its more numerous ribs, the 
narrower furroAvs, and concentric ridges. 

Remavls. — This appears to be a rather rare species; 1 have seen only about a 
dozen specimens. 

Type. — From the Seiionian of Chavot (^larne). 

Didributiou. — Uintac.riims zone of Devizes Road, one mile west of Salisbury. 
Marsupltc>f zone near ^\'iuchestl•r. .!. i/iiadratiis zone of East Harnham near 
Salisbury, and Winchester. //. inxcroiiata zone of Clarendon near Salisbury, and 
of XorAvich. Upper Chalk of (iuildford. Chalk of Trimingham. 

1 Haidinger's ' Naturwiss. AbLaud.,' vol. iii, pt. 2 (1850), p. 248, pi. xii. fig. 34; Favre, ' Moll. 
J'oss. Craie de Lemberg' (1869), p. 148, pi. xiii, figs. 3, 4. 

- Op. cit., p. 247, pi. xii, fig. 33; Favre, op. cit., p. 149, pi. xiii, fig. 5. 



194 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRAXCHIA. 



Pecten (^uuipecten) arlesiensis, sp. nov. Plate XXXVII, figs. 9 — 11. 

Descriptmi. — Shell small, nearly circular, pointed dorsally, height and length 
nearly equal ; nearly equilateral ; convexity moderate. Apical angle about 103°. 
Ears very unequal. 

Right valve with fifteen or sixteen strong, rounded, radial ribs, which are 
undivided, and of nearly equal size, but somewhat smaller anteriorly and poste- 
riorly. Ribs separated by strong, rounded grooves, a little narroAver than the 
ribs. Fine, regulai'ly-placed, concentric ridges cross both ribs and grooves, and 
are best marked near the umbo ; on the ril)s they devehip into rather prominent, 
projecting scales. Near the posterior border of the valve the grooves are marked 
obliquely by closely set strife. Anterior ear very long, with a deep sinus, and two 
or three radial ribs bearing scales or tubercles. Posterior ear much shorter, the 
outer angle approximately rectangular. 

Left valve with similar ornamentation, but the ribs rather narrower and the 
scales somewhat more widely separated. 

Measurements : 

Length 

Height 

(1, 3, 4) Totternlioe Stoue, Avlesey. 
(2) Chalk Marl, Folkestone. 

Affinities. — This species resembles the form referred by Geinitz (from the 
Turonian), and by Fritsch, to P. jiulcheUus, Nilsson (see p. 196), but it differs in 
having fewer and more widely separated ribs. These characters, as well as the 
scales on the ribs, also separate P. arlesiensis from P. camjxiniensis, d'0rbig•n3^ 

Types. — From the Chalk Marl of Folkestone. 

Distribution. — Chalk Marl of Folkestone, and from a deejD boring in the axis of 
the Winchester anticline. Totternlioe Stone {H. subf/hhosus zone) of Arlesey. 



Pecten (yEquipecten) pulchellus, Nilsson, 1827. Plate XXXVII, figs. 12 a— c, 

13, l-ia,b, 15. 

1827. Pecten pulchellus, S. NiUson. Petrific. Suecaua, p. 22, pi. ix, fig. 12. 

• — — LiNEATUs, Nilsson. Ibid., p. 22, pi. ix, fig. 13. 

1833. — spuEius, A. Goldfuss. Petref. Genu., vol. ii, p. 51, pi. xci, fig. 10. 

— — pulchellus, Goldfuss. Ibid., p. 51, pi. xci, tig. 9. 



(1) 


(2) 


(3) 


(4-) 




9-5 


7 


6 mm. 


23 


9-5 


,1-7 


„ 



1852. 


• — 


— R 


18<53. 


— 


PULCHELLCS, 


1869. 


— 


— 


1870. 







PECTEX. lOo 

1837. Pecten pulchellus, W. Hisin'jcr. LotluBa Suecica. j). 51, \t\. xvi, fij;. 9. 

— — LiNEATDs, Hifinger. Ibid., p. 51, pi. xvii, fi<^. 1. 

1841. — PULCHELLU.S, F. A. Idnier. Dif V.-rstrin. d. norJ-deiitsch. Kivido- 

tjol)., p. 52. 

— — SPUKIU.S, Runifr. lliid,, p. 52. 

1842. — puLCHELLus, F. V. Hagenow. Neut-s Jahrb. fiir Min., c-tc, p. 550. 

1847. — — /. Mailer. Petref. der Aaclieii. Kreidef., pt. 1, p. 33. 

1848. — — H. G. Bronn. Index Pal»out., vol. i, p. 929. 
1850. — -A. (VOrhlfjni/. Prodr. dc Pal., vol. ii. ]i. 252. 

— . — suBPULCHELi,us, cVOrhi<jmj. Ibid., p. 252. 

— — puLCHELLU.s. H. B. Geliilh. Das Qiiadersaudst. oder Krt-idegeb. 

ill Dfutsclilaud. p. 184 (pariiin). 
— Staszyci. .1. Alfli. P,rsc'lu«-ib. der Umsebuiii,' von Lemberg 

(Haidiuger's Naturwiss. Abhandl., vol. iii, 
pt. 2), p. 248, pi. xii, fig. 35. 
Kiier. Denksehr. d. Ic. Akad Wissenscli. Matli.-nat. 

Classe, vol. iii, p. 31 0, pi. xvii. fii;. 2. 
A. V. Stromheck. Zeitsdir. d. deut.sch. geol. 

Ge.sellsch., vol. xv, p. 154. 
E. Favre. Moll. Foss. de la Craie de Lemberg, 

p. 145. 
C. Si-hlHler. Neiies Jahrb. fiir Miu., etc., p. 951. 

— — — F.J. Fictct and G. Campiche. Foss. Terr. Cret. Ste. 

Croix (Mater. Pal. Suisse, ser. 5), p. 219. 

1871 — — F. Stolirehi. Palaeont. ludica, Cret. Fauna S. India, 

vol. iii, p. 428. 

1889. — — E. Hohapfcl. Die Mollusk. Aachen. Kreide (Pate- 

outographica, vol. xxxv), \\. 234, 
pi. xxvi. tigs. 10 — 13. 

— — — 0. Griepenkerl. Seuou. vou Kuuigslutter (Palaoout. 

Alihaiiill., vol. iv), p. 45. 

— — LINEATUS, Griepenkerl. Ibid., p. 44. 

1892. — (Chlamys) PULCHELLUS, E. Stolley. Die Kreide Schleswig- 

Holsteius (Mittheil. Miu. lustitut. 
Univers. Kiel, vol. i), p. 240. 

1895. — PULCHELLUS, F. V'Mjfl. Holliiudiscli. Kreide, p. 23. 

— — spuEius, V(Mjel. Ibid., p. 22, pi. i. figs. 20, 21. 

1897. — PULCHELLUS, ^1. TfeH /(/(/. Kevis. Lauiell. i Nilssoii'.s ' Petrif. Sue- 

cana ' (Kon. Fvsiogr. Siillsk. i Lund. 
Hand!., N. F,. vol. viii), p. 33, pi. ii, 
figs. 27, 29—32 ; pi. iii. figs. 1, 2. 
1900. — (,i]QuiPECTE.N) PULCHELLUS. E. PliUippi. Zeitschr. d. deutsch. 

geol. Gesellsch., vol. iii, 
].. 101. fig. 18. 
1902. — PULCHELLUS, J. F. J. Ravii. Mollusk. i Dainuarks Kridtatl. I. 

Laiuellibr. (Kgl. Danske Vid.Selsk. 
Skrit't. 6 Kaekke, uat. math. AIM., 
vol. xi), p. 82, pi. i, fig. 8. 



196 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 

Null 1842. Pecten pulchellus, P. Matheron. Cat. Foss. du Bouclies-du-Ehoue, 

p. 186, pi. XXX, figs. 4 — 6. 

— 1853. — — L. Reeve. Couch. Icouica, vol. viii, pi. ssxii, fig. 142. 

— 1872. — — H. B. Gelnitz. Das Elbthalgeb. in Sachsen (Palaeon- 

tographica, vol. xx, pt. 2), p. 33, 
pi. X, figs. 2 — 4. 

— 1877. — — A. Fritsch. Stud, im Gebiete der biilim. Kreide- 

format. : II, Die Weissenberg. u. 
Maluitz. Schicht., p. 136, fig. 130. 

— 1893. — — B. Michael. Zeitschr. d. deutscli. geol. G-esellscli., 

vol. xlv, p. 243. 

Description. — tSliell small, oval, rounded, lieight equal to, or slightly greater 
than the length ; nearly' equilateral, the postero-dorsal margin a little longer than 
the antero-dorsal. Convexity of valves small. Apical angle about 103°. Ears of 
moderate size, unequal. 

Right valve with a variable number (twenty-three to forty-four at the margin) 
of broad, flattened, radial ribs, separated by much narroAver, shalloAV grooves; in 
approaching the umbo some of the ribs become united in pairs. Kear the anterior 
and posterior borders ribs are small or absent. Both ribs and grooves are marked 
by numerous fine radial strife, which, in the middle of the valve, are parallel with 
the rilis, Imt cut them more and more obliquely in passing toward the anterior and 
230sterior margins, which they meet at acute angles. Anterior ear longer than 
high, with the outer margin rounded and a rather small sinus ; posterior ear 
smaller, triangular, higher than long, outer angle obtuse ; both ears with radial 
strife like those on the valve, and the anterior ear sometimes with a few concentric 
ridges also. 

Left vah'e with narrow, elevated, sharply-limited ribs, some of wdiich (often 
alternate ones) do not reach the neighbourhood of the imibo. Ribs small or absent 
near the anterior and posterior margins. Grooves between the ribs broad and 
deep, marked by radial stria3 like those on the right valve. Summits of ribs 
slightly serrate. Ears triangular, the posterior a little smaller than the anterior 
and with the outer angle obtuse ; both ears with radial stria?. 

Measurements : 

(3) (4) 

12-5 . lO'o mm. 
13-0 . 11-0 „ 
(1 — 4) from Trimiugham. 
Ajjlnities. — i'. linvatns, Mlsson, is a left valve of P. pulchellus. P. spurius, 
(xoldfuss, from Haldem, of which the type is in the Munich Museum, has been 
shown by Hennig to be identical with P. pulchellus. The form from the Pliiner- 
kalk of Strehlen referred by Geinitz to P. pulchellus is regarded by Schliiter, 





(1) 


(2) 


Length 


20-5 


15-0 


Height 


20-5 


16-0 



THE 



PALiEONTOGRAPHIGAL SOCIETY. 



INSTITUTED MDCCCXLYII. 



VOLUME FOR 1903. 



LONDON 

MDCCCCIII. 



A :\r()XOGRAPH 



OF THE 



CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRAXCHIA 



OF 



ENGLAND, 



BY 



HENRY WOODS, M.A., 

UNIVERSITY LECTURER IN PALa:OZOOLOOT, CAMBRIDGE. 



PART V. 

PECTINID.E (ronthne,!). INTRODUCTION, BIBLIOGRAPHY, 
INDEX, AND TITLE-PAGE TO VOL. I. 

Pages 107—232. i-xliii ; Pl.vtes XXXIX— XLII. 



L N D O N : 
PRINTED FOK THE PAL.EONTOGEAPHICAL SOCIETY. 

1903. 



PEIKTED BT ADtiED AND SON, LONDON AND DOEEINO. 



TECTEN. 197 

ITo]z:i])fel, V()^-('l, iuid ITonnig as another species; it appears to differ in having 
scaly ril)S, alaro-er nntei'ior ear, and a larger apical angle, doldinsfi' pulcJiclliis was 
thought In' d'Orhign}- to differ from Nilsson's species, and was named svlipulcIieJIus 
in I lie " I'rodi-onie." P. misrcllii.t, Doldfuss,' appears to be very near to 
/'. jiidchellns, and was rogardi'd l)v d'Oi'bigny as identical with it. /'. auharafus, 
Nilsson,- although similar in foi'ui, is easil}^ distinguished l)v its more nnmerous 
ril)S, etc. 

Ti/pe. — Nilsson's specimens came from Kr)]n"nge, etc. 

Distribution. — Chalk of 'I'l-imingham. 

Snh-gniiis — Neitiiioa, Droiirt, 182i. 
('M.'in. Sof. Linn, do Paris/ vol, iii, ]>. 180.) 
Pk.'TKN (NKrniK.x) ,\T,\vrs, Unwrr, IS30. Tlalc^ XXXIX, figs. 1—5. 

1839. Pecten atavus, F. A. Homer. Dio Verstein. norfl-deutsch. Oolitht'u-g«'l>. 

Ein Nachtrar', \>. 29, jil. xviii, fic^. 21. 
1S41. — — — Dio Vorstoin. d. nord-dontsch. Kroidoirol)., 

p. 54. 
1847. Janiea atava, A. irOrhiijnij. Pal. Franr. Torr. Civt., vol. iii, p. n27, 

pi. ccccxlii, figs. 1 — 3, 5. 

— — NEOcoMiENSis, fZ'Or/jf^/wT/. Ibid., p. G2fl, pi. ccccxlii, figs. 4, 6— 9. 
1850. — atava, d'Orhujny. Prodr. do Pal., vol. ii, p. 83. 

— NEOCOMIENRIS, tVOrhi(J)UJ. Il)id., p. 83. 

18.54. Pecten atavus, J. Morris. Cat. P.rit. Foss., od. 2, p. 175 (partim). 
1855. Janira ATXfX, G. Coltcau. Moll. Foss. do I'Yonno, p. 117. 

— — NEOCOMIENSIS, Co//mi(. lliid,, p. 1 1 7. 

? 1859. — atava, /. TUanova y Piera. Mem. geogn.-agrio. do Castollon. 

1)1. iii, fig. 21. 
1861. — — P. de Loriol. Anini. Invovt. Foss. Mt. Salevo, p. 105, pi. 

xiv, fig. 1. 
— NEOooMiENSis, de Loriol. Ibid., p. 104, pi. xiv, fig.s. 2, 3. 
1868. — atava, de Loriol. Valangion d'Arzior (Mati'r. Pal. Suisse, sor. 

4), p. 48. 
1S70. — — F. J. Pich't atid G. Campirhe. Foss. Terr. Crot. Stc. 

Croix (Mati'r. Pal. Suisse, ser. 5), 
p. 237, pi. clxxx. 

— — NEOOOMIENSIS, Picfct and Campiclie. Ibid., pp. 240, 251. 

— — (Neithea) ornithopus, W. Ke( piiuj. Foss., etc., Neoe. Upware 

and Brickhill, p. 107, 
pi. iv, fig. 5. 



> 'Petref. Germ.,' vol. ii (1833), p. 51, pi. xci, fig. 8. 

2 'Potiif. Suecana' (1827), p. 21. pi. i\. fig. 11 ; Hennig, ' Ri-vision Lamoll. i Nilsson's Petrif. 
Suecana' (1897). p. 4C.. j.l. iii, figs. It, IC 17 



]98 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 

1884. Janira atava, 0. Weerth. Die Fauna dosNeocom. im Teutoburg. Waklc 

(Palaoout. Abliandl., vol. ii), p. 54. 
1887. — — L. Mallada. Siiiops. Espec. F6.s. en Espana, vol. iii, Cret. 

infer. (Bolet. Com. Mapa gool. Espana, 

vol. xiv), p. 129. 
— — NEOcoMiENSis, MriUadn. Ibid., p. 130. 

1891. — atava, J. Felix. Verstein. me.\iean. Jnra- n. Kreido-Forniat. 

(PalreontooTaphica, vol. xxxvii), ji. 171. 

1895. — — G. Maas. Zcitselii-. d. deutscli. gcol. GesoUscli., vol. xlvii, 

p. 269. 

1896. — — A. Wollemanri. Iliid.. vol. xlviii, p. 841. 

1899. Vola (Janiea) atava, D. J. Anfhula. Kreidefoss. d. Kaukasus (Bcitr. z. 

Palaeont. u. G-eol. Osterr.-Uugarns 
n. d. Orients, vol. xii), p. 71. 

1900. Janiba atava, A. Wollemrinn. Die Biv. u. Glastrop. d. deutsch. n. liol- 

liiud. Neocoms (Abhandl. d. k. preus- 

sisch. geol. Land., N. F., pt. 31), p. 50. 

? — Vola atava, G. Miiller. Verstein. des Jnra und der Kreide (Dentscli- 

Ost-Afrika, vol. vii), p. 551, pi. xxiv, fig. 4. 

? Non 1883. Pecten (Neithpia) atava, W. Keeping. Foss., etc., Neoc. Upware and 

Brickliill, p. 107, pi. iv, fig. 6. 

Description. — Shell roughlv triangular, often slightly inequilateral ; ventral 
margin very convex, with deep incisions between the main ribs ; postero-dorsal 
margin concave, antero-dorsal nearly straight. Anterior ears long, triangidar. 

Right valve convex, with the umljo consideralily incurved and shai-p. The six 
main ribs are prominent and rounded, and are separated by much broader inter- 
spaces, which are concave or somewhat flattened. In the interspaces and on the 
sides of the main ribs, from three to tAvelve small, slightly raised ribs usually 
occur, but are absent in some cases ; the central rilis are rather stronger than the 
lateral. Numerous fine, ecpial, regularly placed, concentric ridges cross l)otli i-ibs 
and interspaces ; they are parallel with the ventral margin of the valve, and con- 
sequently bend ventrally in crossing the main ribs, and curve dorsally in the inter- 
spaces. Similar concentric ridges are also present on the ears. 

Left valve flattened, sometimes slightly convex or slightly concave, with six 
main ribs, which are rounded and somewhat more prominent than those on the 
right valve. Interspaces broad and deep, with small ribs. Concentric ornamentation 
similar to that on the rio-ht valve. 



Measurements : 














(1) 


;2) 


(3) (4) 


(5) (C) 


(7) 


(8) 


(9) 


Length . 24 . 


23 


. 22 . 21 . 


20 . 20 . 


19 


. 17 


21 mm 


Height . 30 . 


28 , 


. 20 . 25 . 

(1—8) Ul>ware. 


20 . 25 . 

(9) Faringdon. 


25 , 


22 


27 



PECTEX. !-•!• 

Aljinitie.s. — W'liilst recoifnisino: the close resemblance which exists between 
1'. alaiuis and V. neocoiaicnslx, Pictet and Campiche thought that the latter could 
be distinguished from the former Ijy the absence of ribs in the interspaces. 
Wollemann, however, liy means of a much larger series of specimens, has shown 
(1896) that the differences which were supjjosed to separate the two forms are 
not constant. 

The form described by de Loriol ' as .Jiudrii Miithcroniana is very similar to 
r. atacn><, and may prove to be identical with it. 

Janira valaiKjiensis, Pictet and Campiche,' differs from Fecleii atavua chiefly in 
the couvexit\' of tlie left valve. 

Bemarks.—Tlw English examples of this species are of rather small size, the 
average height being al^out 2i) nun.; none of them reaches the size of the large forms 
figured by d'Orbigny and 1)y Pictet and C'ampiche. !Many of our examples are 
more or less inequilateral, but even in the large specimens from Ste. Croix this 
character is sometimes noticealjle. The anterior ear is also distinctly larger than 
the posterior in most specimens. 

The large example from Upware, figured as /'. (.V.) atava by W. Keeping, is 
consideral)!}' worn, and the ribs in the interspaces are stronger than usual; 
consequently I am unable to regard it as belonging to P. afavus. It is prol)al)]y 
only a worn specimen of P. {N.) quiaquecostatus. 

On account of their inequilateral character the specimens from Upware were 
regarded l)y W. Keeping as belonging to a distinct species, which he named 
F . ornithopus ; but this form also occurs in Brunswick, and Wollemann has shown 
that it cannot be separated from P. ataciis. 

Types. — Romer's types came from the Hils-conglomerate of Schandelah antl 
Schoppenstedt. Romer's figure is not quite satisfactory, but any doubt which may 
formerly have existed as to the nature of his species has been removed by 
Wollemann, wlio has obtained other specimens from the same locality. D'Orbigny's 
specimens of P. neucomiensls came from the Hauterivian near Xeuchatel, etc. The 
specimen figured by Keeping as P. (itaviiK is in the collection of Mr. .1. I-'. Walker. 
The types of P. uriuthupus are in the Woodwardian ^Museum. 

Distribution. — Lower Greensand of Upware and Faringdon. Ferruginous 
Sands of Shanklin. 

1 ' Foss. Corall. Valang. ot Urguii. dt; ill. Salcve ' (I8(j(>), p. 05, pi. E, (iy. '.). Also iu A Favrc. 
' Rech. geol. dans Savoiu,' vol. i (18G7), p. 3fl(). pi. C, fiy. 27. 

- ' Foss. Turr. Cri-t. Ste. Croi.\ ' (1870). p. 2^2, pi. clx.xxi. ti'^s. 1—3. 



200 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 



Pecten (Neithea) cometa (rVOrbigny), 18^7. Plate XXXIX, figs. 6—10. 

1847. Janiba cometa, A. d'Orhiijiuj. Pal. Frauc. Terr. Crc't., vol. iii, p. O-iO, 

pi. ccccxlv, figs. 15 — 20. 

1850. — — — Prodr. de Pal., vol. ii, p. 170. 

18G8. — — A. Briart and F. L. Cot-net. Descript. Miueralog. Gc-ol. 

et Pal. de la Meule de Bracquegiiies 
(Mem. eoiir. et Mem. des Sav. 
etrangers, vol. xxxiv), p. 50, pi. iv, 
tigs. 23, 24. 

1870. — — F.J.Piddand G.Campiche. Poss. Terr. Cret. Ste. Croix 

(Mater. Pal. Suisse, ser. 5), p. 252. 

Descriiitioii. — Shell small, subtriangular, much higher than long, neai'ly e(|ui- 
lateral. Antero- and postero-dorsal margins long; ventral margin very convex, 
Avith deep incisions between the main ribs. Ears very unequal ; the anterior very 
long, the posterior small. 

Right valve very convex, with a greatly incurved umbo, and five ^ very 
prominent angular ribs, which are crossed by numerous fine concentric ridges. 
The main ribs are separated by broad, deep, rounded depressions in which from 
three to seven slightly raised radial ribs occur ; these small ribs are flattened and 
separated by narrow grooves, and bear iu;merous fine ridges placed transversely. 
At distant intervals from two to four strong growth-ridges may occur. 

Left valve flattened, with five strong, rounded radial ribs separated by broad 
interspaces, both being crossed by fine concentric ridges. A few strong growth- 
ridges may occur. 

Measurements : 





(1) 




(2) V-i) 


(4) 


(5) 


Length 


. 14 




18-5 .If 


10 , 


11 mm 


Height 


. 18 




19 . 14-5 . 


13 , 


• 16 „ 




(1, 2) Ceuomauiau, Wiliniiigtou. 








(3, -4) Upper 


Gi 


reeusaud, Warniiuster. 







Affinities. — This species is closely allied to Janlra lonrjiamda, d'Orbigny," l)ut is 
distinguished from it by the main ribs being narrower and more angular. It is 
also nearly related to 1\ nutahlUs, Goldfuss," Init differs in possessing five main 
ribs instead of six, and apparently also in being relatively higher. 

' Occasionally a sixth rilj, liot quite so promiueiit as the others, occurs near the anterior margin. 

2 'Pal. Frauy. Terr. Cret.,' vol. iii (1847), p. 030. pi. ccccxlv, tigs. ;)-14. Geiuitz, "Das 
Elbthalgeb. in Sachseu " (' Paluiontographica,' vol. xx, pt. I, 1872), p. 202, pi. xlv, tigs. 10, 17. 

3 'Petref. Germ.,' vol. ii (1833), p. 50, pi. xciii, fig. 3. Geiuitz, "Das Elbthalgeb. in Sachsen " 
(■ Palasontographica,' vol. xx, pt. 1, 1872), p. 202, pi. xlv, tigs. 10—12. 



PECTEN. 201 

It is difficult to separate Janira JohanaU Bichiai, Tiesseii,' from P. (N.) comefn, 
since in the latter the .synimetry (depending on the position of the middle ril)) 
varies in different specimens. 

P. (Neithea) comelii also ])resents some resemblance to the smaller furnis of 
P. {N.) aiavus, but is distingnishcd by possessing live (instead nf six) main ribs, 
by being relatively highei-, and by having the right valve nioiv convex. 

Remarks.- — This appears to Ije a relatively rare species. A specimen from the 
(ycnomanian of Saint Jouin (Heine-Inferieure) has been sent ine by M. Foi'tin, and 
agrees perfectly with the J^lnglish examples. 

Ti/jM's. — ])'(3rbigny's specimens came from the Cenomanian uf Villers (Calva- 
dos) and Le Havre (Seine-inferieui'e). 

Dlslrihulion. — -Ui)])er Greensand (/.one of Pcctcit a^prr) of the Isle of Wight, 
Maiden Bradley, Melcombe i5ingliam (Dorset), south-west of Armswell Farm 
(Doi'.set), and west of Melbui'y Hill (Dorset). Kye Hill Sands of Warminst(>r. 
Chloritie Marl of VenLnor and -Maiden liradley. Cenomanian of Wilmington. 



Pectkx (Xkitiika) .M(m;i;isi {I'Irtet ami lienerier), I808. I'late X.NXIX, figs. 

11 a-c, UaJ>, 1:). 

? Istl. Pectkn (juiNCiUKCoHTATi-s, vdv. a. F. A. Ruintr. Dif Vcrstfiii. d. uonl- 

ik'Utsfli. K)viik'i;ol)., }>. 54. 

1845. — — E. Forbes. Quart. Jouru. Geol. Soc, vol. i, 

\>. 249 (parlim). 

1846. — VEESicosTATUs, ^1. Li ijiucfie. Statist. t,a'ol. ot inin. lUi dqiart. ile 

\'\\\\k; Atlas, ]>. 11, pi. vi, fi-;. y. 

1847. — liUiNCiUEcosTATus, vai'., .7. Murrw. Quart. Jouru. Geol. Soc, 

vol. iii, p. 295 (foot-uote) 
1858. .Janik.v liUiNiiUEcosT.VTA, F. J. Pidd mid W. Koii.i: Moll. Foss. Grcs verts 

de Geucve, p. 50ti, pi. xlv, 
figs. 3 rt, 6 (uot (■). 
1858. — MoRKisi, F. J. Pietd ami E. Renevier. Foss. Terr. Aptieu (MaU'r. 

Pal. Suisse.ser. l),p. 128, 
pi. xi.x, fig. 2. 
? 1859. — QUiNtjUECosTATA. /. VUonovn ij Piera. Mem. geogu.-agric. de Cas- 

tellou. jil. iii, fig. 23. 
1865. — MoRBisi, i/. Co(y«((7i(/. Mou, Aptiou de I'Espague, J). 151. 
187U. — — F. J. Pidd and G. Campkhc. Foss. Terr. Crt't. Sle. 

Croix (Mater. Pal. Suisse, ser. 5), p. 244. 
1887. — — L. Mdlluda. Siuop.s. Espee. Fos. Espafia, vol. iii, Cret. 

infer. (13olet. Com. Mapa geol. Espana, 
vol. xiv), p. 130. 



' 'Zeitschr. d. deutseh. geol. Gesellsch..' vol. xlvii (1805), p. 473, pi. xvii, fig. 5. 



(6) 


(7) 


23 


19 mm 


28 . 


. 25 „ 



202 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 

1901-2. VoLA MoRKisi, p. Choffaf. Faune Cix't. du Portugal, vol. i, ser. 4, 

p. 147, pi. iii, figs. 5, G. 

Non 188o. Pbcten (Neithea) Morrisi, W. Kfeplmj. Foss., etc., Neoc. Upware and 

Brickbill, p. 106 ( = qxdn- 
quecostains) . 

lioiKirlifi. — The forms found in the lower part of the Lower Greensand are 
very closely related to I'l'i-ten (Xciflira) qiiiiiqiiccostatu.'i, but show, in general, 
certain small differences from the latter, so that it will, I think, be convenient to 
retain for them the name Morrlsl, given by Pictet and Renevier. 

As a rule P. {N.) Morrisi is characterised by the relatively greater height of 
the shell (and consequently smaller apical angle), by the smaller convexity of the 
right valve, the rather stronger' main ril)s, with the ribs of the interspaces rather 
more unequal in size, and lastly in having the areas,^ as a rule, without ribs. The 
concentric ornamentation agrees Avith that of /■'. {N.) qidnqnccustatus. 

Measurej)ients : 

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) 

Length .28 . 27 . 19 . L5 . 17 
Height . 34-0 . 34 . 23 . 19 . 19-5 

(1—4) PecM((.-bed, Athertield. 
(5, 6) Hytlie Beds, Lympne. 
(7) Crackers, Ailierfield. 
Disirilinfioii. — renia-hcd and Crackers of Atherfield. Hythe Beds of Lympne. 



Pecten (Nkituea) QUiNQUECOSTATUS, »S'o»-t'/-?y_//, 1814. Plate XXXIX, figs. 14 — 17; 

Plate XL, figs. 1—5. 

1814. Pecten QDiNiiUECoSTATA, ./. Soiverbij. Miu. Couch., vol. i, p. 122, pi. Ivi, 

figs. 4—8. 
1819. — VEKSicosTATUs, Lamaiclc. Auim. sans Vert., vol. vi. p. 181. 

1822. — QUINQUECOSTATUS, A Broiiijuiart. Dcscript. gcol. euvir. de Paris. 

lu Ciivicr's Ossem. Foss., ed. 
2, vol. li, pp. 2.51, 320, 332, 
GOO, pi. iv, fig. 1. 
— — QUINQUECOSTATA, G. Mcudell. Foss. S. Downs, pp. 128, 201, pi. 

xxvi, figs. 14. 19, 20. 

1824. Neithea veesicostata, C. Drouet. Mem. Soc. Liuu. dc Paris, vol. iii, 

p. 187, pi. vii, fig. 4. 

1825. Pecten versicostatus, Dcfrance. Diet. Sci. nat., vol. xxxviii, p. 254- 
1827. — yuiNQUEcosTATUs, )S'. NilssoH. Pctrif. Suecaua, p 19, pi. ix, 

tig. 8 ; pi. X, tig. 7. 

' This term in this sub-genus refers to the parts of the right valve between the outermost main 
ribs and the antero- and postero-dorsal margins. 



PECTKN. 203 

1832. Fectkn vkusicostatus, T!ru(pnrrp. Hist. nal. dcs Vers ot dcs Mollusquos 

(Encyc. mothocl.), vol. iii, p. 727, 
]>1. ccxiv, fitj. 10. 
18:W. — (juiN'QUKrosTATUs, A. (liihlfiisf. Tctri-f. CTonn., vol. ii, p. .5.5. 

pi. .\c-iii, fii,'. 1. 
1834. — — ,S'. (7. Morfnii. Svnops. Or». Remains Cret. 

U.S., p. r,7, pi. xix, fis,'. 1. 
183C. — VEKSicosTATua, Lamarck. Anini. .sans Vert. (ed. 2 by Deshaves 

and Milne-Edwards), vol. ^^i, p. 1.58. 
'^ — — QuiNCiUEcosTATUs, ,S'. G. Mortnii. Aiiier. Journ. Sci., vol. xviii, 

p. 2.50. ](1. iii, fii;. .5. 
1837. — vKESiccsTATUs, F. Diijaril ill . Mi'ni. Soc. sjr('ol. France, vol. ii, 

p. 227. 

— — QUiNQUEooRTATUs, II. G. Bvonii. Letliffia Goosjn., p. (;78, pi. xxx. 

fig. 17. 

— — — ir. Hhhujer. Lethooa Succica, p. .50, pi. xvi, 

fit?. 2. 

— — — A. iVArchiac. M<'in. Soc. gi^ol. de France, 

vdl. ii, p. 186. 
1839, — — n n. Gcinih. Cliar. d. Sclii.ht. ii, Petref. des 

siichs. Kreideireb., j»t. 1, p. 22. 
1841. — — v;ir. ft, F. A. Rinncr. Die Vcrstein. uord- 

deutsch. Kreidegeb., p. 54. 

1846. — — E. Fnrhr^. Trans. Geol. Soc, ser. 2, vol. vii, 

p. 1.53. 

— — — II. Ii. Geinlh. Griindr. der Verslein., p. 470. 

(Nioittiea) versicostatus, a. E. licusK. Die Verstein. dcr l"ilnii. 

Kreideforniat., ]>t. 2, 
p. 31 (.'' pnrtim). 

1847. Janiiia quinquecostata, A. iVOrhujny. I'al. Franc. Teir. Cn't., vol. iii, 

p. 632, pi. cccexliv, figs. 1 — 5. 
? — Pecten (Neithea) (jiTiNQUECosTATus, J. Miilhr. Petref. Aachen. Kreido- 

forinat., pt. 1, p. 33. 

— .Tanira FoNTANiEui, y1. J'0/7.(V/»?/. Voj. an Polo Sud dans rOcc'auio siir 

los corvettes 1' Astrolabe et la Zelk'e. 
Atlas, pi. vii, figs. 38—40. 
1850. Pecten quinqueco.status, .7. dc C. Sowcrhy, in F. Dixon. Geol. Sussex, 

p. 356 (p. 386, ed. 2), 
pi. xxviii, figs. 1 — 3. 
.Taniua quinquecostata, a. (VOrhigny. Prodr. de I'al., vol. ii, ]). 16!). 

— — Fontanieri, iVOrhiijinf. Ibid., p. 253. 

Pecten (Neithea) quinquecostatus, //. B. Gciniiz. Das Quadersaudst. 

oder Kroidegeb. in 

Deutsehlaud, p. 186. 

1851-2. Neithea quinquecostata, H. G. Bronn. Letlia>a Geogu., ed. 3, vol. ii, 

lit. 5, p. 275, pi. xxx, fig. 17. 
1854. Pecten quinquecostatus, J. Morrin. Cat. Brit. Foss., ed. 2. \< 177. 

— — /KQUicosTATUS, Mdrrlx. Ibid., ji. 177 (jwniim). 



204 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBEANCHIA. 

1855. Pecten quinquecostatur, W. II. BaiJy. Quart. Jovirn. Geol. Soc vol. xi, 

p. 462. 

— Janira (jriNQUECosTATA, G. C'liltfau. Moll. Foss. do rYoimo, p. 117. 
1863. Pecten quinqdecostatur, tI. KuittJi. Zoitschr. d. doiit.scli. o-ool. Gfsellseli., 

vol. XV, p. 725. 

1870. Janira quinquiccostata, 7^. Mmner. Geol. von Obersclilos., ^j. 340. 

— — — C. Srhliiter. Novies Jahrb. fiir Min., etc., pp. 

937, 951. 
— • — — F. J. Piclel aiui G. Campichc. Foss. Terr. Crct. 

Ste. Croix (Mattr. Pal. Suisse, sev. 5), p. 246. 

1871. VoLA QriNQUECosTA-i'A, F. Htdlicslca . Palffioiit. Indica, Cret. Fauna S. 

India, vol. iii, p. 437, pi. xxxi, figs. 
1 — 6 ; 111. xxxvii, figs. 4 — 9. 

1872. — — HE. Gelnilz. Das Elbthalgeb. in Saclisen (Pal- 

aeontograpliica, vol. xx, j)t. 1), p. 
201, pi. xlv, figs. 8, 9 ; pt. 2, 
p. 36, pi. x, figs. 17, 18. 

1877. — — A. Fritsch. Stud, im Gebiete der biihm. Kreide- 

fonnat. : II, Die Weisseuberg. und 
Maluitz. Scliiclit., p. 137. 

— Neithea quinquecortata, W. M. Gahh. Jouru. i*. cad. Nat. Sci. Pldlad., 

scr. 2, vol. viii, pt. 3, p. 294. 

1878. — — E. Bnyle. Explic. Carte geol. France, vol. iv. 

Atlas, pt. i, pi. cxxii, figs. 2, 3. 

1882. Voi.a QTJiNQrECOSTATA, H. Sfhri'ider. Zeitschr. d. deutsch. geol. 

Gesellscli., vol. xxxiv, p. 271. 

1883. Pecten (Neithea) Morrisi, W. Keepiini. Foss., etc., Neoe. Upware and 

Brickliill, p. 106. 
? — — ' — ATAVA, Keeping. Ibid., p. 107, pi. iv, fig. 6. 

— VoLA QuiNQUECosTATA, A. FrUnck. Stud. ini Gebiete der biilim. Kreide- 

format. : III, Die Iserscliiclit., p. 
116, fig. 90. 
1885. Janiea QUINQUECOSTATA, F. NiitJuig. Die Fauna d. baltiscli. Ceuoman. 

(Pala3ont. Abhandl, vol. ii), p. 21. 
? 1889. VoLA QUTNQUECCSTATA, K. Marfiii. Die Fauna der Kreideformat. v. Mar- 

tapoora (Samml. Geol. Eeichs-Museum in 
Leiden, vol. iv), p. 157, pi. xvi, figs. 10, 11. 

— — — A. Frit sell. Stud, im Gebiete der biihm. Kreide- 

format. : IV, Die Teplitz. ScLicht., 
p. 85. 

— — cf. QUINQUECOSTATA, E. JLih.apfi'l. Die Molluslc. Aachen. Kreide 

(Palajontographica, vol.xxxv), 
p. 238. 
1890. ~ — M. Blanchenhorn. Beitr. z. Geol. Syriens. Ent- 

wickel. d. Kreidesyst. iiiMittel 
und Nord-Syrieu, p. 77. 
1890-91. Pecten quinquecostatus, A. Peron. Moll. Foss. Terr. Cret. de la Tunisie 

(Explor. Scient. de la Tunisie), 
pt. 2, p. 227. 



PECrrJ^^N. 205 

189B. Janiua (V(ji,a) yuiNyUECosxATA, A'. Michael Ziitselir. d. duufsch. ycul. 

Gesellsch., vol. xlv, p. 237. 
1805. — QuiNQUEcosTATA, K. Ticsscii. Iljid., Vol. xlvii, jj. 471. 

18'J(3. VOLA QUIN^iUECOSTATA, A. littlot. lUlll. 8oC. BoIgC dc Gc'ol., clc, Vol. .\, 

p. 30. 
1897. — _ p-. Sohle. Geogu. Jabresh. (1890), p. 10. 

— — — li. LeonJiard. Kreidefornuit. in Obuischles. (Fiilu;- 

ontographica, vol. xliv), p. 4(5. 

— — — A. IIchh'kj. IJevis. af Lamellibr. i Nilsson's 'Petrif. 

Sut'caua Form. Cret.' (Kou. F^-siogr. 
Siillbk. i Limd. Handl., N. F., 
vol. viii), p. 52. 
? 190(1. — — G. Miilla: Versteiu. dus Jura u. d. Kreide. 

(Deutsch-Ost-j\irika, vol. vii), p. 5(35, 
pi. xxiv, fig. 1. 
19U1. — — 11. Imkelhr. Die Krcidebild. Stallauer Eck u. 

Euzeuauor Kopf (Paloeouto- 
graphica, vol. xlviii), p. 32. 
1901-2. — — P. Chogat. Faime Cret. Portugal, vol. i, sur. 4, 

]!. 148, pi. iii, fig. 7. 
ll»02. — — /. r. J. liavn. MoUusk. i Danmarks Kridtall. I. 

Lamellibr. (D. Kgl. Dauske vid. 
Selsk. Skrift. 6 Efekke, iiat. eg 
math., vol. xi), p. 95. 

Nou 1850. Pecten quinquecostatus, B. Kner. Wnstcin. Kreidemerg. von Lemberg 

(Haidiiiger's Naturwiss. Abliuudl., 
vol. iii), p. 29 (H = striatocostatits). 

Drscrli>tioit. — Hlic'll ovate or somewhat triaiigulai', nearly ecjuilateral ; height 
sometimes equal or nearly equal to, but usually rather greater than, the length. 

Right valve modei-ately convex, Avith incui'vcd uniljo, ami strong, rounded, 
regular I'ib.-;. Six main ribs are ratliei' larger than the others, and project at the 
margin (if tin' valve, forming angles between which the parts of the margin 
are sligiitly concave; the anterior and posterior main ribs are not (piite .so 
strong as the others. The interspaces between the main ril)s are flattened or 
sometimes slightly concave; in the larger number of cases four ribs occur in each 
interspace, but occasionally there are three, Hve, or six ribs in one or more of the 
interspaces — not infi('(|uently the interspace next the posterior area has Hve ribs. 
The two middle ribs of the interspaces are commonly rather stronger than one or 
both of till' laterals; sometimes one lateral is very small. The grooves between 
the ribs are usually narrower than the ribs. Posterior area slightly larger than 
the anterior; l)oth with ribs which are smaller than those on the rest of the shell ; 
the anterior usiiall}' with from fuur to eight, the posterior with from Hve to eight 
ribs. Both ril)s and grooves are cros.sed by niunerous fine, reguhir, concentric 

27 



206 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 

ridges, wliicli run parallel witli the margin of the shell and with the growth-ridges. 
Ears small or of moderate size, triangular, slightly unequal, with small radial 
ribs. 

Left valve slightly concave or nearly flat ; length greater than height. Ribs 
narrow, rounded, separated l)y broader grooves ; six of the latter (corresponding 
in position with the main ribs of the right valve) are broader than the others. 
The ribs vary in number from twenty-seven to thirty-five, with also a few very 
small ribs near the anterior and posterior margins. Concentric ornamentation 
similar to that on the right valve. Ears triangular, nearly equal, with faint 
radial ribs. 

Measurements : 

(1) (2) (3) (4.) (5) (G) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) (16) (17) (IS) (19) (20) 

Length. 23 30 21 15 11 35 17 32 22 17 19 17 48 33 30 26 22 23 21 20 
Height . 27 34 26 19 13 35 19 35 26 20 22 19 52 37 35 30 26 27 24 225 

(21) (22) (23) (21.) (25) (26) (27) (28) (29) (30) (31) (32) (33) (34) (35) (36) (37) 

Leugtli . . 17 11 25 23 19 32 28 20 27 34 32 ... 31 32 17 34 39 39 mm. 
Height . . 20 14 28 26 22 33 33 20-5 30 35 35 ... 29 28 16 30 37 33 mm. 

(1—31) Eight valves. (32—37) Left valves. 

(1, 2) Lower Greensand, Ui^ware. 
(3 — 5) „ ,, Fariugdou. 

(6—12) Upper Greensand (zone of Pecten aaper) : (6, 7) Shaftesbury ; (8) Warminster ; 
(9—11) Ventuor; (12) Haldon. 
(13 — 22) Cenomanian, Wilmington. 
(23 — 25) ,, Devon Coast (Dunscombe and Erauscombe). 

(26) Upper Chalk (? M. cor-anguinum zone), Gravesend. 

(27) „ „ Brighton. 

(28) ,, ,, (? M. cor-anguinum zone), Gravesend. 

(29) ,, „ (IT. cor-anrjuinum zone), Charlton. 

(30) ,, ,, ,, ,, Gravesend. 

(31) ,, ,, Lewes. 

(32) Up)per Greensand, Warminster. 

(33) Uj)per Chalk (P Jf . cor-anguiniiiii zone), Gravesend. 

(34) Upper Greensand, Shaftesbury. 

(35 — 37) Upper Chalk {M. cor-anguinum zone), Gr.iveseud. 

Affinities. — See F. (.V.) Morrisl (p. 202), qiuidricosfatus (p. 210), xquicostatus 
(p. 209), sexcostatus (p. 214). 

The specimens from the Lower Greensand of Upware, which were referred l)y 
W. Keeping to P. {N.) Morvisi (see p. 201), agree perfectly in form, in the regularity 
of the ribs, and in the occurrence of ribs on the areas with F. (N.) qnix^Kecostatas 
and should, I think, be referred to that species. 

Feraarlis. — This species varies to some extent in the convexity of the i-ight 
valve and in the relative proportions of length and height, but these variations 
seem to be connected with local conditions only. The specimens from the Ujiper 



PECTEX. 207 

Greonsmid nf Vciitiiiir arc ratlior inorc conv(\x tlian usual; tlinso from tlic Tapper 
Greeiisaiul of W'ariniii.stL'r arc, a.s a rule, less conviw and rather longer. Other 
modifications aro seen in the strength of the main rilis, the flatness or slightly 
concave character of the interspaces, the nuinlur of ril)s in the interspaces and 
the amount of their ine(|uality, and the length of the hinge-line, which is corre- 
lated with the slope of the anterior and posterior areas. 

Jn some specimens from the Upper Chalk (Plate XL, fig. 2) the main ribs 
are rather strongei- than iisnal, the intermediate ribs more nncqual, and the hinge- 
lino sliorter; but such forms can be matched with some of those found in the 
Cenomanian of Devon and Finance, whilst other Upper ("halk specimens belong to 
the type which is common in the Upper (Treensand of Wai-minstcr and tlu; 
Ccnomnnian of the Devon coast and France. 

The specimens figured by Mantell were regarded by d'Orbigny as distinct from 
Pecten quinquecostatns, Sowerby, and were referred b}^ him to Janira Datemplei. 
Peron adopts the same view, and moreover refers the first two of Sowerby's 
figures (figs. 4, 5) to P. DutempJei, and regards the Upper Greensand form as 
distinct. An examination of a number of specimens from the Upper Chalk shows, 
however, that wdiilst there is some variation, yet they are inseparable from the 
Upper Greensand form, and that they differ from P. Dutcmplei (see p. 216). Morris 
also appears to have regarded the Warminster specimens as distinct from those 
found in the Chalk ; the latter he referred to J\ quinquecostatus, and the former 
to P. xquicostatus ; but the Warminster form figured by Sowerby is certainly 
distinct from P. sequicostahis, Tjamarck. A typical form of 1\ quinquecostatus from 
the Cenomanian of Rouen is figured by Baylc, and sirailiar specimens from tliat and 
other French localities have been sent me l)y M. Raoul Fortin of Uoucn. Jn some 
('enomanian specimens tlie main ri])s are not so strong os usual ; such forms make 
some approach to P. sequicostatus, but can bo easily distinguished by their \\iA\- 
marked concentric ridges. 

Types. — In the British Museum; figs. 4, 5, from the Chalk of Lewes; figs. 
G — 8 from the Rye Hill Sand of Chute Farm, Warminster. iMantell's figured 
specimens appear to have been lost. 

Distribntion. — Low'cr Greensand of Faringdon and Upwarc. Folkestone Beds 
of Folkestone. 

Upper Greensand (zone of Schloenharhia rostrata) of Blackdown ; malmstone of 
Devizes and the isle of Wight. Upper Greensand (zone of Pecten asper) of 
Haldon, Cheddington (Dorset), Ball Wood (Dorset), Shaftesbury, Warminster, 
Ventnor, and Niton. 

Rye Hill Sand of Warminster. Chloritic Marl of Maiden Bi-adley. Cenomanian 
(Meyer's Beds 10 and 12) of Dunscombe and (lied 11) of Branscond)e and 
W'hiteclilf. Cenomanian Sandstone of Wilmington. T. (jracilis zone of Dover 



208 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 

(fide Rowe). //. jjlamis zone of Dover and tlie Sussex coast (fide Rowe). 
M. cor-testudinnrium zone of Seaford, Chatham, and Pui-ley. M. cor-anguinum 
zone of Mitcheldever (Hants), Broadstairs, Charlton, Nortlifleet, and Gravesend. 
Marsnpites zone of Brighton and Margate. A. qnadrattis zone of Brighton, Paids- 
grove (Hants), and West Harnham (Salisbury). Upper Chalk of Lewes. 



Pecten (Neithea) ^quicostatus, Lamarck, 1819. Plate XL, figs. 8 a, h, a- 



-c. 



1819. Pecten ^qxticostatus, Lamarck. Anim. sans Vert., vol. vi, p. 181. 

1824. Neithea pectin^oides, C. Drouet. Mi'm. Soc. Linn, do Paris, vol. iii, 

p. 186, pi. vii, figs. 1, 2. 

1825. Pecten ^quicostatus, Befrance. Diet. Sci. nat., vol. xxxviii, p. 255. 
1833. — - - A. Goldfuss. Petref. Germ., vol. ii, p. 54, pi. xcii, 

%• 6. 
1836. — — Lamarcl-. Anim. sans Vert., ed. 2 (by Deshayes 

and Milne-Edwards), vol. vii, p. 158. 
1839. — — if. J?. Geinitz. Char. d. Scliiclit. u. Petref. des 

sJiclis. Kreidegeb., pt. 1, p. 22. 
1841. — — F. A. Eotner. Verstein. nord-deutscb. Kreidegeb., 

p. 54. 
1846. — — H. B. Geinitz. Grundr. der Verstein., p. 469. 

— — — A. E. Reiiss. Die Verstein. der biihrn. Kreideformat., 

pt. 2, p. 32, pi. xxxix, fig. 22 ; pi. xl, 
figs. 2, 3. 
? 1847. Janira ffiQUicosTATA, A. (VOrhigiiy. Pal. Franc. Terr. Cret., vol. iii, 

p. 637, pi. ceccxlv, figs. 1—4. 
1850. — ^QUicosTATA, cVOrhigtvij. Prodr. de Pal., vol. ii, p. 170. 

— Pecten iEQUicosTATir.s, H. B. Geinitz. Das Quadersandst. oder Kreidegeb. 

in Deutschlaud, p. 186. 
1854. — — /. Morris. Cat. Brit. Foss., ed. 2, p. 175 (partim). 

1863. — — A. Kunth. Zeitsclir. d. deutscli. geol. Gesellsch., 

vol. XV, p. 725. 
1868. Janira ^.quicostata, A. Bria.rt and F. L. Cornet. Descript. Miueralog. 

Geol. et Pal. de la Meule de Brac- 
quegnies (Ml-ui. cour. et Mem. des 
Sav. ctrangers, vol. xxxiv), p. 49, 
pi. iv, figs. 25, 26. 
1872. VoLA «QuicosTATA, H. B. Geinitz. Das Elbthalgeb. in Sachsen (Paloeonto- 

grapliica, vol. xx, pt. 1), jj. 200, 
pi. xlv, figs. 5 — 7. 
? 1876. Pecten iEQDicosTATUS, var. longicollis, H. Beiche. Die Toxirtia von 

Miilheim a. d. Ruhr. (Beitr. z. 
geogn. u. pal. Besehaffcnh. d. 
unt. Ruhi-gegend. Beitr. I), 
p. 26. 



PECTEN. 209 

1878. Neithea /V.ciUicosTATA, I'J. Bayle. Exi)lii'. do l;i Carle gcol. tie Frautc, 

vol. iv, pt. 1 (Atlas), ])1. exxii, fiir. 4. 
1882. .Ta.nira .EiiuicosTATA, P. (/(' Laridl. Gault de Cosne (Mc'm. Sot-. Pal., 

Suisse, vol. ix), p. 102, pi. xiii, 
%s. U— 8. 
188-5. — — 7^. NolIliKj. Die Fauna d. baltisch. Conoman. 

(Palocout Al)haiull., vol. ii), p. 21. 
1893. — (Vola) .ioquicostata, Ii. Midiael. Zeitschr. d. devitscli. gcol. 

Gesellsch., vol. xlv, p. 237. 
iS'.tt. Vola .t:quicostata, J. Ui'tmiij. Oin .\hussaiidst. (Geol. Fiircu. i Stockholm 

Fiirliaudl., vol. xvi), p. 520. 
189-5. Janira ;equicostata, E. Tioai^ni. Zeitschr. d. doutsch. gool. Gesellsch., 

vol. xlviii, p. 472. 
1901-2. VoT.A iEQUicosTATA, P. Clmffnt. Faiuio Cret. Portiiijal, vol. i, ser. I-, p. 1-52, 

pi. iii, %. 10. 

? Non 1847. Pecten ^equioostatus, /. Miiller. Petref. Aachen. Krcideforniat., pt. 1, 

p. 33. 
Non 18-50. — — /. (Jc C. Sowcrhi/. In F. X)/.jy)?('.< Geol. Sussex, 

J). 356, pi. xxviii, fiL,'s. 17, 18 
(^:=sexco8tafus). 

Descripilon.- — Shell ovate, eqiiilaleral ; ventral margin very conve.x and ronnded ; 
antero- and postero-dorsal margins slightly concave. 

Right valve very convex, with a prominent incin'ved umbo, and with from 
thirty-four to fonrty-four I'ather small, rounded ribs of nearly I'qua! size, except 
those near the anterior and posterior margins, which are smaller. The i-ibs are 
separated by rounded furrows of about the same width as the ribs. Both ril)s and 
furrows are smooth, or nearly smooth. Near the antero- and postcro-dor.sal 
margins are narrow, smooth areas without ribs, the antei'ior area being sliglitly 
smaller than the posterior. Ears of moderate size, triangidar, nearly equal, smooth, 
or with fine concentric ridges. 

Left valve flat or slightly concave, with ribs similar to those of the right valve. 

McasKTrmcnix : 

(1) (a) (3) 

Length . 14 . lO-.") . '.t mm. 

Height . K) . 12 . 11 „ 

(1, 3) Upper Greensand (zone of Prrten aapcy), llaldon. 
(2) ,, ,, ,. ,, ,, Worliarrow. 

Affinities. — This species is distinguished from /'. (iVeithea) qninquccosfatus by 
the ri])S being of e(|ual size, and smooth or nearly smooth; also by the ventral 
margin of the shell being evenly rounded and liy the areas being without ribs. 
iJ'Orhigny's ligure shows six more prominent I'ibs, but J have seen faint indications 



210 CRETACEOUS LAMBLLIBRANCHIA. 

of sucli ribs in only a few specimens. A typical form is figured by Bayle; it 
agrees perfectly with specimens from the C'enomanian of Rouen antl Orbiquet 
whicli have been sent me by M. Fortin, and with others from the Cenomanian of 
Le Havre, sent by M. A. do Grossouvre. 

Bemarhs. — Morris referred the specimens from the Ujjper Greensand, which 
Sowerby figured as P. quinquecostatus (figs, ti — 8), to this species, but they are 
clearly distinguishable by the presence of six main ril^s, and by the concentric 
ornamentation. 

Ti/pes. — Lamarck's types came from the Cenomanian of Le Mans, and from 
near Angers. Goldfuss' specimens came from the Quader-sandstone near Dresden, 
and the Greensand of Regensburg. 

Dlstrihidion. — LTpper Greensand (Chert Beds, zone of Pecten asper) of Haldon, 
of Worliai'row, and AYarminster. Chloritic Marl of Maiden Bradley. 



Pkgten (NErrnEA) uuadricostatus, Soiverhy, 1814. Plate XL, figs. (3, 7. Text-figs. 

3—5. 

1806. (Fisin'O without name), /. Sawerh/. British Minemlogy, vol. ii, p. 159, 

pi. clxxxiii. 
1814. Pecten qtjadricostata, Sowerhij. Miii. Conch., vol. i, p. 122, pi. Ivi, 

figs. 1, 2. 
1833. — QXJADRicosTATUs, A. Goldfuns. Petref. Gei-m., vol. ii, p. 54 

ipartim), pi. xcii, fig. 7. 
1837. — QUADEicosTATA, II. G. Brown. Lethiea Googn , p. C80, pi. xxx, 

fig. 16. 
1839. — QUADRicosTATUs, H . B. Geiuifz. Char. d. Schicht. u. Petref. des 

silchs. Kreidegeb., pt. 1, p. 22. 
1841. — — F. A. Rimer. Vcrstein. des nord-deutsch. 

Kreidegeb., p. 54. 
1843. — — H. B. Geinitz. Die Verstein. vou Kieslingswalda, 

p. 16, pi. iii, figs. 14, 15. 
1846. — — Geinitz. Grruudriss der Verstein., p. 469. 

? — — VEBSicosTATTJS, A. E. Betiss. Die Verstein. der bilhrn. Kreide- 

format., pt. 2, p. 31 {? }Mrti'i)i). 
1850. Janira Geinitzii, A. d'Orhigny. Prodr. de Pal., vol. ii, p. 197. 
1850-51. Neithea quadeicostatus, H. G. Bronn. Lethtea Geogn., ed. 3, vol. ii, 

pt. 5, p. 277, pi. xxx, fig. 16. 

1853. Janira Faucignyana, F. J. Pidet and W. Boux. Moll. Poss. Gr^s verts 

de Geneve, p. 505, pi. xlv, fig. 2. 

1854. Pecten quadeicostatus, J. Morris. Cat. Brit. Foss., ed. 2, p. 177. 
1863. — — A. Ktmth. Zeitschr. d. deutsch. gaol. Gesellsch., 

vol. XV, p. 725. 



PEOTEN. '-^11 

1808. Janika quadkicostata, A. Bi'itirt (ind F. L. Cornet. Descript. Mineralog. 

Geol. et Till, do la Meiile dc Brac- 
queguies (Miiii. cour. et Mc-m. des 
Sav. u'traugcrs, vol. xxxiv), p. 48, 
pi. iv,figs. 21,22. 

1870. — — F.J.ricldiuulG.Gampiche. Foss. Tt-rr. Civt. Ste. 

Croix (MatiT. Pal. Suisse, ser. 5), 
pp. 249, 251. 
Y — Peoten yUADUicosTATUs, II. CredncY. Zcitsihr. d. deiitsch. geol. Gesellscli., 

vol. xxii, p. 232. 

1871. VoLA (iUADRicosTATA, F. StoUczha. PaliL'oiit. Iiidica, Civt. Fauua S. India, 

vol. iii, p. 4o0. 

1872. _ — H. B. Gciiiitx. Das Elbthalgeb. in Sadiseu (Palaj- 

ontograpliica, vol. xx, pt. 2), p. 37, 
pi. X, figs. 14 — 16. 
1874. Janika liUADiucosTATA, IF. Bainci. Zcitschr. d. dcutsch. geol. Gesellsch., 

vol. xxvi, p. 7Go. 
? 1881. — — J. Kiesuiv. Schril't. uat. Gesellsch. iu Danzig, 

N. F., vol. v, p. 414. 
? 1882. — — — Ibid., vol. V, p. 240. 

? _ — _ P. dc Loriol. Ganlt de Cosne (Mem. Soc. Pal. 

Suisse, vol. xii), p. 103, pi. xiii, 
fig. 4. 
1895. — — E. Tiessen. Zeitschr. d. deutscli. geol. Gesellsch., 

vol. xlvii, p. 472. 
? 18!»7. VoLA yuADRicosTATA, U. Slihle. Geogu. Jahresli. (1896), p. 39. 

Non 1847. Pecten QrADiucosTATUs, /. Midler. Pe(ref. Aachen. Kriidefoimat . pt. 1, 

].. 33. 

— — Janika ciUADKicosxATA, A. d'Orhifjnij. I'al. Franc. Terr. Crut., vol. iii, 

p. C44, pi. ccccxlvii, figs. 1 — 7 
(= Faujasi, Pict. and Camp.). 

— 1850. — —A. AUh. Geog.-pal. Beschreib. vou Lemberg 

(llaidiuger's Naturwiss. Abhaudl., 
vol. iii), p. 219. 
_ _ _ — A. d'Orhujiiij. Piodr. de Pal., vol. ii, p. 253. 

— 1852. Pecten tiUADRico.sTATUs, F. Rutncr. Kreidebild. von Texas, p. 64. pi. viu, 

fig. 4. 

P — R. Kncr. Jvreideverstein. vim Ost-Galizien 

(l)eukschr. d. k. .\kad. Wisseuseli. 
Math.-uat. Classe, vol. iii), p. 317. 
V _ 1854. — — A. d'Archiac. Bull. Soc. geol. de France, 

ser. 2, vol. xii, p. 215, pi. iii, 

fig- !"• 

— 1866. Janika quaukicostata, K. A. Zlltd. Die Biv. der Gosaugeb. (Denkschr. 

d. k. Akad. Wissenscli. Math.-uat. 
Classe, vol. XXV), \>i. 2, p. 115, 
pi. xviii, tig. 4. 



212 CEETACEOUB LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 

Nou. 1869. Janira quadkicostata, E. Favre. Moll. Foss. de la Craie cle Lemberg, 

p. 155. 

— 1876. VoLA quadkicostata, I). Brauns Seuou. des Salzberges (Zeitsulir. f. d. 

gesainmt. Naturwiss., vol. xlvi), 
p. 388. 

— 1877. Janiea QUADKICOSTATA, ^. Pi'vou. Bull. Soc. gtol. du Fiuuce, Sfl'. O, Vol . V, 

p. 502. 

— 1889. VoLA QUADKICOSTATA, £'. J/oi'2«_//fZ. Die MoUiisk. Aadiou. Kreidc (PalcBou- 

tograpliica, vol. xxxv), p. 237, 
pi. xxvi, fig. 20. 

— — — — 0. GricpcnJccrl. Seuou. vou Kouigslutter (PaliEout. 

Abhaudl., vol. iv), p. 48. 

— 1892. Neithea QUADKICOSTATA, K. Futterev. Kreidebild. des Lago di Santa 

Croce (Palseout. Abhaudl., vol. 
vi), p. 80, pi. iii, fig. 6. 

— 1894. \'oLA QUADKICOSTATA, A. Ileunuj. Oiu ALussaudst. (Geol. FiJreu. i Stock- 

holm Forliaudl., vol. xvi), p. 520. 

— — — — B. Lunilijrcn. Mdllusk-faunau i Maimuillat. oeli 

Mucrouata zouerua (K. Svuuska 
Vet.-Alcad. Handl., N. F., vol. 
xxvi. No. 6), p. 44. 

— 1895. — ~ F. Vogcl. Hollaudiscli. Kreide, p. 25. 

— 1896. — — A. Bidot. Bull. Soc. Beige de Geol., etc., vol. x, 

p. 30. 

— 1901. — — H. ImJceUer. Kreidebild. am Stallauer Eok, etc. 

(PalseontograjJiiea, vol. xlviii), 
p. 31, pi. i, figs. 8, 9, 

DcscrixAiun. — Shell large, ovate, rounded ventrally, more or less pointed 
dorsally, nearly equilateral; postero-dorsal a little longer than the antero-dorsal 
margin. Hinge-line long ; ears large. 

Right valve convex. Umbo prominent, incurved. Length of valve either 
equal to or slightly less than its height ; greatest length at about the middle of 
the valve. Usually with twenty-one (occasionally twenty-four) ribs, which curve 
slightly outwards ; all are strong and rounded, with slightly narrower furrows 
separating them. Six of the ribs are rather larger than the others, and project 
slightly at the ventral margin, forming angles, between which the margin of the 
valve is straight or slightly concave. The interspaces between the six main riljs 
ai'e flattened, and in each, three (rarely four) smaller ribs occur ; these are of 
nearly equal size, but the middle is sometimes slightly larger than the lateral. 
Occasionally this regularity in the ribs is partly lost owing to the stronger ribs 
being more numerous and the smaller ribs fewer than usual. Both ribs and 
furrows are crossed by numerous, very fine, regular concentric ridges, which 
are continued on to the areas. Antero- and ])ostero-dorsal areas of fairly large 
size and sloping outwards — the former a little smaller than the latter. Antero- 



PECTEN. 



213 



dorsal area willi four snmll radial ril)s; postcro-dorsal area with four or five 
(sometimes fewer) very small ribs. Ears very large and long, convex, witli fine 
concentric ridges; tlie anterior willi a sinus ; tlie posterior largertlian tlie autei'ior, 
witli tli(> outei' nngle acute, and usually with six fnint i-adial ril)s. 

Left valve slightly concave or neai'ly flat, with a hii'ge apical angle; length 
greater than height, greatest length being above the middle line; usually with 
twenty-one rounded ribs of nearly ecpial size, sepai-ated by broader fui-rows, of 
whicli six — corresponding in position with the main ril)s of the right valve — are 



Fifl. 3. 



Fig. 4. 






Fia.s. I! AND l. — Peden (Neithea) (piadricosiatiis, Sow. Uppor Grcon.s.and, Warinin.stor. Woodwardian Museuui. 
Natural size. Kis?. 3, i-iglit valve ; Fiij. ■!•, aiilcri.n- view of the same. 

rather broader than the others. Antero- and postero-dorsal areas with small ribs. 
Ears very lai'ge, elongate, triangular, with very small radial ribs. 
Measurements : 

(1) (2) (.3) (i) (5) (6) (7) (8) (0) (10) (11) (12) (1.3) (ll) (15) (10) 

Length . 74 67 07 Gfi 03 52 78 71 50 58 57 36 71 58 49 33 mm. 
Height . 77 70 08 66 65 52 75 67 56 58 57 36 GG 51 41 30 „ 
(1—12). Right valves: 

(1 — 0) Upper Greensand, Warminster. 
(7 — 9) Upper Greensand (zone of P. asper), Vontnor. 
(10 — 12) ,. „ (zone of Schlcenh. rostrata), Blackdowni. 

(13—16). Left valves: 

(13 — 15) Upper Greensand (zone of ScJtloenb. mufrnta), Warminster. 
(16) ,, ,, (zone of P. asper), Veutnor. 

Afflnitie!^. — This species resembles P. (Neithea) qninquecostatus, but is of larger 
size, witli usually only three ribs in each interspace, and with relatively larger ears 
and longer hinge-line. 

A form found in the Seiioniaii was described and figuretl by d'Urbigny as 

28 



214 



CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 



Janira qtiachicostata, and many later writers have followed d'Orbigny in referring 
that form to Sowerby's species ; l)nt it was shown by Pictet and Campiche, and 
also by Briart and Cornet, that d'Orbigny's species is distinct from Sowerby's. 
The latter differs from the former in being of larger size, in having mncli larger 
ears and a longer hinge-line, in the anterior and posterior areas sloping ontwards, 
in the larger apical angle (seen especially in the left valve), and in the greatest 
length of the left valve being above the middle line. The Senonian form fignred 
by d'Orbigny was named Janira Faiijasi by Pictet and Campiche,^ and is regarded 
by Choffat" as identical with regularis of Schlotheim. 




FiQ. 5. — Pccten (Neithea) quadricostatus, Sow. Upper Greensand, Warminster. York Museum. 

Interior of loft valve. Natiu'al size. 

Tijpps. — The specimens figured by Sowerby are in the British Musenm — fig. 1 is 
from the Upper Greensand of Haldon, fig. 2 from the Upper Greensand of Chute 
Farm, Warminster. The example figured in the 'British Mineralogy' is from the 
Upper Greensand of Stonrhead. 

Distribution. — Upper Greensand (zone of Schlcenbachia rostra fa) of Blackdown 
and the Isle of Wight; Upper Greensand (zone of Perfen as^Kr) of Haldon, Cerne 
Abbas, Melcombe Bingham, Eggardon Hill, Maiden Newton, Ballard Down 
(Swanage), Warminster, and Ventnor. 



Pecten (Neithea) sexcostatus, WooJivard, 1833. Plate XL, figs. 10 — 15; Plate 

XLI, figs, i— 10. 

? 1822. Pecten quinquecostata ?, G. Maiitell. Foss. S. Downs, p. 128, pi. xxv, 

fig. 10. 
? — — TRiPLiCATA, ManteU. Ibid., p. 128, pi. xxv, fig-. 9. 

1833. — SEXCOSTATUS, S. Woodward. Geol. Norfolk, p. 48, pi. v, fig. 29. 

J " Foss. Terr. Cret. Ste. Croix" (' Mater. Pal. Suisse,' ser. 5, 1870), p. 2.13. 
- ' Fauue Cret. Portugal,' vol. i, ser. 4 (1901-2), p. 149. 



PECTEN. 215 

1847. Janika DuTEMi'Liii, A. d'Orhujnij. Pal. FraiK;. Terr. Crct., vol. iii, p. 64G, 

pi. cccc.xlvii, figs. 8 — 11. 
1850. — — — I'lodr. du Pal., vol. ii, p. 253. 

— Pkcten .KQUicoiSTATus, J. lie C. Soircfhi/, ill F. Dixon. Geol. Sussex, p. 356 

(p. 38G, eJ. 2), pi. xxviU, 
figs. 1 7, 18. 
185 t. — sExcosTATUS, /. Morrts. Cat. Brit. Foss., cd. 2, p. 177. 
187U. Janika DuTKMi'LEi, jP. J. Pic/e< antZ G'. Comjiiche. Foss. Terr. Crut. Ste. 

Croix (Matc'r. Pal. Suisse, ser. 5), p. 253. 
1877. — — A. Peron. Bull. Soc. gcol. France, ser. 3, vol. v, p. 507, 

pi. vii, figs. 4, 4 a. 
1887. VoLA (Janika) Dutemplei, Perou. L'Hist. Terr. Craie (Bull. Soc. Sci. 

hist, et uat. de I'Yonne, ser. 3, 
vol. xii), p. 164. 
1889. — Dutemplei, 0. Griepenkerl. Seiiou. von Konigslutter (Palaiont. 

Abhaiidl., vol. iv), p. 48. 
1891. — — J. Buhm. Die Kreidel)ild. des Fiirbergs u. Sulzbergs 

(Palseoutographica, vol. xxxviii), p. 83, 
pi. iii, fig. 33. 
1896. — — ?, A. Rutot. Bull. Soc. Beige de Geol., etc., vol. x, 

p. 31, fig. 14. 
? 1901-2. — ci'. Dutemplei, P. Chuffat. Fauiie Crct. Portugal, vol. i, ser. 4, 

p. 149, pi. iii, figs. 8, 9. 

Description. — Form ft (from the L'i)|)ei' Chalk, fig.s. 1 — 5). Sliell ovately 
triiiiigiihir, considerably higher than lung, nearly equilateral. Ventral margin 
nearly semicircular, l)nt with concave incisions of moderate depth between the 
main ribs. Both valves show well-marked growth-ridges at fairly distinct intervals. 
Hinge-line relatively short. 

Right valve very convex, with six main ribs. Umbo greatly incurved and pro- 
jecting beyond the level of the left valve. Antero- and postero-dorsal areas 
usually sloping inwards and concave. The six main ribs are usually ]irominent, 
iu\d are separated ])y bi-oad, concave, more or less deep interspaces. In tlie inter- 
spaces there are from four to seven ' well-marked rounded ribs separated by furrows 
of about the same width ; the central ribs are usually rather stronger than those 
at the sides (near the main ril)s). The nuuiber of ribs in the interspaces varies 
in different specimens, and usually also in different interspaces of the same speci- 
men ; rarely four ribs are found in each interspace, less rarely five in each, but 
frequently five in foui- of the interspaces and six or seven in the remaining inter- 
space, or the nuniliers in different interspaces maybe foin-, five and six, or five, six 
and seven. The antero-dorsal area of this valve (/. e. the space between the anterior 
main ril) and tiie anterior margin of the valve) bears from six to eight narrow ribs 
separated by broader furrows ; these ribs are smaller than those in the interspaces 

' Occasionally three or four very much smaller ribs are also present. 



216 CRETACEOUS LAMBLLIBRANCHIA. 

of the main ribs. On the postero-dorsal area from eight to twelve small ribs 
occur. Numerous fine, concentric, regular ridges are present on all the ril)s ; but 
the ridges in the furrows are less numerous and more widely separated than on the 
ribs, giving a ladder-like appearance. Ears nearly equal, triangular, of moderate 
size, with small radial ribs ; the anterior ear more sharply marked off from the 
valve than the posterior ear. 

Left valve flattened, sometimes slightly concave or slightly convex, with six 
main ribs which are less prominent than those on the right valve and are separated 
by shallow interspaces. At the summit of each main rib is a broad furrow. The 
ribs in the iziterspaces are narrow and separated by broader furrows ; the number 
of ribs varies as on the right valve. Concentric ornamentation like that of the 
right valve. Tlie antero- and postero-dorsal areas are narrow and bent at an angle 
with the I'est of the valve ; they bear small ribs. Ears nearly equal, with radial 
ribs. 

Form a (from the Lower Chalk, figs. 6 — 10). The examples found in the Lower 
Chalk present some slight general differences from Form /3. Thus (i) the margins 
between the main ribs are less concave, (ii) the growth-ridges are also less concave, 
(iii) the hinge-line is rather longer, and consequently the areas do not slope inwards, 
but, as a rule, slightly outwards, (iv) the convexity of the right valve seems, on the 
averae'e, to be rather g-reater. 



dVClclgC, 


LU UC iclU 


llCi gJ 


CclLCl 


• 












• 






Mcasi 


[iremeiits 


























(1) 


(2) 


(3) 


(.1) 


(5) 


(6) 


(7) 


(S) 


(9) 


(10) 


(11) 


(12) (13) 


Length . 


. 16 


14 


13-5 


6 


21 


20-5 


19 


18 


17 


16 


15 


15 15 


Height . 


. 19 


17 


16 


8 


26 


26 


22 


22 


22 


22 


19 


17-5 17 




(14) 


(15) 


(IG) 


(17) 


(18) 


(19) 


(20) 


(21) 


(22) 


(23) 


(24) 


(25) 


Length . 


. 13 


10 


16 


15 


13-5 


13 


12-5 


10-5 


8 


15 


14 


11 mui. 


Height . 


. 17 


13 


19-5 


17 


17 


15 


U 


14 


9 


19 


15-5 


13 „ 



(1—15) Form li. (16—25) Form «. 
(1 — 3) B. mucronata zone, Norwich. 

(4) „ ,, Clarendon, Salisbury. 

(5 — 15) A. quadratus zone, East Harnham, Salisbury. 

(16—22) Chalk Marl, Folkestone. 
(23—25) Totternhoe Stone, Burwell. 

Affinities. — This species is distinguished from P. (Neitltea) quinquecostatus 
(see p. 202) by the following characters : — (1) the average size is much less ; 
(2) on the right valve the main ribs are more prominent and the interspaces are 
more concave ; (3) the rilis in the intersjjaces are less uniform in size ; (4) the 
height of the shell is relatively greater; (5) generally the right valve is more 
convex and the umbo more sharply incurved ; ((5) the hinge-line is relatively 
shorter (especially in Form /3) ; (7) the concentric ridges in the grooves are more 



PFXTEX. 217 

wiik'ly separateil — in /'. quinqnccustdtiis tliese ridges arc continued From the ribs 
across the grooves without change. See also 1'. sfrinfo-rd.sfntas (below). 

Remarks. — -The figure of Feclcn scxmstatns given by AVoodward is not suffi- 
ciently good for exact determination, but specimens which have l)een olttained 
fnini the same locality as the type leave no doul)t as to the identity of /'. st;.iro«- 
tatiiH with Jauira JJutchijAci, D'Orbigny. 

"^I'he examples from the Lower Chalk are regarded by Peron as specifically 
inseparable from those found in the Upi)er Chalk, and with this view 1 agree, but 
since some slight differences are generally noticeable, I thiidv it maybe well to look 
on the examples fioni tlte jjower and Upper Chalk respectively as two forms or 
vai-ieties of the same species, which Jiiay be referred to as Form a and Foi'in /3. A 
careful comparison of good series of specimens can scarcely leave any douljt on the 
mind as to the later forms having descended directly fi-om the earlier. The 
examples found in the Gault [)robably also belong to Form a ; they have, however, 
usually boon referred to P. (Neithoa) quinquecostafus. 

The strength of the main ribs and the convexity of the right valve vary 
considerably in different specimens. There are also variations in the numlter of 
intermediate ribs, in their relative sizes, and in the depth of the incisions of the 
margin between the main ribs. In some exami)les from East Harnham the main 
ribs are unusually strong. In some of the larger specimens from Norwich the 
number of ribs near the margin of the valve is greater than usual owing to the 
introduction of small ribs in the grooves. 

Types. — Woodwai-d's type appeal's to have been lost. D'Orbigny's type of 
Janira Datenqilei came from the Henonian of Chavot (iMarne). 

Dlslrihutlon. — Form a. — Chalk Marl of Dover, Folkestone, and Vent nor. 
Totternlioc Stone of Burwell. //. suhijlohosus zone of Cherry Hinton. 

Foiiii /3. — A. qandratns zone of East Ilariduun (Salisbury) and Winchester. 
//. iiincrdiKdd zone of I'allanl Head (l)oi'set), (-larendon (Salisbury), and Norwicli. 
IJjjper Chalk (V zone) of Ib'ighlon. Iiccordt'd by Rowe from the .1/. cortesla- 
iJimiriiiiu and .1/. cor-anijninniii zones of Tlianet. 



Pkctkn (Ni:rrnK.\) stuiatocostatls, Gohljnss,^ ISoo. Plate XT, I, ligs. '.i, 10. 

A portion of a right valve and a nearly perfect left valve, whieli were found i)v 

' • IVIivf. (Jenii.,' vol. ii (1833), p. 5-5, pi. .\eiii, figs. 2 c, d, a (nut 2 a. h.j\ ,j) ; Favro. 'Moll. Fuss. 
Ciuic do LeuiljiTg' (186!t), p. 15<J, pi. xiii. tigs. 12, 13 ; HoIziipM, ' Moll. Aachen. Kifide' (1889), p. 239, 
pi. x.wi, fig. 19 ; Vogel, 'Holliiiuliscli. Kickle' (1895), p. 2(j ; Miilli-r, 'M..llusk. Unttfrsen.v.Biuuuschweig 
11. llsedo' (1898), p. 37 ; Eavii, 'Molhisk. i Daumarks Kridlalli'j.' ( 19U2), p. 9.j. pi. ii, figs. 8, 9 ; Wolle- 
mauu, ' Fauua Jer Liineburg. Kreide' (1902), i>. (33. 



218 CRETACEOUS LAMBLLIBRANCHIA. 

Mr. Clement Reitl iu tlie Chalk of Triiningham, probaljly belong to P. (Neiiltea) 
striafocostatns, Goldfuss. The six main ribs of the right valve are less })roniinent 
than in P. (iV.) sexcostatns, and both these and the ribs in the interspaces bear two 
or three small, almost linear ri))s, so that the total number of ribs on the valve 
becomes considerable; fine concenti'ic ridges, similar to those of 1'. (A.) se.e- 
costafiis, are found in the grooves and sometimes pass on to the ribs. On the left 
valve the ribs are in pairs. 

F. striatocoslatns is found in the Senonian of Denmark, Aachen, Lemberg, etc. 

Genus — VELorECTEN, rhiUjipi, 1898. 

(' Zeitselir. d. Ji.'ufcscli. geol. Gesellscli., vol. 1, p. 5117.) 

ViiLoPECTEN Studeri (Pldet ciiul Roiw), 1853. Plate XLI, fig. 11; Plate XLII, 

figs. 1 — 4^. 

1853. HiNNiTES Studeei, F. J. Pidd and W. Roux. Moll. Foss. Gres verts de 

Geneve, p. 504, pi. slv, 

%.l. 
1866. — Salteki, H. G. Seclcy. Auu. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 3, vol. xvii, 

p. 178. 
1870. — Studeei, F. J. Pidd and G. Campiche. Poss. Terr. Cret. Ste. 

Croi.K (Matur. Pal. Suisse, ser. 5), 
pp. 232, 234, pi. clxxix. 
1875. — — A. J.Julics-Broirnv. Quart. Jouru. Geol. Soc, vol. xxxi, 

p. 296. 

Description. — Shell large, oval or nearly circular, somewliat inequilateral and 
irregular ; height a little greater than length. Hinge-line long, sometimes almost 
c(ptal to the length of the shell. Ears very unequal ; the anterior left ear not dis- 
tinctly separated from the rest of the valve. 

Right valve flat, sometimes slightly concave, with more or less undulating 
surface. Radial ribs much more numerous, smaller, and closer together than on 
the left valve, alternately larger and smaller. Numerous growth-ridges cross the 
ribs, and produce a serrate appearance. Byssal sinus very deep ; anterior ear very 
large. 

Left valve convex, with a more or less undulating surface, ornamented with 
about fifteen primary ribs, which are narrow, strong, and slightly wavy, and are 
separated b}' Ijroad, shallow interspaces ; these ribs are prominent on the dorsal 
part of the valve, l)ut become smaller on the ventral part, especially in large speci- 
mens. A secondary rib is usually introduced in the middle of each interspace, at 
varying distances from the umbo ; and between this and the primary ribs on each 



<) 



VELOPECTEK 2T.t 

side other ribs (sometimes foiu' or five) arc iiitroiliiccil ; these are usually smaller, 
and may be quite close together, but in old specimens they become widel}- 
separated ventrally. Botli ribs and furrows are crossed by numerous fine, close- 
set, regular, eonceiiti'ie ridges. Anterioi' eai' with about seven primary and seven 
secondary rilis. Posterior ear smaller and more distinctly limited. 

A£lmt'irs. — llinniti'H Haltori, Seeley, from the iU'd Limestone of Hunstanton, is 
founded on a portion of the left valve; it appears to me to be only a large example 
, Stnderi, in which the main ribs are less prominent than usual owing to the 
abrasion of the shell. See also I', trilincavis (below). 

Bemarht. — The state of preservation of the examples of this species varies con- 
siderably, ])ut is usually rather unsatisfactory. In the specimens from Warminster, 
whci'c tlic species aj)pears to be rare, the shell is preserved, and the ornamentation 
is vei-y well shown, but in those from Folkestone the shell has usually disappeared. 
The examples from the ('aml)ridge Gi-eeusand are internal casts in phosphate, in 
which there is no trace of the ears, and whilst some of the principal ribs are shown 
the (h'tails of tli(> (iiiiamentat ion ai'c wanting. The s|)ecimens from the Red Lime- 
stone of Hunstanton are usually c()nsideral)ly lai'gei' than those from the Cambridge 
Greensand, and have tlie shell preserved in pari at any rate; in some cases the 
fine ornamentation is clearly shown, but often it is indistinct owing to the outer 
layers of the shell having disappeared; in these large forms the main ribs become 
mucli less strong near the ventral margin, or, in some cases, almost in- 
distinguishable. 

Ti/jK'i^. — From the (lault oF the I'eite du lihone. The type of Einnites Solferi, 
Seeley, from the Red Limestone of Hunstanton, is in the Woodwardian Museum, 
Cambridge. 

DidrUmtioi}. — Upper (Jault (zone x) of Folkestone. Cambridge Greensand 
(derived from the U})per (iault). l\ed Limestone of TTunstanton. Upper Greensand 
of A\"arminster. 



Velopecten tkilinicaris (Seehy), 1801. Plate XLTI, fig. 5. 

1801. IIiNNiTES TRiLiNEARis, IT. G. Seeley. Aim. Ma<^'. Nat. Hist., scr. 3, vol. vii, 

p. 1111, ])1. vi, fig. 2. 
ISfir,. _ — \M., Seeley. ll>i.l., vol. xvii, p. 178. 

Rnmarlcs. — The form named lliiiuites trUiiicaris by Seeley was founded on a few 
imperfect specimens from the Cambridge Greensand. They seem to diifer from 
the Engli.sh examples of L. Sluderi in having the primary ribs on the left valve 
stronger and inoj'e widely separated, but they a]iproach very closely some of the 
specimens of that species ligured l)y IMctet and Campiche, especially' in having 



220 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 

small secondary ribs at the summits of the jjrimary ribs. I have not sufficient 
material to enable me to decide whether or not T'. friJinrarix should l)e regarded as 
distinct from V. Stnderi. 

Tijpr. — In the Woodwardian Museum. 

BistrihuHon. — Cambridge Greensand (derived from the Gaidt). 



Velopecten rECTiNATiTs (SeeJeij), 18G1. Plate XLII, fig. G. 

1861. HiNNiTES PECTINATUS, H. G. Si'C'ley. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 3, vol. vii, 

p. 119. 

BemarliS. — This form agrees with [^ irUincaris in having very strong primary 
ribs, but seems to differ in that those ribs are more numerous and consequently 
closer together ; the secondary ribs at the summits of the primaries also apjiear to 
be better marked, and are crossed by distinct concentric ridges. 

Type. — In the Woodwardian Museum. 

Distribution .-^Q'im\hv\(\ge Greensand (derived from the Gault). 



Velopecten, sp. Plate XLII, figs. 7, 8. 

A few specimens from one of the nodule Ijeds of the Gault of Folkestone 
agree with V. trilincaris (Seeley) in having relatively few main rilis on the left 
valve, and in the presence of secondary ribs at their summits, but the shell 
appears to be proportionately higher and shorter. 



Genvs — Hinnites, Defrance, 1821. 

('Diet. Sci. uat.,' vol. xxi, p. 1G9.) 

Hinnites Faveinus, Pictet and lloux, 1853. Text-figs. 6, 7. 

1845. Hinnites Letmerii, E. Forhea (non DesJiayes). Quart. Jonrn. Geol. Soc, 

vol. i, p. 2.50. 

18.53. — Favrinus, F. J. Pictet Mid W. Boux. Moll. Foss. Gres verts de 

Geneve, pp. 503, 547, pi. xliii, 
fig. 2, pi. xliv. 

18.54. — Leymeeii, J. Morris. Cat. Brit. Foss., ed. 2, p. 169. 

1858. — Favrinvs, F.J. Pictet and E.Eenevier. Foss. Terr. Aptien (Mater. 

Pal. Suisse, ser. 1), p. 135. 
1865. — — H. Coquand. Mon. Aptien de I'Espagne, p. 155. 



HINXITE8. 



221 



187U. HixsiTKi h' \vRi};vs, F. J. Pidet and G. Caiiqnche. Foss. Terr. Crut. Ste. 

Croix (Mater. Pal. Suisse, ser. 5), 
p. 2:31, pi. clxxviii. 
1871. — — /'. Stoliczhi. Palseout. Indica, Cret. Fauna S. ludia, 

vol. iii, p. 430. 
1887. — — L. iLillada. Sinops. Espec. Foss. Espafia, vol. iii, Cret. 

infer. (Bolet. Mapa geol. Espafia, 
vol. xiv), ]). 131. 

Description. — Shell very large and thick, irregularly oval or subcircular, with 
rounded margin.s ; height sometimes ecjual to, but usually i-ather greater than the 
l(Migth. Hinge-line rather long; ears nearlj- equal. 

Right valve convex, attached by a more or less large portion in the region of 










Fio. 6. — Hinniies Favrinus, Pict. and Koux. /V-nin-bed, Atlierfield. Museum of tlie Geological Society, 

No. 2022. Ri^rht valve, x J. 



the umbo; the unattached part ha.s luunerous broad, rounded, radial ribs of 
unequal size and sometimes bifurcated. Ribs with scale-like projections, and some- 
times showing fine radial grooves. A few concentric lamellfB or depressions, and 
also numerous fine growth-lines, cross both ribs and grooves. 

Tjeft valve nearly flat — sometimes .slightly concave, sometimes slightly convex, 

with radial ribs and scales similar to those of the right valve, but the ribs rather 

on 



222 



CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRAXCHIA. 



narrower and the intervening grooves l^roader. Tlie scale-like projections are 
sometimes greatly developed. 

Measurements : 

(1) (2) (3) (4) 

Length. 139 . 130 . 130 . 118 . 
135 . 131 . 123 . 

(1—6) Pf)vw-bed, Atherfieia. 



Height . 152 



(5) 


(6) 


118 , 


1 1 3 mm 


122 . 


120 „ 



Affinities. — This species is related to Hinnites Renevieri (Coqiiand),' but is dis- 
tinguished by the ribs being less frequently bifurcated and more nearly straight. 
H. Leymerii, Desliayes," differs from H. Favrinus by the great inequality of the 
ribs — a few being large with smaller ribs in the interspaces. 

Philippi ■* has discussed the affinities of the group to which the above-mentioned 




Pig. 7. — Hmnitcs Favrinus, Pict. and Eoux. Museum of Practical Geology, No. 8-4-14. Lower Greensand 

{Perna-hed), Atherfield. Left valve, x |. 

species belong, and is inclined to regard it as genetically independent of the 
Tertiary species of Hinnites. This view seems to be based chiefly on negative 
evidence, viz. the absence, so far as at j^resent knoAvn, of Hinnites from the Upper 

1 Pictet and Caiiipiche, ' Foss. Terr. Crct. Ste. Croix' (1870), p. 227, pi. clxxvi. 
- Pictet and Campiclie, ibid., p. 22-i, pis. clxxiv, olxxv. Desliayes, ' Mem. Soc. jj-eol. France,' 
vol. V (1842), p. 27, pi. xiv, fig. 1. 

•"' -Zeitschr. d. deutsch. Geol. Gesellscli.,' vol. 1 (1898), p. 601. 



HIXXITE8. 223 

Cretaceous and eai'ly Tertiarv deposits. But until definite evidence of the inde- 
pendent origin of the Tertiary species can be given it seems to me better to refer 
the TiOwer Cretaceous species to H'mnites, since they agree so closely with the 
typical species of that genus. 

Ti/j>rs. — The specimen referred to Ih'nnites Leymerii by Forbes is in the 
Museum of the Geological Society (Xo. 2<t22). Pictet and TJoux's types came from 
the } J ian of the Perte du Rhone. 

Distrihution. — Perna-hQi\. and Fitton's lietl 13 of Atherfield. Hythe Beds of 
Court-at-Street, Hythe. 



224 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRAXCHIA. 



ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS. 



Page 31. Placmwpsis undulata (Miiller). Two specimens closely resembling 
this sjiecies have been obtained by Mr. R. M. Brydone from the Trimingham Chalk. 
Figures are given by Hotzapfel (188*.l) and Ravn (1902). 

Page 35. Barhatia aptiensis (Pict. and Camp.). This species has been found 
by the Rev. W. R. Andrews at the base of the Gault at Dinton, in the Vale of 
Wardour, and recorded as Area liaulini by Mr. Jukes-Browne. 

Page 41. Barhatia Galliennei (d'Orl>.). A specimen has been obtained from 
the Chloritic Marl of Maiden Bradley. 



Page 70. Add Pegtuxculus Vaughani, sp. nov. Plate XLII, fig. 11. 

DeacrlijtioH. — Shell stout, convex, nearly equilateral, but slightly longer 
anteriorly than posteriorly, with a rounded subquadrate outline ; length a little 
greater than height. Umbones small. Hinge-area veiy small. Ornamentation 
consists of numerous flattened radial ribs, separated by linear grooves ; the ribs 
are more numerous on the left valve than on the right, and more numerous on 
the anterior than on the middle parts of the valves. A few faintly marked growth- 
lines are seen at intervals. Interior of "s^alves not seen. 

Measxirements : 

Length . . . . . 31'5 mm. 

Height ..... 30-0 „ 

Affinities. — This form presents some resemblance to i'. suhconcentricus, Lamarck,' 
but is more nearly equilateral, has a much smaller hinge-area, and the concentric 
ridges are absent. 

Remarks. — I have seen only one s^jecimen of this species. The two valves are 
united, and consequently the interior cannot he seen. The specimen was collected 
by Mr. Arthur Vaughan, B.A., B.Sc, and pi'esented by him to the WoodAvardian 
Musemn. 

Distribution. — Greensand of Blackdown. 

Page 71, line 20 from the top. For " Bed ii " read " Bed 11." 

Page 80. Trigonia spectahilis. Reference to Lycett — for pi. xxxvi read pi. xx. 
1 D'Orbigny, 'Pal. Frauy. Terr. Cret.,' vol. ill (1844), p. 18^1, pi. cecvi, figs. 12—19. 



ADDITIOXS AND CORRECTrOXS. 225 

I'ago 96. Modiola Hgerievsls (d'Orb.). Tlie following sliould l)e added to the 
•synonyniy : — MoJiola .'<fri<i fa, Dvonet, 'Mem. Soc. liinn. do Paris,' vol. iii (1824), 
p. 192, pi. vii, fig. .5. Non MixJiolus atridfns (Mont.), Maton and Rackett, 1807. 
Non Modinhi sfri'ifii, Dcf ranee, 1S24. 

Page lOG. Septifer liueafus (How.). A .specimen from the JJch-mniteUa 
miicronata zone, near Fai-ehani (Hants), has been found by Mr. C. Griffith, of 
Winchester. 

Page 10(5. "Family Dreissensiidie, Gi'ay," slmuld be tran.?ferred to the middle 
of Page 1 1 0. 

Pasre 111. l-iiir 1 1 slidiild follow line 5. 

Page I 1 li. P'ootnote 1. Foi- vol. 11 read vol. xliii. 

Page 135, line 3. For Kreide rcml Neocoms. 

Page 143. For Pi.icatui.a sigh.i.ina mul Dijivodox A'ii.ssom (Uagenow), 1842. 

AihlifioiiaJ si/nnni/my. 

1842. OsTKEA NiLSSONl, F. V. Hagenow Nuues Jalirh. fiir Miu., etc.. p. 546. 

1891. DiMTODO.N- NiLssoNi, ,7. Bi'ihm. Die Kreidel)ilduu<;eu des Fiirbergs, etc. 

(Palaontographic.i, vol. xxxviii), p. 89, 
pi. iv, fig. 7. 

1892. — — E. Stollei/. Die Kreide Schle.swig-Holsteius (Mit- 

theil. a. d. Miu. lustit. Uiiiversit. Kiel, 
vol. i), p. 242. 
189.5. Cyci.ostreon Nilssoni, F. Vocjel. Holl-ind. Kreide, p. 14, pi. i, figs. 4 — 7. 
1900. DiMYODON Nilssoni, K. A. Grlinirnll. Meddel. Dansk. geol. Foren., No. C, 

p. 75. 
1902. — -J. P. J. Ravn. MoUusk. i Daumarks Kridtaflej. I. 

Lamellibr. (K. Danske Vidensk. 
Selsk. Skrift. 6. Raekke, iiat. math. 
Afd , vol. xi). p. 109. 

After the publication of Pai't 111 of this Monograph 1 received a copy of a 
paper liy iv. A. Gronwall on DimyO(hni in the Danish Chalk. From the figures 
there given, and also from the one given by Bohm, I think that there can ])e no 
doubt as to the identity of I'Jicaitihi sigillina with the form described (but not 
figured) by von Hagenow as Oslrrti A^ilstioui. This identity has lieen confirmed bv 
Mr. J. P. J. Ravn, of Copenhagen, to whom T have sent specimens of PlicnUihi 
sigilUna from Norwich. 

30 



226 CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 

Ostrea Nilssoni has been referred by Bohm, Stolley, Gronwall, and Ravn to the 
genus Dinij/odoii, Munier-Chahnas.' When describing Plicntula sigiJlina I remarked 
that although it belonged to a type distinct from the other Cretaceous species, yet 
it resembled the recent form Plicatula jjliillipinarmn, Hantz. I have not seen 
the adductor impressions in any specimens of Plieatida sigillina, but nevertheless 
I think that it is quite possible that the authors mentioned may be correct in 
referring this species to the genus Dlmyodon, Munier-Chalmas. 

Biniijodon costatiix, Gronwall, seems to be very closely related to D. Nilf^soni. 

Page 152. Pedfin NUssoni, Goldf., Plate XLII, figs. 9, 10. Through the 
kindness of Mr. J. P. J. Ravn I have received specimens of P. Nilssoni from the 
Chalk of Faxe, and I am now able to state that I consider that the specimens 
from Trimingham, mentioned on page 152, and also another from the Act. quad- 
raius zone of Hampshire (coll. R. M. Brydone), are referable to that species. 

1 In Fischer's 'Manuel de Conchyliol.' (1886), p. 957. 



INDEX 



Synonyms are printed in ihilics. The Roman numerals refer to the phites on 

wliich the species are figured. 





PAGE 






PAGE 


Acila 


10 


Area 


ligeriensis 


47 


iEqiiipecteu . . 


186—197 


— 


Mailleana 


63 


Anomia 


27—31 


— 


maruUenis 


38 


- couvexa 


29. V, 10 


— 


nana 


62 


— laevigata 


29, V, 6— 9 


— 


obesa 


61 


— papyracea 


81,v. 13— 16 


— 


Passyana 


47 


— — var. 


burwellensi.<! ... 31 


^ 


pholadifonnis ... 


35 


— pseudoradiata 


27. 30, v, 1—3 




radiata . . 


42 


— radiata 


27 


— 


Maulini ... 


35 


— r' transversa 


30,v, 12 


— 


Mobinaldina 


52 


Area ... 


32—35 


— 


rotundata 


40 


■ aptiensis 


36 




rotimdita 


40 


— Ansteni ... 


37 


— 


Sanctse-Criicis 


.. 34, vi. 6. 7 


— carinata 


45 


— 


securif ... 


44 


— Carteroni 


33, vi, 4. 5 


— 


suhformosa 


56 


— Cornveliana 


60 


— 


vendinensis 


41 


— cymodoce 


35 








— Dupiniana 


32, vi, 1—3 








— exaltata ... 


49 


Barbatia 


35—37 


— fibrosa 


57 


- 


aptiensis • 


}5. 224, n, 8, 9 


— Fittoni 


52 


- 


— Austeni 


37. i-ii, 1—3 


— Forbesi ... 


49 


- 


— Gallieunei 


41. 224, vii, 9 


— formosa ... 


56 


- 


— Geiuit/i 


42, vii. 10, 11 


— Gabrielis 


49 


- 


— Hu;4;irdiaiia 


40 


— GaUiennei 


41 


- 


— marulleusis ... 


38, vii, 4—7 


— Geinitzi 


42 


- 


— rotundata 


40, vii, 8 


— glabra 


57 


- 


-- vendinensis 


41 


— Guerangeri 


64 


Brachvdontes 


... 101—103 


— Hngardiana 


40 




— Gueran<;eri . . . 


101, .vvii, 4. 6 


— isocardheformis.. 


66 


Byg 


foarca marulleusis 


38 



228 



INDEX. 



Camptouectes ... 

Cardium {Hemicardiwm ?) A7isieni 

— unibonatum ... 
Ceromya crassicornis ... 
Clilamys 

— ternata 
Crenella 

— bella ... 
Cucullaea 

— carinata 

— Coruueliaua 50, viii, 11 

— (Idonearca) Cornueliana . 

— costeUata 

— (Dicranodonta) donningtoneusis 

54, X, 11—14; xi, 1, 2 



PAGE 

152—163 
... 37 
... 69 

65 

... 163—186 

190 

104 

104, xvii, 12, 13 

49—64 

47,57 

13 ; X, 1—3 

... 51 

. . 45 



PAGE 

Grammatodou cariuatus ... 45, viii, 3 — 8 

— seciiris... 44, vii, 14 — 15; viii, 1, 2 



— errans 

— fibrosa 

— Fittoni 

— Forbesi 

— formosa 

— Gabrielis 

— glabra 

— Mailleana ... 

— nana 

— obesa 

— (Dicranodonta ?) obUqua 

— Pagsyana ... 

— .securis 

— striatella 

— suhnana 

— vagans 

— venusta 
Cycloslreon Nihsoni ... 
Ctjpricardia undidata 

Dianchora lata 
— ohliqwa 



.52 

57 

52,x, 4^7 

49, ix 

56 

49 

57, xi, 8—12 ; xii, 1—5 
... 63, xiii, 4, 6 

62, xiii, 1—3 

... 61, xii, 6 — 8 

55, xi, 3, 4 

... 47 

... 44 

. 45 

50 

52, X, 8—10 

56, xi, 5—7 

225 

... 100 



— striata 
Dicranodonta ... 
Dimyodon Nilssoni .. 
Dreisseusia 

— lanceolata 



121 
121 
126 
119 
53 
225 
110 



Graininatodon 



110, xviii, 13—15; xix, 1—11 



44^-47 



Hinnites 

— Favriuus 

— Leymerii 

— pectiuatus . . . 

— Salteri 

— Studeri 

— trilinearis 

Idonearca fibrosa 
— cfiabra 
Inoceramus siliqua 
Isoarca 

— Agassizi 

— cantabrigiensis 

— obesa ... 
Isocardia crassicornis 

— Orbignyana 

Janira sequicostata . . . 

— atava ... 

— cometa 

— Dutemplei 

— Faucignyana . . . 

— Fontanieri 

— Geinitzii 

— Morrisi 

— neocomiensis ... 

— quadricostata 

— quinquecostata 

Leda angtilala 

— lineata ... 

— Mariie ... 

— phaseolina 

— scapha ... 

— Seeleyi ... 

— siliqva ... 

— solea 

— spathulata 

— subrecnrva 

— Vibrayeana 
Lima brightoniensis .. 

— spinosa ... 
Liniopsis 



220—223 
220, Text-figs 6, 7 

220 

220 

218 

218 

219 

57 

57 

99 

65,66 

65, xiii, 7 
65 

65, xiii, 8 

65 

65 

208, 209 
197, 198 

200 

207, 215, 217 

210 

203 

210 

201 

197, 198, 199 

211, 212 

201—203, 205 

8 

7 

6 

9 

3,7 

5 

11 

5 

1,4 

2,9 

10 

128 

128 

71—73 



M)KX. 



229 



Limopsis albiensis 
Lithodoiims ... 

— rugosus ? 

Lucina orhicularix 
Lyriodon cremdatns ... 

— excenfricus ... 

— einuatiis 
Lyrodon excentricum . . . 



Modiola 



71, xv, 1, 2 4 

.. 10.5 

10.'), xvii, 14 

71 

7(! 

70, 77 
70 

It-'— 1U4 
!I2. XV. 8—14 
100 
104 
104 
. 100 
.!»<), xvii, 1, 2 
100 



oe(]ualis 

— awjusta 

— hella ... 

— Cornueliana ... 

— Gothe 

— fla!,'ellifera ... 

— granulosa 

— (Brachydontes) Gueraugeri, 101, xvii, 4, f> 

— Imvigata ... ... ... 94 

— Ugeriensis ... ... 90, 22.5, xvi, 4 — 

— lineata ... ... ... 1 00 

— ohesa ... ... ... . . 93 

— peelernaUs ... ... 104 

— quadrata ... ... 107 

— reversa ... 94, xv, 1.5 — 18; xvi, 1 — 3 

— rugosa ... ... .. ... 97 

— simplex ... ... ... ... 97 

— striata ... ... ... 225 

— (Brachydontes) striato-costata, 

103, xvii, 9—11 

— svbfalcata ... ... ... ... Ill 

— subsimplex ... ... 97, xvi, 7- — 10 

— typica ... ... ... ... 96 

— uudulata ... ... ... 100, xvii, 3 

(Brachydontes) vectiensis, 102, xvii, 6 — 8 

Myoconcha ... ... ... ... . . 114 

— cretacea ... ... ... 114, xx, 3 

Mytihis 91,92 

— nhriiptus ... ... ... ... 110 

— lequalis ... ... ... ... 92 ' 

— asper ... ... ... ... ... 106 

— bellns 104 | 

— ciplyaiius ... ... ... . 107 

— Coriiuelianus ... ... ... ... 104 

— Cottie 106 

— Cuuieri ... ... ... ... 106 

— edentnlus ... ... ... ... 110 



Mytihis falcatus 

flagelli/erus . . . 

Galliennei 

Gueraugeri ... 

ijimjiliH 

haiiioensis 

inaeijuivalvis . . . 

laiiceolatits 

Ugeriensis 

lineatus 

Orbiyiiyaniia ... 

peregrinus 

pnelongus 

reversus 

ritgosus 

semiradiahis ... 

simplex 

.ipathnlatus . . . 

striato-r.ostaius 

siibangustiis ... 

sjthfalcatus 

— sublineatus 

— suhritgosus 

— subsimplex 

— toraacensis . . . 
fridens 
undulatus 

Neithea (see Pecten) 
Nucula 

lequilateralis . . . 

all>eusis 

— antiquata 

— apiculata 
(Acila) bivirgata 
cap!^;eformis ... 

— Cornueliana ... 
Dcrancei 
gaultina 
impressa 

— impressa 

— Laniplughi . . 
lineata 
^farile 

— Meyeri 

. — ohesa ... 

— obtusa 



91 



PAGE 
110 

99 
111 
Ml 
97 
91 
XV, 7 
... 110 
.. 96 
.. 106 
. 107 
.. 107 
.. 110 
94 
.. 97 
.. 94 
97, 114 
.. 107 
.. 103 
.. 106 
.. 110 
.. 106 
97 
97 
91 
.. 110 
.. 101 



197—218 

12—27 

2 

... 24,iv,9— 17 

26, iv, 22—26 

23 

.. 19,iii,l— 12 

21 

13 

21 

2.5, iv, 18—21 
.. 23, iv, .5— 8 

12 

. 14. ii, 18, 19 

7 

6 

1.5, ii, 21 

65 

.. 22, iv. 2—4 



230 



INDEX. 







PAGE 


Nticulaohtusa 




12 


— ornatissima ... 




19 


— ovata, Mant. ... 


21, 


iii, 16—21 ; iv, 1 


— ovata, Pliil. ... 




12 


— pectinata 


16, 


ii, 22—27 ; iii, 13 


— — var. cretse 




18, iii, 14, 15 


— pliaseolina 




9 


— planata 




12, ii, 11—15 


— rhomhoide.a 




10 


— rhotomagensis 




65 


— scapha 




3 


— siliqua 




11 


— simplex 




14 


— solea ... 




5 


— gpatlmlata 




1 


— suhelliptica 




10 


— suhrecurva 




2,9 


— Vibrayeana 




10 


Nuculana 




1—11 


— angulata 




... 8, i, 33—35 


— lineata 




... 7,1,28—32 


; — Marise 




... 6,1,25—27 


— pliaseolina . . . 




... 9, 11, 1—3 


— (? Yoldia) scapha 




.. 3, i, 8— 14 


— Seeleyi 




... 5,1,15-17 


— siliqua 




11,11,10 


— solea 




... 5,1, 18—24 


— spathulata . . . 




1,1,1—3 


— speetonensis 




3,1,6,7 


— subrecurva... 




2,1,4,5 


— Vibrayeana 




... 10,11,4—9 


Ostrea muricata 




186 


— Nilssoni 




225 


Pachytos spinosus 




127 


— striatus 




127 


Pecteu 




... 145—218 


— (Neithea) sequicostatus 


... 208, xl, 8, 9 


— — lequieostatiis 


203,215 



Pecteu (iEqulpecten) asellus 
— — asper 

186, XXXV, 12 ; xxxvi, 1 



PAGE 

119 



— — var. longicoUis 208 
(Chlamys) aptiensis ... ... 181, 182 

— arachnoides 174, 177, 178 
(Camptonectes) arcnatHs 159, 160, 161 
(Chlamys) arcuatus ... ... ... 175 

(^qulpecten) arleslensls, 194, xxxvii, 9 — 11 
{Camptonectes) arzierensis ... 158 



197, xxxlx, 1—5 

182, 185 

... 188, xxxvUi 

167, xxxl, 1, 2 

169 



(Neitliea) atavus 

{Chlamys) Barrett i 
(jEqiiipecteu) Beaverl 
(Chlamys) brltannicus 

— Brongniarti 
(.^qulpecteu) canipanieusls 

192, xxxvii, 4—8 
(Camptouectes) ductus ... 152, xx\Til 
(Syncyclonema) circidaris, G-eln. . . 146 
{Camptonectes) circularis ... 154, 156 
(Chlamys) comans ... ... 171,172 

(Neitliea) cometa . . 200, xxxlx, 6 — 10 
(Chlamys) concentricvs ...179, 180, 181 

(Camptouectes) Cottaldluus, 156, xxix,l — 3 
(Syncyclonema) Cottaldinus ... ... 147 

(Camptonectes) crassitesta ... 153,154 
(Chlamys) cretosus, 174, xxxli, 4 — 6 ; xxxlli 

— cretosus, Gtoldi. ... ... 171 

— — vnY. nitida ... 176 

— — var. Zeisneri 1 76 

— crispus ... ... 171,176 

(Camptouectes) curvatus 

159, xxlx, 7 ; xxxvii, 16 

(.iEqnipecten) depressus ... 188,189 

(Camptonectes) divaricat us ... ... 160 

— dubiisleusls . . . 162, xxlx, 8 

(.^quipecten) Dnjardini ... 190, 191 

(Chlamys) Dutemplei ... ... 182 

— elougatus 

170, xxxl, 10—13; xxxli, 1-3 

— Faujasi 171,173 

— fissicosta ... 163, XXX, 3 — 8 

— Galliennei 182,184 

(Camptonectes ?) gaultlnus 163, xxx, 1, 2 
(Syncyclonema) germanicus . . . 147, 148 
(Chlamys) Jdspidus ... 183 (foot-note) 
(Camptonectes) imperialis .. ... 153 

(Chlamys) interstriatiis ... 181,182 

(.^quipecten) pigosus ... 189,190 

(Syncyclonema) laminosus 145, 146, 149 
(Camptonectes) lens, var. Morini ... 158 
(JEquipecten) Uneatiis ... 194,195 

(Chlamys) Mantelli ... ... ... 180 

— Mautelliauus 179, xxxiv, 1 — 6 



INDEX. 



231 





I'AGE 




PAGE 


e.cten {Chlamys) MarrotiaiiHs ... 171,173 


Pecten (Neithea) versicostatus 


201, 202, 206, 210 


— 


Millcri ... 1G8, xxxi, 3- G 


— (Camptonectes) viryatus 


160 


— 


(Ciuapt()noi.-tos) Moriiii ... ... 159 


— (Chlamys) Zeisneri ... 


175 


— 


(Neithea) Morrisi ... -201, xxxix, 11 13 


Pectiniles acideatus 


127 


— 


Morrhi 204,206 


— asper 


186 




Nilssoui . . 119. 152, 22fi, xlii, 9, 10 


Pectuuculus . , , 


. 66—70,224 




{Chlainij.'t) iiitidiis ... ... 1 74-, 178 


euglyphus 


. 71, xiv, 13 


— 


ohiiqum ... 170, 171, 181 


— maiiilleusis 


.66, xiii, 9, 10 




{Syncyclonema) opercular is . . ... 146 


— ohliqiltts . 


55 


— 


orbicularis ... 145, xxvii 


-- sul)lajvis... 


.67, xiv, 1—7 


— 


— var. Loh- 


— viiiibouatus 


69, xiv, 8—12 




manni ... ... ... 147 


— Vaughani 


224. xlii. 11 


— 


(Syticyc/oiiema) orhici(h:tris, var. 


Perissonota ... 


11 




majnus ... ... ... 147, 148 


Pinnites ungulatits 


106 


— 


(Neithea) ornithopus ... .. 197,199 


Placuuopsis imdulata 


224 


— 


(CJdamys) Pa.isyi 182,184 


Plaqiostoma hrightoniensis ... 


127,131 


— 


(vEquipecteu) pexatu.s 190, xxxvi, 5 — 7 


spinosa 


127 


— 


pulchelliis 


— spinosum 


127 




194, xxxvii, 12 -15 


-— sulcata ... 


127 


— 


(Chlamys) Puzosiauus 165, xxx, 9 -12 


Plicatula 


... 184—144 


— 


(Neitliea) quadricostotus 210, xl, 6, 7 


— sequicostata... 


136 


— 


— quiuquecostatus 


-- Barroisi 


141, xxvi, 12—18 




202, xxxix, 14 17; xl, 1-5 


— Carterouiana 


135, .XXV, 5—12 


— 


— qninqnecosfatua ... 201,214 


— gurgitis 


137, XXV, 13—21 


— 


(Chlamys) Raul inia mis 171,173 


iiiHata 


139, xxvi, 1—11 


— 


— Eohiualilinus 


miuuta 


138, XXV, 22—25 




181, xxxiv, 7 12; XXXV, 1 lO 


nodosa 


141 


— 


(Camjitonectes) Bcemeri ... ... 153 


jiectinoides ... 


137,141 


— 


(.Slquipecten) saruiiieusis 192, xxxvii, 1 3 


placunata ... 


134 


— 


(Neithea) sexcostatus 


placunea 


134, XXV, 1—4 




214, xl, 10 -15 ; xli, 1 10 


— radiula 


137,139 


— 


(^quipeden) spurius ... 194,195 


sigiUiiia ... 143, 


225, xxvi, 19—22 


— 


— Staszyci 195 


— spinosa 


139 


— 


(Neitbea) striato-costatus ? 217, xli, 9, 10 


Podopsis striata 


120 


— 


(Camptonectes) striato-pxinetatus 

157, xxix, 4 6 


Portlandia pectinata ... 


16 


— 


— striato-punclaius ... 160 


Scaphiila 


37 


— 


(Chlamys) Stutchburiauus 185, xxxv, 11 


Septifer 


106 


— 


Stutrhhiiricnsis ... ... 185 


lineatns 106, 225, xviii, 1—12 


— 


subacutus 169, xxxi, 7 — 9 


Spoudylus 


. 116—134 


— 


— suhinterstriatua 175, 182, 184 


— wqualis 


128 


— 


(Syiicyclonema) suhlaminosus 146, 149 


— lequicostatus 


122,123 


— 


{JSipdpeclen) siibpulcheUus ... 195 


- Brunneri ... 


117 


— 


ternatus ... ... ... . 191 


— capilhitus ... 


119 


— 


(Neithea) triplicata ... ... ... 214 


— dichoto7nu8 


143 


— 


(Chlamys) undulatus 175 


— dujiliratHS... 


128,131 



232 



INDEX. 







PAGE 






PAGE 


Spondylus Dutempleanus 






Trigonia excentrica ... ... ... 76,77 


125, xxii. 


11—14; 


xxiii, 1 — 5 


— Fittoni 


88 


— Dutemplei . . . 




... 125 


— Jiunstantonensis 


73 


— gibbosus ... 


117 


, XX, 5—11 


— iugeus 


75 


— latus 


121, 


xxii, 1—10 


— Keepingi 


75 


— latus, Desh. 




... 116 


— Iseviuscula ... 


77 


— lineatus 




. 121 


— Meyeri 


84 


— obliquus ... 




. 121 


— nodosa 


78 


— padopsideus 




... 127 


— ornata 


85, xix, 13 


— radiatus ... 




. 116 


— penuata 


88 


— Eoemeri 




116, XX, 4 


— pseudospinosa 


87 


— serratus ... 


.. 124,xxi,6, 7 


— Robinaldina ? 


74 


— spinosus 127, xxiii, 6 — 11 ; 


xxiv, 1 — 7 


— rudis 




78 


— striatus 


119, xxi, 1—5 


— scabricola . 




82 


— strigilis 




... 134 


— scapha 




73, XX, 1,2 


— suhspinosus 




... 128 


— sinuata 




76,77 


— superhus ... 




128, 132 


— spectabilis . 




80,224 


Syncyclonema... 




145—152 


— spinosa 




86 


— orbicularis 




... 147 


— spinosa 




87 


— suhlanmiosa . . 




... 147 


— sulcataria . 

— tealbyensis . 




89 

79 


Trigouia 




73—90 


— upwarensis . 




86 


— affinis 




... 17 


— Vectiana 




84 


— alasformis ... 




83,84 


— Vicaryana . 




87 


— aUformis 




... 83 


Trigonoarca ... 




47,48 


— Arcliiaciaua 




... 86 


— Passyana 


47, viii, 9, 10 


— cariuata 




... 90 




— caudata 




81 


Velopecten 218—220 


— cincta 




... 78 


— pectinatus .. . 220, xlii, 6 


— clavellata 




... 78 


— Studeri .. 218, xU, 11; xlii, 1—4 


— costigera 




... 88 


— trilinearis ... 219, xlii, 5 


— crenulata ... 




82, xix, 14 


Vola lequicostata ... ... , . ... 208 


— crenulifera ... 




... 82 


— atava ... ... .. ... 198 


— Cimuiugtoiii 




90 










— Dutemplei ... ... ... ... 215 


— dsedalea 




... 80 


— Morrisi 202 


— dcedalea 




79 




— debilis 




... 78 


— quadricostata 211,212 

— qninqnecostata 203, 204, 205 


— dunscombensis 




78, xix, 12 


— ecceut rica ... 




76,77 




— Etlieridgei ... 




... 81 


Yoldia 3 


— exaltata 




74 


— scapha 




4 



FEINTED BY ADLARD AND SON, LONDON AND D0RKIN8. 



The fifjurex are o/'natural size unless the amount of enlargement is stated. 

PLATE I. 

Genus Nuculana, Link. 

FIGS. 

1_3. J\r. spathtdata (Forbes). (P. 1.) 

1. Tbe Type. Atherfield Clay, Atherfield. Mi.s. G-eol. Soc, No. 2112. 

2. Crackers, Atherfield. Wiltshire Collection, Woodwardian Museum, a, right 
valve ; b, anterior of same ; c, same valve x 2. 

3. Same horizon, locality, &c. Left valve. 

4, 5. N. Siihrecurva (Phil.). Speeton Clay, Speeton. Leckenby Collection, 
Woodwardian Museum. (P. 2.) 

4. a, left valve; i, anterior view ; c, dorsal. Figured by Gardner. 

5. a, right valve ; b, dorsal view. 

6, 7. N. speetonensls, Woods. Speeton Clay, Speeton. Museum of Practical 
Geology, No. 6412. (P. 3.) 

6. a, left valve ; h, ornament X 2. 

7. a, left valve ; h, dorsal view. 

8—14. N. [.? Yoldla] scapha (d'Orb.). 8—13, Atherfield Clay, Sevenoaks. 
(P. 3.) 

8. Collection of C. J. A. Meyer, a, right valve; b, dorsal view; c, ornament x 2. 
I'ltrured by Gardner. 

9. British Museum, No. L 9280. Left valve. 

10. 11. — — Right valves. 

12. Collection o£ C. J. A. Meyer. Left valve. 

13. — — Right valve. 

14. Speeton Clay, Speeton. Woodwardian Museum. Left valve. 

15—17. N. 8eele>/i (Gardu.). Speeton Clay, Speeton. (P. 5.) 

15. The Type. Leckenby Collection, Woodwardian Museum. a, left valve ; b, 
dorsal view. 

IG. Woodwardian Museum, a, left v.alve ; b, dorsal. 

17. Bed C 3. Collection of G. W. Lamplugh. a, left valve ; b, dorsal outline. 

18—24. N. solea (d'Orb.). Gault, Folkestone. (P. 5.) 

18, 19. Wiltshire Collection, Woodwardian Museum. Ri^ht valves. 

20. Montagu Smith Collection, Woodwardian Museuui. Interior of left valve x 2. 
21—24. British Museum, No. L 4974. 21, 23, and 24, right valves ; 22, left valve. 

25—27. N. Mariai (d'Orb.). Gault, Folkestone. (P. G.) 

25. British iVIuseum, No. L 4973. a, right valve; b, dorsal outline; c, same x 2. 

26. Briiish Museum, No. L 4973. a, right valve; b, same x 3. 

27. Woodwardian Museum. Right valve. 

28—32. N. Uneata (Sow.). 28—31, Greensand, Blackdowu. (P. 7.) 

28. The Type, Bristol Museum, a, right valve; b, dorsal view. 

29. Collection of C. J. A. jMeyt-r. Left valve. 

30. Wiltshire Collection, Woodwardian Museum. Left valve. 

31. — — — a, outline of left valve; b, same 
x 2 ; c, same, dorsal, x 2 ; </, interior of another specimen, right valve, X 3. 

32. Lower Greensand, Atherfield. Gardner Collection, British Museum, No. L 5109. 
a, outline of right valve; 6, same X 2 ; c, dorsal view x 2. 

33 — 35. N. angulata (Sow.). Greensand, Blackdown. (P. 8.) 

33. Collection of C. J. A. Meyer, a, outline of right valve ; b, sauje x 4 ; c, another 
specimen, dorsal view, x 4. 

34. a, outline of right valve ; b, same X 4. 

35. The Types, British Museum, No. 43213. a, outline of right valve; b, same X 3; 
c, dorsal view of another specimen x 3 ; (^, interior of another specimen, right 
valve, X 3. 



P'ATF, I. 




i 



( 



> 



.^^'^^^ 










^ ^ (^ 





^^ 



^ 



o 



33 a 

O 
I 

■ 33k 




E unison, del V/ 'I Cli-tnvJiiir li 




33 c. 





34- a 



3*b 




_L 35t 



CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRAN GHIA. 



PLATE II. 

Nltculana (continued). 

FIGS. 

1—3, N, 2)haseoluia (Mich.). Gault, Folkestone. (P. 9.) 

1. British Museum, No. L 5106. a, left valve; 6, dorsal view; c, [losterior; d, left 
valve X 2. 

2, 3. British Museum, No. L 4969. 2 a, right valve ; 2 b, same x 3 ; 3, left valve. 

4_9. j\r. Vibrai/eana (d'Orb.). 4—8, Gault, Folkestone. British Museum, 
No. L 4971. (P. 10.) 

4. a, risrht valve ; b, same X 2 : c, dorsal view X 2. 

5. a, ris'it valve ; b, dorsal view. 
6—8. Left valves. 

9. Cambridiie Greeusand (dfrived from GauU). Tlie Type of W. suhelliptica, Seeley, 
Carter Collection, Woodwardiaii Museum. Eiglit valve; natural iaterual mould. 

10. N. sp., cf. siliqna (Goldf.). Chalk Rock (zone of Het. Bemsianum), Cack- 
hamsley. Montagu Smith Collection, Woodwardian Museum. 
a, internal mould of left valve; h, mould of teeth X 3. (P. 11.) 

Genus Nucula, Lamarck. 

11 — 15. N. planata, Desh. 11 — -13, Speeton Clay, Speeton. Leckenby Collec- 
tion, Woodwardian Museum. (P. 12.) 

11. a, right valve; b, dorsal view. Figured by Gardrier, Quart. Joura. Geol. Soc, 
xl (1884.), i>l. v, f. 3. 

12. a, right valve ; b, dorsal view. 

13. Right valve, somewhat crushed. Figured by Gardner, ibid., pi. v, f. 2. 

14 Crackers, Atherfield. Woodwardian Museum, a, left valve; b, dorsal view. 
Figured by Gardner, ibid., pi. v, f. 1. 

15. Crackers, Atherfield. Leckenby Collection, Woodwardian Museum. Right valve. 

16, 17. N. Sp. Claxby Ironstone (zone of Beleninifes lateralis), Benniworth 
Haven. Woodwardian Museum. (P. 13.) 

16. a, left valve; b, same, interior filled with oolitic ironstone; c, same, posterior; 
d, same, dorsal. Figured bv Gardner (as iV. Goniueliana, d'Orb.), Quart. .Jouvn. 
Geol. Soc, xl (1884), pi. v, f 5, 6. 

17. Right valve. 

18, 19. N. Lamphiijhi, Woods. Speeton Clay (D 4), Speeton. Collection of 
G.' W. Laraplugh. (P. 14.) 

18. a, right valve ; b, dorsal view. 

19. Left valve. 

20. N. sjj. Lower Greensand, Atherfield. British Museum. (P. 14.) 

a, left valve, outline; b, same x 2 ; c, same, dorsal view of both valves x 2 ; d, same, 
posterior view x 2. 

21. N. Me'i/erl, Gavdn. Lower Greensand, Atherfield. British Museum. The 

Type. (P. 15.) 

a, left valve, outline ; b, same x 2 ; c, same, dorsal view of both valves x 2. 

22—27. N. pectinata,iio\v. Gault, Folkestone (except f. 24). (P. 16.) 

22. Montagu Smith Collection, Wooduardian Museum. Right valve. 

23. Woodwardian Museum. «, right valve ; b, same, posterior view ; c, same, dorsal. 

24. Gault, Aylesford. Woodwardian Museum. Eight valve. 

25. Woodwardian Museum. Left valve. 

26. Wiltshire Colleclion, Woodwardian Museum. Left valve. 

27. Woodwardian Museum. «, left valve; 6, posterior view ; c, portion of ornamen- 
tation of left valve enlarged. 



PLATE, n. 





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CRETACEOUS L.AMELL1BRANCHIA. 



PLATE III. 

Nucur-A {continued). 

FIGS. 

1—12. N. [Acila) hlvirgata. Sow. Gault, Folkestone (except f. 12), (P. 19.) 

1. Woodwardian Museum. Right valve X \\. 

2. British Museum, No. L 5907. a, outline of left valve ; h, same x \h ; c, dorsal 
outline. Figured by Gardner. 

3. Wiltshire Collection, Woodwardian Museum. Right valve x 1^. 

4. British Museum, No. L 5907. Left valve X 1^. Figured by Gardner. 

5. — No. L 4972. a, right valve ; h, posterior end ; c, dorsal X 1^. 

6. — — Left valve X Ik 

7. — — Median portion of left valve X Ih. 

8. — — Median portion of right valve X l^^. 

9. — — Left valve x 1\. 

10. — No. L 5102. Hinge of right valve X 2. 

11. ColleL-tiou of C. J. A. Meyer. Antero-ventral portion of left valve X 6. 

12. Cambridge Greensand. Woodwardian Museum. Internal mould, right valve. 

13. N. pecfincda. Sow. Cambridge Greensand (derived). Woodwardian 
Museum. Internal mould, a, right valve ; b, dorsal view. 
(P. 16.) 

14, 15. N. pedltuda, var. cretse, Gardner. Greensand, Blackdowu. Museum of 
Practical Geology. The Types of var. cretse. (P. 18.) 
14. a, right valve ; h, dorsal (No. 6449). 
15. Left valve (No. 6450). 

16—21. N. ovata, Maut. Gault, Folkestone. (P. 21.) 

16. British Museum, No. L 4968. Eight valve. 

17. Wiltshire Collection, Woodwardian Museum. Right valve. 

18—20. British Museum, No. L 4968. 18, right valve. 19. a, left valve ; b, dorsal 

view ; 20, right valve. 
21. Woodwardian Museum, n, right valve; b, dorsal. 



PLATE ni. 




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CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA, 



West, Nevrman imp 



PLATE IV. 

NucuLA {continned). 

FIGS. 

1. N. oratii, Maiit. Gault, Folkestone. British Museum, No. L 4968. 
a, right valve; b, dorsal. (P. 21.) 

2 — 4. N. olifnsa, Sow. Greensand, Blackdown. (P. 22.) 

2. The Type, Bristol Museum, a, right valve ; b, posterior view of same. 

3. Museum nf Practical Geology, No. 03.51. Kight valve. 

4. — — — Left valve. Figured by Gardner. 
a, left valve ; h, posterior of same ; c, dorsal of same ; d, hinge x 2. 

5 — 8. N. impressa, Sow. Greensand, Blackdown. (P. 23.) 

5. Wiltshire Collection, Woodwardian Museum. Bight valve. 

(i. — — — — a, left valve ; b, dorsal ; c, posterior. 

7. \Viltsliire Collection, Woodwardian Museum. Interior of right valve x 2. 

8. Probably the type of iV'. apiculata, Sowerby. Museum of the Geological Society, 
No. 1.5G4r. a, right valve; h, dorsal view. 

9—16. N. albeims, d'Orb. Gault, Folkestone. (P. 24.) 

9. Museum of Practical Geology, No. 1638. a, right valve ; b, dorsal view. 

10. Wiltshire Collection, Woodwardian Museum. Left valve, 

11. Woodwardian Museum. Right valve. 

12. British Museum, No. 4963. a, left valve ; h, dorsal view. 

14. Woodwardian Museum, a, left valve ; h, dorsal view. 

1.5. Collection of C. J. A. Meyer, a, left valve; b, dorsal view. 
16. Wiltshire Collection, Woodwardian Museum. Left valve. 

17. N. alhensif,-? d'Orb. Greensand, Blackdown. Wiltshire Collection, 
Woodwardian Mnseuni. Right valve. (P. 25.) 

18 — 21. N. (jaultimt, Gardn. Gault, Folkestone. British Museum, No. 4970. 
(P. 25.) 

15. a, right valve ; b, posterior ; c, dorsal. 

19. Left valve. 

20. Right valve. 

21. n, left valve, outline ; b, same x 1^ ; c, dorsal X H. 

22 — 26. N. antiquata, Sow. Greensand, Blackdown. Wiltshire Collection, 
Woodwardian Museum. (P. 26.) 

22. a, left valve ; b, dorsal view ; c, posterior. 

23. a, right valve ; b, dorsal view. 

24. a, dorsal view ; h, left valve. 
2.5. Interior of riglit valve X 2. 
26. Right valve. 

27, 28. JV^. sj). Chalk Rock (zone of Hcf. Reussianum), Cuckhamsley. Montagu 
Smith Collection, Woodwardian Museum. Internal moulds of 
right valves. (P. 27.) 



PLATE IV. 






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PLATE V. 

Genus Anomia, Liiinseus. 

FIGS. 

1 — 3. A. pseudoradinta, d'Orb. Lower Greensand. (P. 27.) 

1. Crackers, Atheri3eld. Woodwardiau Museum, a, outline of left valve ; b, same 

X 1^ ; c, ornament of same x 6. 

2. Atherfield Beds, Redhill. British Museum, No. L 9268. Left valve. 

3. Atherfield. Museum of the Greological Society. Left valve (young specimen) x 1^. 

4, 5. A. sp. Crackers, Atherfield. (P. 28.) 

i. Woodwardian Museum. Left valve. 

5. Wiltshire Collection, "Woodwardiau Museum, a, left valve, outline ; i, same X 2. 

6 — 9. .1. Ixvigata, Sow. Lower Greensand. (P. 29.) 

6. Museum of Practical (xeology, No. 6il4. Hythe Beds, Lympne. ? Interior of 

left valve. One of the Types. 

7. Museum of Practical Geology, No. 6415. Atherfield Beds, Peasmarsh. a, left 

valve ; J, dorsal view of same. 
S. Museum of Practical Geology, No. 6417. Puufield. a, left valve ; b, dorsal. 
9. Collection of C. J. A. Meyer. Ferruginous Sands, Shanklin. Left valve. 

10. A. convexa. Sow. Lower Greensand, Shanklin. Museum of the Geological 

Society, No. 2032. a, left valve; h, dorsal view. (P. 29.) 

11. A. cf. pseudoradlata, d'Orb. Gault, Black Ven. Museum of Practical 

Geology, No. 6440. a, left valve; b, portion x 3. (P. 30.) 

12. A. ? transversa, Seel. Cambridge Greensand. Woodwardian Museum. 

a, left valve ; b, dorsal view of same. (P. 30.) 

18 — 16. A. paptjrncea, d'Orb. Lower Chalk — Totternhoe Stone (zone of Holaster 
subglobosus). (P. 31.) 

13. AVoodwardian Museum. Burwell. Left valve. Figured by Etheridge. The 
dorsal part of the shell is crushed, giving the umbo the appearance of being at 
the margin. 

14. York Museum. Eeach. Left valve. Dorsal part of shell is crushed. 

15. Woodwardian Museum. Burwell. Left valve. Figured by Etheridge. 

16. Woodwardian Museum. Right valve. 



PLATS 









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CRETACEOUS L,A.MELLIERANCHIA. 



PLATE VI. 

Oenus Akca, Lamarck. 

FIGS. 

1—3. A. Dupmiana, d'Orb. (P. 32.) 

1, 2. Per««-bed, Atherfield. Leckenby Collection. Woodwardian Museum. I n, right 
valve ; 16, dorsal view of same specimen ; 2, hinge of left valve x 1^. 

3. Ferruginous Sands, Shanklin. Collection of C. J. A. Meyer. Ornamentation on 

the right valve near the ventral margin below the urabones x 3. 

4, 5. A. Garteroni, d'Orb. (P. 33.) 

4. Lower Greensand, Upware. Woodwardiau Museum, a, left valve ; b, anterior 

view ; c, dorsal of same specimen. Figured by Keeping. 

5. Atherfield Beds, East Shalford. Collection of C. J. A. Meyer, a, left valve; 

b, hiuofe and area of same x Ij; c, ornamentation, from the anterior part of 
the valve, x 3. 

6, 7. A. Sandge-Griicis, Pict. and Camp. Lower Greensand, Upware. 
Woodwardian Museum. (P. 34.) 

6. a, left valve ; b, outline of anterior end ; c, dorsal view of same specimen. (The 

right umbo and the anterior part of the area are partly obscured by adhering 
rock.) 

7. «, right valve ; b, dorsal view of same specimen ; c, ornameutation x 2. 

Gemts Barb ATI A, Grai/. 

8, 9. B. aptlensis (d'Orb.). Crackers, Atherfield. Leckenby Collectiou, 
Woodwardian Museum. (P. 35.) 

8. a, left valve ; b, dorsal ; c, right valve ; d, anterior ; e, part of left valve near the 

mid-ventral margin X 3. 

9. a, left valve; b, right valve. 



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.AMEIiLIBRAN CHIA 



PLATE VII. 

Baebatia (continued). 

FIGS. 

1—3. B. (Scaphula?) Ansfeni (Forbes). (P. 37.) 

1,2. Crackers, Atherfield, Leckeuby Collection, Woodwardian Museum. 1 a, right 
valve; 15, ornamentation near postero-ventral angle x 3. 2. Dorsal vievr of 
another specimen x 2. 

3. Left valve. Perna-hei, Eedcliff. Collection of C. J. A. Meyer. 

4—7. B. mamllensis (d'Orb.). (P. 38.) 

4. Left valve. Lower Greensand, Upware. Woodwardian Museum. 

.5. Gault (zone iii), Folkestone. Museum of Practical Geology, No. 1G30. a, right 
valve; b, dorsal view of same specimen; c, ornamentation on postero-dorsal ai-ea 
X -i; d, ornamentation from near the middle of the valve x 1. 

6. Gault, Folkestone. Wiltshire Collection, Woodwardian Museum. a, right 
valve; b, dorsal view of same specimen. 

7. Gault, Folkestone. Museum of Practical Gealogy, No. 6559. Right valve. 

8. B. rotundata (Sow.). Grreensand, Blackdown. The Type, Bristol Museum. 

a, right valve; b, dorsal view ; e, same x 2. (P. 40.) 

9. B. GalUenuel (d'Orb.). Chalk Marl, near Lyme Regis. Wiltshire Collec- 

tion, Woodwardian Museum. Internal mould. (V, right valve ; 
h, dorsal view of same specimen. (P. 41.) 

10, 11. B. sp., cf. Geinitzi (Reuas). Chalk Rock (zone of Hef. Beussianum), 
Cuckhamsley. Montagu Smith Collection, Woodwardian 
Museum. (P. 42.) 

10. a, partion of wax mould of right valve ; b, ornamentation X 5. 

11. Natural internal mould of right valve. 

12. B. sjj. Same locality and Collection, a, iuterual cast of left valve; 

h, dorsal view of same. (P. 42.) 

13. B. ? sp. Same locality and Collection, a, left valve, outline natural size . 

b, same X 2. (P. 43.) 

Genus Grammatodon, Meelv and Ha;/ Jen. 
14, 15. G. securis (Leymerie). Speeton Clay (zone of Bel. brnnsvicensis), 
Speeton. Collection of G. W. Lamplugh. (P. 44.) 

14. a, b, right and left valves of same specimen. 

15. a, left valve ; b, ornamentation x 3. 



PLATE Vn. 










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T;.H.Orow£her lith. 




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CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRAKICHIA. 



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imp 



PLATE VIII. 

Geammatodon (continued), 

FIGS. 

1, 2. G. securis (Leym.), Speetou Clay (zone of Bel. hrunsviceiisis), Speeton. 
(P. 44.) 

1. Collection of G. W. Lamplugh. Dorsal view x 2. 

2. York Museum. Left valve, with part of shell preserved. 

3 — 8. G. carinatns (Sow.). (P. 45.) 

3. Greensand, Blackdown. Wiltshire Collection, Woodwardian Museum, ra, outline 

of left valve ; h, same X 1| ; c, dorsal view of same x 1| ; d, hinge and area 
of same X 2. 

4. Same locality and Collection, a, left valve ; b, dorsal ; c, anterior view. 

5. Same locality and Collection. Right valve. 

6. Gault, Lyme Eegis. Woodwardiau Museum. Left valve. 

7. Gault (zone ii), Folkestone. Museum of Practical Geology, No. 1632. a, right 

valve ; I, dorsal. 

8. Gault, Folkestone. "Wiltshire Collection, Woodwardian Museum. Left valve. 

The ventral part is crushed in, so that the shell appears too long pro- 
portionately. 



. Genus Teigonoaeca, Conrad. 

9, 10. T. Passyana (d'Orb.). (P. 47.) 

9. Greensand, Kingskerswell. British Museum, No. L 1853. a, right valve ; b, 
cast of hinge ; c, ornamentation X 3. 
10. Chloritic Marl, Maiden Bradley. "Woodwardian Museum. Internal east, a, right 
valve ; b, dorsal. 



Genus CiiCDLLiEA, Lamarch. 

11—13. C. Cornueliana (d'Orb.). Lower Grreensand, Atherfield. (P. 50.) 

11. Eight valve. "Woodwardian Museum. Above the Crackers. 

12. Eight valve. Woodwardian Museum. Crackers. 

13. Left valve. "Woodwardian Museum. Above the Crackers. 



pioATE. vru. 







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CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 



PLATE IX. 

FIGS. 

1 — 3. Cncullaea Forbesi (Pict. and Camp.). Perna-hed, Atherfield. (P. 4.9.) 

1. Wiltshire Collection, Woodwardian Museum. Left valve. 

2. Woodwardian Museum, a, dorsal ; h, anterior of right valve ; c, part of b x 3. 

3. Wiltshire Collection, "Woodwardian Museum. a, hinge and area of left valve ; b, 
exterior of left valve. 



PLATE IX 




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CRETACEOUS I.AMELLIBRAN CHIA. 



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PLATE X. 

CucuLLJEA (continued). 

FIGS. 

1 — 3. G. Cornueliana (cl'Orb.). Crackers, Atberfield. (P. 60.) 

1. Leckenby Collection, "Woodwardian Museum, a, right valve ; b, dorsal outline ; 
c, ornamentation X 4. 

2. Leckenby Collection, Woodwardian Museum, a, right valve ; b, dorsal. 

3. Woodwardian Museum. Hinge x 2. 

4 — 7. C. Fittoni (Pict. and Camp.). Crackers, Atberfield. (P. -52.) 

4. Leckenby Collection, Woodwardian Museum, a, outline of left valve ; b, same 

X li ; c, posterior of same x li ; d, dorsal of same x I5. 

5. Woodwardian Museum. Hinge and area x 2. 

6. Leckenby Collection. Left valve. 

7. Wiltshire Collection. Eight valve. 

8 — 10. G. vagavs, Keepiug. Lower Greensand (Black-grit nodule), Up ware. 
Woodwardian Museum. (P. 52.) 

8. Drawn from a wax mould of an external cast. Eight valve. 

9. Natural internal mould. Eight valve. Figured by Keeping. 

10. Ornamentation x 3. 

1 1 — 14. C. {Dicranodonta) donningtonensis. Keeping. Claxb}' Ironstone (zone 
of Belemnites lateralis), Benniworth Haven. Woodwardian 
Museum. (P. 54.) 

11. a, left valve ; b, dorsal ; c, interior. 

12. Hinge of left valve. 

13. Ornamentation X 3. 

14. Eight valve. 



PLATE X. 



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it 




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CRETA.CEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 



>'e>ti',i^aw>ii«n iins . 



FIGS. 



PLATE XI. 

CucDLL.EA {continued). 



1, 2. C. (Dicraiwdonta) donningtonensis, Keeping. Claxbj Ironstone (zone 
of Belemnites lateralis), Benniwortli Haven. Woodwardian 
Museum. (P. 54.) 

1. a, left valve ; l, interior. 

2. Eight valve. 

3, 4. C. (Dieranodonta ?) obliqua (Keeping). Lower Greeusand, Upware. 
Woodwardian Museum. (P. 55.) 

3. a, right valve, outline ; b, same x li ; c, dorsal. 

4. Left valve, interior. 

6 — 7. C. venusta, Njst. Greensand, Blackdown. (P. 56.) 

5. Tlie Type, Bristol Museum. Left valve, a, dorsal outline; h, outline; c, same 
X 2. 

G. The Type, Bristol Museum. Left valve, a, outline ; h, same X 2. 

7. Collection of C. J. A. Meyer, a, right valve x 3 (the outer layers of the shell 
are abseut, so that the apparent ornamentation diiJers from that in figs. 5 and 6) ; 
b, dorsal view of same X 3. 

8 — 12. G. glabra, Parkinson. Greensand, Blackdown. (P. 57.) 

8. British Museum, No. 26926. a, left valve ; b, dorsal of same specimen; c, orna- 
mentation X 6. 

9. "Wiltshire Collection, Woodwardian Museum, a, left valve; b, dorsal view. 

10. Woodwardian Museum. Hinge of the left valve of a young form x 4. 

11. Wiltshire Collection, Woodwardian Museum. Hinge of right valve — later stage 
than fig. 10— X 2. , 

12. AVoodwardian Museum. Hinge of right valve x li. 



PLATE XI. 



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CRETACKOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 



Wesl.Ncwjiian inrvp 



PLATE XII. 

Cucui.L^A (rontinued). 
riGS. 
1 — 5. C. r/Jahra, Parkinson. Greensand, Blackdown. (P. 57.) 

1 a, h, 2. Wilt8liire Collection, Woodwardian Museum. Left valves. 

3. Woodwardian Museum, a, right valve; h, dorsal view of same specimen. 

4. — — Left valve. 

5. Elongate variety. Wiltshire Collection, Woodwardian Museum. Left valve. 

6—8. G. nhesa, Pict. and Camp. Gault. (P. 61.) 

6. Folkestone. Wiltshire Collection, AVoodwardian Museum. Toung form. Eight 
valve. 

7. Same locality and Collection, a, left valve ; b, dorsal view of same. 

8. Cambridge Greensand (derived from the Gault). Woodwardian Museum. 
Internal cast, a, left valve ; h, posterior view. 



PLATE XII. 



y^ 



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3b 



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WH CroTrthoriith 



CRETACEOUS KAMELLIBRANCHIA 



'■V«ai,'N«wTnan ■ 



PLATE XIII. 

CucuLL^A (continued). 



FIGS. 



1 — 3. C. nana, Leym. Gaiilt, Folkestone. British Museum, No. L 4946. 
(P. 62.) 

1. a, left valve; 6, dorsal of same; c, same X 2 ; (7, left X 2 ; a, anterior view x 1|. 

(The umbo is slightly pressed in, and consequently in la, d, appears less sharp 
than usual.) 

2. Right valve x 2. 

3. Left valve ; the posterior margin is slightly imperfect. X li. 

4, 5. G. MaiUeana (d'Orb.). (P. 63.) 

i. Chalk Marl, Pinhay Cliffs. Collection of C. J. A. Meyer, a, left valve ; b, same, 

X 1^ ; e, same, dorsal, X 1|. 
5. Chloritic Marl, Maiden Bradley. Woodwardian Museum. With the shell partly 

removed, a, right valve; b, dorsal of same specimen. 

6. C, sp. Chalk Marl (Bed 10), Dauscombe. Collection of 0. J. A. Meyer. 
a, right valve ; b, dorsal outline ; r,, ornamentation X 4. (P. 64.) 



Genus Isoaeca, Milnster. 

7. I. Agassizi, Pict. and Roux. Cambridge Greensand (derived). Internal 

mould. Figured by Jukes- Browne. Woodwardian Museum. 
a, left valve ; h, dorsal. (P. 6.5.) 

8. I. obesa (d'Orb.). Chloritic Marl, Ball Wood. Museum of Practical 

Geology, No. 6349. a, left valve; b, dorsal; c, ornamentation 
X 5. (P. 65.) 

Genus Pectdnculus, Lamarcli. 

9, 10. Pedunculas marullensis, Leym. Ferruginous Sands, Shanklin. Collec- 
tion of C. J. A. Meyer. (P. 66.) 

9. Left valve, a, X 2 ; 5, interior ; c, dorsal outline. 
10. Left valve x 3 (another specimen). 



PI^A", 






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CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBKAN CHIA. 



PLATE XIV. 

Pectunculus {continued). 

PIGS. 

1 — 7, p. snblxvls, Sow. Greensaud, Blackdown. (P. 67.) 

1 a — 0. "Wiltshire Collection, Woodwardian Museum. Right valve. 

2 n, h. "Walton Collection, "Woodwardian Museum. Right valve. 

3. "Wiltshire Collection, "Woodwardian Museum. Eight valve. «, interior ; S, dorsal ; 

c, exterior x 2 ; <f, ornament of same X 5. 

4. Same Collection. Touug form, a, left valve ; h, same X 2 ; c, dorsal outline. 

5. Same Collection, a, h, right valve ; c, dor;<al outline. 

6. 7. Museum of Practical Greology, No. 6573. Left valves. 

8 — 12. P. umhonatm (Sow.). Greeusand, Blackdown. (P. 69.) 

8. "Wiltshire Collection, AYoodwardian Museum, a, right valve ; h, outline of interior 

of same; c, dorsal outline. 

9. "Walton Collection, "Woodwardian Museum. a, left valve X 1^ ; h, dorsal x li ; 

c, ornamentation X 5. 

10. Same Collection, a, left valve; b, interior ; c, dorsal. 

11. "Wiltshire Collection, "Woodwardian Museum. Eight valve. 

12. Museum of Practical Geology, iS'o. 6572. Eight valve. 

13. P. euglyphus, Woods. Chalk Marl (Bed ii), Dunscombe. Collection of 
C. J. A. Meyer. (P. 71.) 

13. a, right valve, outline ; b, dorsal outline of same ; c, ornamentation on anterior 

part of shell x 4:; d, ornamentation on posterior part of shall x 4 ; e, same 
valve X 2, 



PLATK XiV. 



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CRETACEOUS L AMELLIBRAN CHIA. 



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PLATE XV. 

Genius — LiMOPSis, Sasso. 
Figs. 
1—4. L. alUmsis, Woods. Gault, Folkestone. (P. 71.) 

1. Zone iii. Left valve. Museum of Practical Geology, n, outline ; h, dorsal out- 

line ; c, exterior x 3 ; d, interior x 4. 

2. Zone vii. Eight valve X 4. Same museum. 

3. Eight valve x 3. Same museum. 

4. Zone ii. Part near umbo X 8. Same museum, 

5, 6. L., sp. Chalk Rock (Eenssianum zone), Cuckhamsley. Montagu Smith 
Collection, Woodwardian Museum. (P. 72.) 

5. Cast of interior of right valve, a, outline ; b, dorsal outline ; c, same x 2 

6. Cast of interior of left valve, a, outhne ; b, dorsal outline ; c, same x 2. 



Genus — Mttilus, Linnseus. 

7. M. insequivaJvis, Sow. Greensand, Blackdown. The Type. Bristol 
Museum, a, right valve ; b, left ; c, antero-ventral ; d, interior 
of right valve near the umbo X 2. (P. 91.) 



Genus — MoDioLA, Lamarch. 

8—14. M, xqualis, Sow. Crackers, Atherfield. (P. 92.) 

8. Leckenby Collection, Woodwardian Museum, a, right valve, outline ; 6, same 

X 1^ ; c, dorsal of both valves. 

9. Wiltshire Collection, Woodwardian Museum. Eight valve. 
10. Same Collection. Dorsal. 

11 — 13. Same Collection. 11, left valve; 12, right valve (slightly crushed dorso- 
ventrally) ; 13, left valve 
14. Woodwardian Museum. Eight valve. 

15 — 18. M. reversa, Sow. Greensand, Blackdown. (P. 94.) 

16. Wiltshire Collection. Eight valve, young form. 

16. Wiltshire Collection. Left valve, young form. 

17. Wiltshire Collection, a, right valve ; b, dorsal outline of same. 

18. Woodwardian Museum, a, left valve ; 6, dorsal of same ; c, portion just posterior 

to middle of the sulcus, showing radial ribs x 3. 



PLATE XV 



o.. 



m 







v^-- 




G c. « 2 

(H 




14. 




If' 



TABrock d«l 
A.T.Hoi'.ickkth. 





r-b 














\ 







WcBt.lJcwmaj; imp 



CRETACEOU S LAMELLIBPANCH lA 



PLATE XVI. 

MoDiOLA {conthmeil). 
Figs. 

1 — 3. M. reversa, Sow. Greensand, Blackdown. Wiltsliire Collection, Wood- 
wardian Museum. (P. 94.) 

1. Right valve. 

2. a, right valve ; b, dorsal of both valves. 

3. Ornamentation, a little posterior to the centre of the valve x 4. 

4_(;. M. lirirrieusis (d'Orb.). Peraa-hed, Atherfield. (P. 96.) 

4. Wiltshire Collection, a, left valve ; &, dorsal of both valves. 
•5. Leckenby Collection, a, left valve ; b, dorsal of both valves. 

6. Leckenby Collection. Part adjoining middle of ventral edge x 2. 

7_l(i. M. sid>s implex {cYOrh.). Crackers, Atlierfield. (P. 97.) 

7. Leckenby Collection, Woodvcardian Museum. Eight valve. 

8. Wiltshire Collection, Woodwardian Museum. Left valve. 

9. Wiltshire Collection, Woodwardian Museum, a, right valve ; b, dorsal of both 

valves. 
10. Museum of the Geological Society of London (No. 2078). a, left valve ; h, dorsal 
of both valves. 



PLATE XVI. 








M\ 



f 




4r^^^ ^'^^ 






#. 






J A Brock del. 
A T.Halliclt liLh 



Wept l^vwm^n una 



CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHTA 



PLATE XVIT. 

MoDiOLA {continued). 
Figs. 
1,2. M. flagelHfera, Yorhes. (P. 99.) 

1. Upper Greensand, Devizes. British Museum, No. 88,845. Eight valve, slightly 

compressed dorso-ventrally. 

2. Upper Greensand, Black Ven. Museum of Practical Geology, No. 6658. Dorsal 

view of both valves, somewhat compressed dorso-ventrally. 

3. M. undulata (Forbes). Atlierfield Clay, Atherfield. The Type. Museum 
of the Geological Society, No. 2088. Left valve. (P. 100.) 

4,5. M. (Brachydontes) Guer anger I ? (d'Orh.). (P. 101.) 

4. Greensand, Haldon. Mr. W. Vicary's Collection. Left valve. 
6. Cenomanian (Bed 10), Dunscombe. Mr. Meyer's Collection, n, left valve; 6, ven- 
tral of same ; c, part of a X 2, 

() — 8. M. {Brachydontes) vectiensis, "Woods. (P. 102.) 

6. Crackers, Atherfield. Woodwardian Museum, a, outline of left valve ; h, same 

X 2. 

7. Atherfield Beds, Peasmarsh. Museum of the Geological Society, No. 2092. 

Eight valve, o, outline ; 6, x 2 ; c, dorsal x 2. 

8. Atherfield Beds, Littleton Pit, Guildford. Museum of Practical Geology. Eight 

valve X 1|. Drawn from a wax east of an external mould. 

9 — 11. M. {Brachydontes) striato-costata (d'Orb.). Greensand, Blackdo's\ai. 
(P. 103.) 

9. Mr. Meyer's Collection. Left valve, a, outline ; 6, x 2. 

10. Wiltshire Collection. Eight valve, a, outline ; 6, x 3. 

11. Mr. Meyer's Collection. Left valve, a, outline; b, x 2; c, dorsal x 2. 

Genus — Crenella, Broivn. 

12, 13. Crenella hella (Sow.). Crackers, Atherfield. Wiltshire Collection. (P. 
104 .) 

12. Eight valve, a, outline ; h, X 2. 

13. Left valve, a, outline ; 6, X 2 ; c, dorsal X 2 ; d, ornamentation from the dorsal 

surface x 6. 

Gemis — LiTHODOMUS, Guvier. 

14. Lithodomus rugosus {F), d'Orb. Cenomanian (Bed 10), Dunscombe. Mr. 
Meyer's Collection, a, left valve ; b, dorsal. (P. 105.) 



PLATE XVIT 



-/. /. 



( ] i 










^ 



:y-'~v,'^ . 



xi;J 




9a. 



0- 








10 > 








TABrock del 
j\ THolhck hth 



V/cei,, 'Jcivnum imp 



CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA 



PLATE XVIII. 

Genus — Septifee, Eeduz. 
Figs. 
1-12. /S. /incrt/Hs (Sow.). (P. 106.) 

1. Hythe Beds, Lympne. Museum of Practical Geology, No. 6595. a, left valve ; 

h, dorsal. 

2. Same locality, &c.. No. 6595. a, riglit; h, antero-ventral. 

3. Hythe Beds, Hythe. Museum of the Geological Society. Eight valve. 

4. Hythe Beds, Lympne. Museum of Practical Geology, No. 6595. o, left valve : 

6, antero-veiitral. 

5. Chalk Marl, Chardstock. Museum of Practical Geology, No. 6596. a, left valve; 

6, antero-ventral outline. 

6. Cenomauiau (Bed 12), Kempstone Rocks (Sidmouth). Museum of Practical 

Geology, No. 6773. a, antero-ventral outline ; h, right valve x li ; c, orna- 
mentation near the centre of the valve x \2; d, ornamentation near the posterior 
margin x 12. 

7. Cenomauiau (Bed 12), Axmouth. Mr. Meyer's Collection. Antero-ventral of 

left valve. 

8. Cenomauiau (Bed 12), Dunscombe. Mr. Meyer's Collection. Left valve. 

9. Chalk Eock (Beussianum zone), Cuckhamsley. Montagu Smith Collection, Wood- 

wardian Museum. Eight valve. For figures of a larger example from this zone 
see 'Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc.,' vol. liii, 1897, j)l. xxvii, figs. 11, 12. 

10. Chalk Eock, Dullingham. Woodwardian Museum. Internal mould, a, right 

valve ; h, antero-ventral. 

11. Chalk Eock, Winchester. Mr. E. M. Brydone's Collection, a, left valve; 6, auteio- 

ventral. (Figured 'Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc.,' vol. liii, 1897, pi. xxvii, figs. 9, 10.) 

12. Flint gravel (derived from Uj^per Chalk), near Ventnor. Left valve, somevfhat 

flattened by crushing. 

Genus — Deeissexsia, van Beneden. 
13 — 15. -D. lanceolata (Sow.). Crackers, Atherfield. (P. 110.) 

13. Left valve. Wiltshire Collection. 

14. Left valve. Woodwardian Museum. 

15. Eight valve. Woodwardian Museum. 



PLATE XVm 















5b. 



I / 




14 

■■ V. 




T.A.BrocVtdel, 
A.THollidiUth 



Wfent.Kewnum 



onp 



CRETACEOUS LAMELl.] BRANCH lA 



PLATE XIX. 

Dkbissensia (continued). 
Figs. 

1— n. D. lanceolata (Sow.). (P. 110.) 

1 — 3. Crackers, Atherfield. 

1. Leckenby Collection, Woodwardian Museum, a, left valve ; h, ventral — 

showing opening for byssus. 

2. Wiltshire Collection, Woodwai-dian Museum, a, right valve ; h, ventral. 

3. Leckenby Collection. Right valve. 

4. Peina-hed, Atherfield. Wiltshire Collection, Woodwardian Museum, a, 

left valve ; b, interior of same. 

5. Upper Greensand, Shaftesbury. British Museum, No. 88,894. Left valve. 

6 — 11. Greensand, Blackdown. 

6. Wiltshire Collection, Woodwardian Museum, a, left valve; 6, part near 

the umbo x 2 ; c, dorsal of both valves. 

7. Wiltshire Collection, a, right valve ; h, ventral ; e, interior of same. 

8. Bristol Museum. The type of Mytilus pra?longvs, Sowerby. 

9. 10. Wiltshire Collection. Left valves. 

11. Bristol Museum. One of the types of Mytilus fridens, Sowerby. a, right 
valve ; b, antero-ventral. 



Genus — Teigonia, Brnguiere. 

12. T. dunscombensi.s, Lye. Cenomanian (Bed 11), Humble Point, Lyme 

Regis. Museum of Practical Geology (No. 6774). a, right valve; 
h, dorsal. (P. 78.) 

13. T. oniafa, d'Orb. Hytlie Beds, Lympne. Museum of Practical Geology 

(No. 6771). Left valve. (P. 85.) 

14. T. cremdata. Lam. Cenomanian (Bed 10), Dunscombe. Mr. Meyer's 

Collection. Left valve. (P. 82.) 



PLATE XIX 





,2b 




7i 



yv 



7b 



m 




TABrock dal 
A Tildhck lilt. 






.\ 




f^< 



,# 




West.Kr.wmaji imp 



CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA 



PLATE XX. 

Teigonia {continued). 

Figs. 

1, 2. T. scapha, Agassiz. (P. 73.) 

1. Lower G-reensand (probably Snettisliam ironstone nodules), West Norfolk. Tlie 

type of T. hiinstanfonemis, Seeley. Woodwardian Museum. Eight valve. 

2. Snettisham Clay, one third of a mile south-west of Snettisham Church. Museum 

of Practical Geology. Portion of left valve. Drawn from a wax cast of an 
external mould. 



Genus — Myoconcha, Sowerhij. 

3. M. cretacea, d'Orb. Chloritic Marl, Maiden Bradley. Woodwardian Museum. 
a, right valve ; b, ornamentation of same X 3. (P. 114.) 



Geims — Spondylus, Linnmus. 

4. /S'. Boemeri, Desk. Perna-hed, Atlierfield. Woodwardian Museum, a, left 
valve (umbo sliglitly restored) ; b, outline from the posterior end ; c, right 
valve; f?, ornamentation of left valve X 3. (P. 116.) 

5 — 11. S. gibbosus, d'Orb. Cambridge Grreensand (derived from the Upper Grault), 
Cambridge. Woodwardian Museum. (P. 117.) 

5, 6 a. Left valves ; 6 h, anterior outline ; 6 c, ornament of left valve x 2. 

7 a. Left valve ; h, posterior of both valves ; c, right valve. 

8 a. Left valve ; ft, part of same X 2. 

9 a. Left valve ; h, anterior outline. 

10. Left valve. 

11. Posterior outline of a specimen with talon-like right valve. 



PLATE XX 




^ 








V 



/' 



STi 




'mwi 



7 c 




10 






IR 




3 ) 



^ 



y 



TABrock dd 
•\ THcllickHth 



^Afeat Nc'/.Tnon init 



CREIACEGUS LAMtLLlcP. M J CH iA 



PLATE XXI. 

Spondtlus {(Continued). 

Figs. 

1—5. S. striatus (Soav.). Eye Hill Sand, Warminster. (P. 119.) 

1. Museum of Practical Geology, No. 6836. a, left valve; h, anterior view. 

2. Woodwardiau Museum. Left valve. 

3. British Museum, a, left valve and projecting umbo of right ; 6, posterior view. 

4. Wiltshire Collection, Woodwardian Museum. Eight valve with only a small 

surface of attachment. 

5. York Museiuu. Left valve. 

G, 7. 8. serratm, Woods. (P. 124.) 

6. Dr. Blackmore's Collection. Uintacr{nus-ha,ndL of Marsupites zone, pevizes Eoad, 

Salisbury. Left valve, a, outline, natural size ; 6, x lA ; c, ornament X 6. 

7. British Museum. Upper Chalk. Left valve, a, outline, natural size; h, x IJ; 

c, ornament x 4. 



PLATE XXI 



P 



/ 




1 



. ^i- 



\:%\ 





r ■ 



X^'^^ 






"T^ 





7 & 



\ 



TAarookdel. 
ATflollickJlth 






vV>v"j-' 



Wmi J^ewmw 1 



CRETACEOUS J.AMELLIBRAl^JCHIA. 



PLATE XXII. 

Spondtlus {continued). 

Figs. 

1_10. ,S'. latns (Sowerby). (P- 121.) 

1. Woodwardian Museum. The type of S. a;quicostatus, Etli. Zone of Holaster 

suhglobosus, Cherry Hinton. 1 o, left valve ; 1 I, posterior view of the same. 

2. Same collection, horizon, and locality, a, left valve ; 6, portion of same just 

ventral to centre of valve, x 4. 

3. Woodwardian Museum. Lower Chalk, Fulbourn. Left valve. 

4_9. Di-. Blackmore's Collection. Zone of A. quadratus. 4—8, East Harnham j 
9, West Harnham, near Salisbury. 

4. a, left valve, with part of right projecting ; h, posterior view of both valves. 

5. Eight valve. 

6. Left valve. Part near the umbo x 2. 

7. Left valve x 1*. 

8. Left valve, a, x li; 6, posterior outline ; c, ornamentation X 5. 

9. Left valve, with umbo and marginal parts of right valve x 1^. 

10. Woodwardian Museum (Coll. Mr. W. Hill). Zone of H. subcflohosus, cutting 

east of South Cave Station, Yorkshire, a, left valve ; h, ornamentation x 4. 

11 — 14-. 8. Dufempleanus, d'Orb. Zone of A. quadratus. Dr. Blackmore's 
Collection. 11 — 13, East Harnham. 14, AYhaddon cutting. (P. 125.) 

11. ff, left valve X li; ?*, ornamentation x 4. 

12. o, left valve; b, ornamentation X 3. 

13. Posterior view of both valves. 

14. Eight valve. 



PLATE XXII 




lo 




V- 



^■-^< 








yiffi*it'i'~'' 



-I X. 



2 b 









^■^•;>'^tw|l^'f' "2 



^^ 



% 



10 \j 



T A Brock del 
A.THollix:Vlit3i 




VVr- »t .Hewina-n imp 



CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA 



PLATE XXIII. 

Spondylus (continued). 

Figs. 

1—5. 8. Dutempleanus, d'Orb. (P. 125.) 

1. A. quadratus zone, Whaddon cutting. Dr. Blackmore's Collection. Left valve 

and umbo of right X 1|. 

2. A. quadratus zone, East Harnliam, Salisbury. Dr. Blackmore's Collection. 

Anterior outline showing spines on left valve. 

3. B. mucronata zone, Norwich. Norwich Museum. Eight valve. 

4. Chalk of Trimingham. Museum of Practical Geology (Coll. Mr. C. Reidj. 

Left valve. 
6. B. mucronata zone, Norwich. Norwich Museum. Part of left valve. 

6—11. B. spinosus (Sow.). (P. 127.) 

6. T. gracilis zone, Luton. Woodwardian Museum (Coll. Mr. W. Hill). 

a, left valve ; b, anterior outline ; c, section of ribs of left valve near the mid- 
ventral border x 2. 

7. T. gracilis zone. East Knoyle. Woodwardian Museum (Coll. Mr. Jukes-Browne). 

8. H. planus zone, Cheveley. Woodwardian Museum. Left valve, with sjjines 

projecting from the right valve. 

9. Same zone, etc. a, left valve ; h, dorsal view ; c, section of ribs of left valve 

near the mid-ventral border x 2. 

10. Same zone, etc. a, right valve (umbo slightly imperfect) ; h, section of ribs of 
right valve near the mid-ventral border x 2. 

IL M. cor-testudinarium zone, Chatham. Woodwardian Museum (Coll. Mr. Jukes- 
Browne), a, left valve ; h, anterior outline ; c, ribs of left valve near the mid- 
ventral border x 2. 



PLATE XXEIL 




TABi-ock del 
ATHolIiolcIith 



CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRM-^CHIA, 



PLATE XXIV. 

Spondijlus spinosus (Sow.) {continued). (P. 127.) 

I'lOS. 

1. Upper part of M. cor-anguiiiiim zone, Mitclieldever. Dr. Blackmore's Col- 

lection, rt, left valve; /*, posterior view. 

2. M. cor-anguinum zone, Fletcher's pit, Gravesend. Woodwarclian Museum. 

Small portion of left valve near the middle of the ventral border x 3. 

3. M. cor-angxdnum zone, Hungry Down, Blandford. Woodwardian Museum 

(Coll. Mr. Jukes-Browne). Left valve, umbo shghtly imperfect. 

4. Lower part of Marsujntes zone, Witherington. Dr. Blackmore's Collection. 

a, left valve ; b, section of ril)s of the same near the mid-ventral border 
X 2. 

5. Same horizon, locality, and collection, a, left valve ; b, section of ribs of left 

valve near the mid- ventral border x 2; c, posterior outline. 
G. Marsupifes zone, Margate. Dr. Rowe's Collection, a, right valve; b, section 

of ribs of right valve near the mid- ventral border x 2; c, posterior 

outline ; d, umbo of left A'alve x 5. 
7. A. quadratus zone. West Harnham, Salisbury. Dr. Blackmore's Collection. 

Left valve. 



PLATE XXIV. 




TABrock del. 
A-THollioklit;'.. 



.Veflt Kcwman imf 



CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 



PLATE XXV. 

Genus — Plicatula, Lamarcl-. 

Fras. 

1 — 4. P. 2)h(CHnea,Ijiim.. Hythe Beds, Lympne. Museum of Practical Geology, 
No. 6781. 1, 2, 4, i-iglit valves ; 1 6, anterior outline; 3, left valve. 
(P. 134.) 

5 — 12. P. Garteroiiiana, d'Orb. Lower Glreensand, Upware. Right valves, except 
fig. 7 (left valve); oh, 6b, anterior outlines. Figs. 6 — 9, Woodwardian 
Museum. Figs. 5, 10—12 in Mr. J. F. Walker's Collection. (P. 135.) 

13 — 21. P. gurgifis, Pict. and Roux. Gault, Folkestone, except figs. 18, 21. 
(P. 137.) 

13—15. Wiltshire Collection. Eight valves ; 13 h, left valve. 
16, 17. Toi-k Museum. Eightjvalves. 

18. Woodwardian Museum. Gault, Cambridge. Eight valve. 

19. York Museum. Eight valve. 

20. Part of left valve of 19. 

21. Woodwardian Museum. Cambridge G-reensand (derived from the Gault). 

22—25. P. rninnta, Seel. (P. 138.) 

22, 24. Woodwardian Museum. Cambridge Greensand. 
23. Wiltsliire Collection. Eed Limestone, Speeton. 

2.5. ,, ,, Eed Limestone, Hunstanton. a, outhne, natural 

size : li, X 3. 



jA i !U jOC. 




/ 



lb 






^c 




5b 














o 



22 a 



o.,. 





TASrook del. 
ATHoIlickKtb 



■22h 



U24a 



25 a 



o 





23b 



25b'' 
V/est.Nrwmiui imp. 



CRETACEOUS LAMELLI3RANCHIA. 



PLATE XXVI. 

Plicatula (contimied). 

Figs. 

1 — 11. P. infl.ata. Sow. Woodwarcliau Museum, Cambridge. Right valves 
(except fig. 7). (P. 139.) 

1—3, 5. Totternhoe Stone, Burwell. 
4. Lower Chalk, Burwell. 

6. Totternlioe Stone, Arlesej'. 

7. „ ,, Reach. Left valve. 

8. „ „ Burwell. 

9. Lower Chalk, Burwell. 

10. Chalk Marl, Haslingfielcl. 

11. H. subglobosus zone. Cherry Hinton. 

12 — 18. P. Barroisi, Peron. Right valves, except figs. 13, 14. (P. 141.) 

12. H. jdanus zone, Dover. Dr. Eowe's Collection, a, natural size ; b, x 4. 

13. H. planus zone, Twyford. Woodwardian Museum. Left valve, «, natural 

size ; 6, X 4. 

14. Top of M. cor-angninum zone, North Foreland. Dr. Rowe's Collection. 

Left valve, a, natural size ; h ,y. 4. 

15. H. plcmus zone, Dover. Dr. Eowe's Collection, a, natural size ; 5, x 4. 

16. Z7mfomj»(s-band, Kingsgate, Margate. Dr. Rowe's Collection, o, natural 

size ; 6, X 4. 

17. H. planus zone, Twj'ford. Woodwardian Museum, a, natural size ; b, x 4. 

18. Chalk Rock, near Winchester. Mr. R. M. Brydone's Collection, a, natural 

size ; &, X 4. 

19—22. P. su/iUmn, Woodw. (P. 143.) 

19. B. mucronata zone, Hartford Bridge, Norwich. Woodwardian Museum. 

a, interior of right valve ; b, central part of same x 2. 

20. Top of BI. cor-testiidinarium zone, Chatham. Dr. Eowe's Collection. 

Left valve. 

21. Same horizon, etc. Left valve X 2. 

22. M. cor-testudinarium zone, Chatham. Museum of Practical Geology, 

No. 179. Left valve, a, natural size ; h, x 2. 



PLATE XX V" 



■r . 





Q 12 a 

Mr ^' 

12b 





--«*>■ ^^gjpiBK<-: 



o 



13 a 




13 b 



o 



18 a 



A -<''! 



!3a 




A Brock del 
'"':l:iok jilh. 





'^4 



':t^/ 



^^-~ 



'■"^^ 




■■■'~~.- ■ *- £«■ 



\r 



C_y 15 a 



O 



14!. 



/( "^ 



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16 a 




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let 






21 



CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANC 



PLATE XXVII. 

Genus — Pecten, Midler. 
Pecten (Si/iwj/cloiiemn) orhienhiris, Sow. (P. 145.) 
(All in tlie Woodvardian Museum, except fig. 4.) 

Figs. 

1, 2. Tealby Limestone, Novtli Willingliam. Right valves. 

3. Gault, Folkestone, Wiltshire Collection. Right valve. 

4. Var. haldonensis, Woods. Upper Greensand, Ivingskerswell. Museum of 

Practical Geology, Xo. 99L Right valve. 

5. Chloritic Marl, Maiden Bradley. Right valve. 

6 — 9. U23per Greensand, Ventnor. 6 a, light valve (ears partly drawn from 
another specimen) ; (\ h, antero- ventral portion of the same X 3. 7 a 
right valve (margins of ears slightly restored) ; 7 h, posterior portion 
of the same X 3 ; 7 c, left valve of the same specimen. S, right valve. 
9 «, right valve; 9/;, postero-ventral portion of the same x 3. 6, 7, 
Leckenby Collection. 8, 9, Wiltshire Collection. 

10 — 13. Chalk Marl, Burwell. 10(7, left valve ; 10//, portion of the same near 
the ventral margin X 10 (on other parts of the valve the fine concentric 
ridges are closer together). 11 — ^13, right valves. 

14. Totternhoe Stone, Burwell. Part of interior of right valve X 2. 



PLATE XXVII. 






\ 




'<:3SV, 




%. 



■n*,-!; 

'■m' 



VA^~>^ 




7a 



^3 




7b 



mimTiireai 





j .-^ DI-OK del 

ATHollickluh 



CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 



PLATE XXYIII. 

Pecten (continued). 

P. (Gamptonectes) cinctus, So^v. Claxljy Ironstone (zone of 1>. lateralis) 
of Claxby. Woodwardian Museum. (P. 152.) 

Figs. 

1 «. Right valve X ^. 1 h, portion of the same, natural size. 

2 a. Left valve of another specimen X f . 2 h, portion of the same, natural size. 
3. Portion of left valve with the concentric laminae well preserved X 2. 

(The ears in figs. 1 a, 2 a, have been parti}' completed from other specimens.) 



/ / 



-'-r 



PLATE XXVIir. 



nai. 



not. 
size 



\>x>C^ 



:vV^ 





^%^N^v^ 



,\ 








:ABrock del. 
AIHolliokhth. 



Vitt^t .TirwrTi t! nr.p 



CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 



PLATE XXIX. 

Pecten (mil tinned). 

Figs. 

1 — 3. P. (Campfdiiecfi's) Cotfahlinus, d'Orli. Leckenljy Collection, Woochvardiaii 
Museum. (P. 1-56.) 

1 . Lower Greensaud, Whale Chine. Eight valve. 

2. Penia-hed, Atherfield. a, left valve ; b, part of the same above the middle of 

the valve x 3. 

3. Per//((-bed, Atherfield. Left valve, a, part uear the middle of the dorsal third 

X 3 ; 6, part of the anterior ear x 4. 

4 — 6. p. (Gamptonecfes) gtriato-jiHiictafiix, Rum. (P. 157.) 

4. Speetou Clay (D 1). Mr. Lamplugh's Collectiuu. a, part of left valve; 6, part 

of same X 3. 

5. Same horizon, etc. Anterior left ear x 3. 

6. Claxby Ironstone, Benniworth Haven. AVoodwardian Museum. Part of left 

valve. 

7. P. {Gamptonectes) curvatas, Gein. Greeusaiul, Great Haldon. ^Museum of 

Practical Geology, No. R 478^^ Left valve, n, natural size; A, same 
X 3. (P. 159.f 

8. P. (Gampfoiircft's) dithrisii'iisis, Woods. Chalk Marl, Dover. British 

Museum, Xo. 38243. (/, right valve ; /', left valve ; r, anterior ear of 
b X 2. (P. 162.) 



PLATE XXIX 



M0- 



3a 





zo 



|i 




TABrockdel 
ATHolllckltth. 



CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 



West. Newman imp 



PLATE XXX. 

PeCTEN' (coilfi lined). 
Figs. 

1,2. 7^. (CamjJtonectes ?) gaultiiiu.s, Woods. Gault. Woodwardian Museum. 
Ill, right valve, Folkestone, X 1^; Ih, portion of the same near 
the postero-dorsal margin x 6. 2, left valve, Black Ven, X 2. 
(P. 163.) 

3_8. P. {CIihtiiii/s)Jjs8icusta,~Et\i. Woodwardian Museum. (P. 163.) 

3—6. Totternhoe Stone, Burwell. 

7. „ ,, Arlesey. 

8. „ ,, Cherry Hintoii. 

3, riglit valve (type). 4, left valve (type). 6 a, rigbt valve ; 5 b, part of the 
same specimen X 2. 6 a, left valve X 1^ ; 6 6, part of the same near the 
antero-ventral border X 3 ; 6 c, another part near the middle of the valve 
X 3. 7, right valve of a variety with few ribs. 8, left valve, crushed 
near the umbo. 



9 — 12. P. {Cliliiiiii/s) Piizosiamis, Math. Woodwardian Museum. (P. 165.) 

9. Cenomauian, north of Beer Head, a, left valve ; b. postero-veutral part of the 
same X 2. 

10. Cenomaniau, Wilmington, a, left valve ; h, part of the same near the centre x 2. 

11. Same locality. Right valve. 

12. Top of Cliloritic Marl, Melbury, North Dorset. Anterior part of right valve 

with the ornamentation well preserved x 2. 



PLATE XXX. 




5b ' 













I jj*-" 




6c x3 



<:' X, 





;l 




TABrock del. 
AT.HolIiokllth. 



Wcst.Newinan imp. 



CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 



PLATE XXXI. 

Pectkn (runfinneiJ). 

Figs. 

1, 2. /'. (nhlanu/s) brif<ittnicu.<<. Woods. (P. 1G7.) 

1. Dr. Blackmore's Colleetiou. Uppei- part of M. cor-cunjuinum zoue, Stratford, 

uear Salisbury, a, part of valve; b. same x 4. 

2. Mr. G. E. Dibley's Collection. M. cor-anguinum zone, Haling Pit, South 

Croydon, a, left valve ; b, jjart of the same x 3. 

3—6. P. (Chlauii/s) Millrri, How. Greensand, Blackdowii. Woodwardian Museum. 
(P. 168.) 

3. Meyer Colleetiou. a, left valve; b, part of the same near the umbo x 6. 

4. Wiltshire Colleetiou. a, right valve x 2. The anterior ear is drawn from 

another specimen in the same collection. 

5. Wiltshire Colleetiou. Eight valve. Ornamentation just above the middle of 

the valve x 6. 

6. Meyer Collection, a, left valve ; b, postero-veutral part of the same x o. 



7—9. P. {Gldauiijs) sii],a,:atu^, Lam. (P. 169.) 

7, 9. Meyer Collection. Bed 11 (Cenomauian), Duuscombe. 7 «, right valve; 
7 b, j>art of same x 3. 9, ribs of another right valve uear the middle of the 
valve X 3. 
8. Museum of Practical Geology, No. 6683. Greensand, Haldon. ((.right valve; 
b, part of same in the middle of the dorsal third x 4 ; c, part uear middle of 
ventral border x 4. 



10 — lo. i'. (Chhimi/s) cloiujdtits, Lam. Woodwardian Museum. (P. 170.) 

10, 11. Wiltshire Collection. Gault, Folkestone. 10, left valve. 11 a, left valve; 
116, part of same X 3. 

12. Wiltshire Collection. Chalk Marl, Veutuor. a, left valve ; b, postero-ventral 

part of same x 2. 

13. Totteruhoe Stone, Arlesey. Riglit valve. Ribs near the middle of the ventral 

border x 4. 



PLATE XXXI. 







•-,' 2"b 



3h 




"6 












12 i 




1 ABroA del. 
ATHoHicVlith 





]l"b 





v-> 



VlestiJewiniui atip. 



CRETACEOUS 'LAVr:' ' I'^RANCHIA 



PLATE XXXII. 

Pecten {coutinned). 
Figs. 

1 — :?. P. {Chia ,11 1/><) rloiKjatns, hum. (P. 170.) 

1. Grey Chalk, Dover. York Museum. «, right valve ; />, portiou of the same near 

the middle of the valve x 3. 

2. Lower Chalk, Burwell. Woodwardiau Museum, a, left valve; 6, jjai-t of the 

same near the middle of the valve X 3. 

3. Same horizon, etc. a, right valve ; h. part of same below the middle of the 

valve X 3. (The anterior ear is displaced.) 

•i — 6. P. (Gldami/s) cretosus, Defr. A. qmiilrattis zone, East Harnham. Dr. 
Blackmore's Collection. (P. 174.) 

4 a, left valve x Ij. 

4 b, mid-ventral ribs of 4 r) x 3. 

4-c, right valve of the same specimen x Ij. 
4d, mid- ventral ribs of 4;c x 3. 

5 a, left valve. 

5 h. pai-t of 5 a posterior to the middle of the ventral border x 4. 

6 a, left valve. 

6 6, umbo of 6 a x 3. 

6 c, part of 6 a near the mid-ventral border x 4. 



PLATE XXXII 




lABrock del 
ATHolliclc ]iLh 



CRETACEOTT-^ T , A fvf FT, TIE RAN CHI A 



PLATE XXXIII. 

PecTEN {rnnt'niiiri}). 
Peden. (ChJowys) cretosus, Defr. Upper Chalk. (P. 174.) 

Fios. 

1. A. ([ltd lira tils zone, East Harnham.. Dr. Blackmore's Collection, a, right 

valve X \^ ; l>, part at antei'o-ventral edge x 4 ; r, antero-ventral part 
of left valve of the same specimen x 4. 

2. Same horizon, etc. a, left valve ; />, part just behind the mid-ventral edge 

X 3. 

3. Same horizon, etc. a, left valve x 1\ ; //. part at postero-ventral margin 

X 4. Fine concentric ridges cover almost the entire shell, hut are not 
shown in the figure. Xear the nmljo the radial ribs are spiny. 

4. M. nir-iiiuiiiiiitnn zone, Porton. Dr. Blackmore's Collection, ir, left valve; 

h, part just behind the mid-ventral mai'gin X o. 
0. Miirfiujiifrs zone, Witherington. Dr. Blackmore's Collection. Left valve. 
(5. M. cor-iiiiijiiunini zone, Gravesend. Mr. CI. E. Dibley's Collection, a, right 

valve, with interior of anterior h'/l ear ; h, part of mid-ventral third 

X 4. 

7. Upper Chalk, Bromley. Wiltshire Collection. Right vahe of specimen with 

coarse ribs, a, antero-ventral part; }>, portion of same part X 3. 

8. Same horizon, etc. Part of mid-ventral third of left valve X 6. 

9. P>. miirmuiifti zone, Xorwich. Xorwich Museum, No. 205(3. Part of left valve 

near the middle of the ventral edge X 4. 

10. A. quddratus zone. East Harnham. Dr. Blackmore's Collection. Part at the 

mid-ventral edge X 4. 

11. Upper ('halk, Charlton. "Wiltshire Collection. Right valve of a specimen 

-with the scaly spines large and well-preserved. Part near the ventral 
edge X 0. 

12. Upper Chalk, Trimingham. Mr. R. M. Brydone's Collection. Right valve. 

Form with numeroiis slender ribs. Portion at the dorsal third X *>. 



PLATE xxxirr. 



n-ir .!•<»» >i^ _ 




tABrocTc ael. 
AT.Hollicklith 



West.Nswinan imp 



CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRAN CHIA, 



PLATE XXXIV. 

Pecten (coufiiniciJ). 

Fias. 

1 — 6. P. {('hliiini/s) MinifrUiiiiiiis, d'Orl). Upper Clialk {Ji. mucroiiatu zone), 
Norwicli. Xoi'wicli Museum (except fig. 3). (P. 170.) 

1. No. 2(193. ft, left valve; b, part near mid- ventral edge X 6. 

2. No. 20.=i3. Left valve. 

3. Woodwardian Museum. Eight valve, a, natural size ; h, middle part x 2 ; 

c, portion near the centre x 5. 

4. No. 2055. Eight valve. Part near the umbo x 2. 

5. No. 2055 (another specimen). Eight valve. 

6. No. 2053. Left valve x 2. 



-12. P. (ChJavu/s) Eohi)uihJiiin>^, d'Orb. I'mut-hed. Atlierfield. Wood- 
wardian Museum. (P. 181.) 

7. Leekenby Collection, n, left valve; h, part near the margin just in front of the 

mid- ventral ];iart x 4. 

8. Leekenby Collection, a, left valve ; b, part of the middle of the valve between 

the two strong growth-lines x 3. 

9. Leekenby Collection, a. left valve; b, part near the mid- ventral edge X 3. 
10. a, right valve; b, f)art near the an tero- ventral margin x 4. 

IL Left valve ; middle of ventral third y 4. 

12. Wiltshire Collection, a. left valve ; />, part near the mid-ventral margin x 4 ; 
c, anterior ear x 3. 



PLATE XXXW 




^' 




wffmk 



i 



frpr^ 



3.. 



..w 



mj] 



4 x2 






_JL., 



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m 



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..,;^ 



x^ 





8"b 



11 



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AT.Hollu-k litK, 




12 "b 



^m 



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]2a 








WestJJewmait iiito 



CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA 



PLATE XXXV. 

Pecten (continued). 

Fios. 

1 — -10. P. (Ghlanu/s) RohinahUitu.-<, d'Orh. Upper GreensantI (except figs. 5, 6, 8). 
(P. 181.) 

1. Warminster. British Museum, No. 67734. a, left valve ; 6, autero-ventral part 

of tlie sauie x 4. 

2. Warminster. Woodwardian Museum, a, left valve ; b, autero-ventral part 

X 4 ; e, part near the umbo x 4. 

3. Ventnor. Wiltshii-e Collection. «, left valve; fe, posterior part x 4. 

4. Warminster. Museum of Practical G-eology. No. 7418. a, right valve ; h, jsart 

just in front of the mid-ventral edge x 4 ; c, anterior part of left valve of 
same specimen x 4. 

5. Chloritic Marl, Maiden Bradley. Mr. J. Scanes' Collection. ? Left valve ; 

autero-ventral i:)art x 4. 

6. Same horizon, etc. Left valve ; part at the antero-veutral margin x 4. 

7. Veutuor. Wiltshire Collection. Left valve ; mid-veutral part x 4. 

8. Ceuomaniau (Bed 11), Beer Head. Meyer Collection. ? Left valve ; autero- 

ventral part X 4. 

9. Warminster. Bristol Museum. Eight valve ; jjostero-veutral part x 4. 

10. Warminster. Museum of Practical Cleology, No. 7407. Middle part of left 
valve X 4. 



11. P. (Chlami/s) Stutchburianuf:, Sow. Green.sand, Blaekdown. The Type. 

Bristol Museum. Ventral part X H. (P. 185.) 

12. P. {jE(impeden) asper, Lam. Upper Greensand (Chert Beds), Baycliffe 

Quarry, Wiltshire. Mr. J. Scanes' Collection. Left valve ; part just 
in front of mid-ventral margin X -i. (P. 186.) 



PLATE XXXV 









3a. 






3 1 




T.A.Bt-ock del. 
ATHolUck delethth. 



WestJ^Ttf-wraaii imp. 



CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA 



PLATE XXXVI. 

Pecten {continued). 

Figs. 

1—4. F. {J]]quipecten) asper, Lam. Upper G-reensaiid, Warminster. (P. 186.) 

1. Woodwardian Museum, a, left valve (the anterior ear is drawn from another 

specimen) ; b, ventral part x 3. 

2. York Museum. Right valve. 

3. Woodwardian Museum. A form with few ribs. ? Eight valve. 

4. Woodwardian Museum. Eight valve ; mid-ventral part x 3. 



•5 — 7. F. (JEqiujjecten) 2Jexatus, Woods. (P. 190.) 

5. Upper Chalk, near Salisburj'. Dr. Blackmore's Collection, a, x 2 ; b, ventral 

part X 5. 

6. H. planus zone, Cheveley, near Newmarket. Woodwardian Museum, x 2. 

7. A. quadratus zone, East Haruham. Dr. Blackmore's Collection, a, outline, 

natural size ; b, part of same X 5. 



8. P. {^quipeden), sp. A. qiiadmfiia zone, East Harnliam. Dr. Blackmore's 
Collection, a, x 1-|; b, part of same X -1. (P. 191.) 



PLATE XXXVl. 




la. 




1 h 








2. 






ATHoUid< del.ctl.LK 




WoatJJewnAAn iriip. 



CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA 



PLATE XXXVII. 

Pecten {continued). 

Figs. 

1 — 3. p. (yl^'qiiijjecten) sarnmevsis, Woods. A. quadratus zoue, East Harnham, 
Salisbury. Dr. Blackmore's Collection. Right valves. 1 a, X 4 ; 
1 h, antero-ventral portion x 8. 2 rt, x 4 ; 2 b, anterior part of a x <5. 
3, X 4. (P. 192.) 

4 — 8. P. {^quipeden) camjjaniensis, d'Orb. (P. 192.) 

4. Norwich Museum, No. 2044. B. mucronata zone, Norwicli. Eight valve X 2. 

5. Dr. Blackmore's Collectiou. Z7m<acj-uiMS zoue, Devizes Eoad, Salisbury. Eight 

valve X 4. 
6, 7. Same Collectiou. B. mvcroiuifa zoue, Clareudou, near Salisbury. Eight valves. 
6, X 4. 7, X 4. 
H. Same Collectiou. A. quadratus zone, East Haruham. Left valve x 4. 

9—11. P. (uSquijyecten) arlesiensis, AVoods. Chalk Marl, Folkestone. 9, Wilt- 
shire Collection, Woodwardian Mtiseum. Right valve x 4. 10, 
Museum of Practical Geology, No. 562. Left valve x 3. 11, Same 
Museum, No. 562. Left valve; mid-ventral part x 6. (P. 194.) 

12 — 15. P. {^quipeden) jndcheUus, Nilss. Upper Chalk, Trimingham. (P. 194.) 

12. Museum of Practical Geology, No. 8013 (collected by Mr. C. Eeid). a, right 
valve X 3 ; fc, ventral part of the same X 6 ; c, part of dorsal third x 6. 
13—1.5. Mr. E. M. Brydoue's Collectiou. Left valves. 13, x 3. 14a, natural size; 
14 b, part near the antero-ventral margin x 5. 15, x 2. 

16. P. (Camjdonedes) curvatHS, Gein. Chloritic Marl, Eastbourne. Wood- 
wardian Museum. Right valve X 3. (P. 159.) 



PL A.TE XXXVII. 



la. 





I// 







••SSi 









121d 



A TTtolUcTt del ellith. 



:2c. 



l^'b 





16. ^^^t^ ''3 

"West^NewniiOi inn 



CRKTACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHTA. 



PLATE XXXVIII. 

Pecten (continued). 
P. {yEquipeden) Beaveri, Sow. (P. ] 88.) 

Fias. 

1. Glial k Marl, Dover. York Museum. «, left valve; 6, posterior portion X 3. 

2. H. subglohosus zone, Shelford Lime-kiln, 6og-ma-gog Hill. "Woodwardian 

Museum, a, right valve (the ears are drawn from another specimen) ; 
b, antero-ventral portion of left valve of the same specimen. 

3. H. suhglobosHS zone. Cherry Hinton. Woodwardian Museum. Interior of part 

of right valve, showing byssal sinus. 



PLATE XXXVII 1 



9 



^' 





2^. 






m 





fcf- 



2 a 



f-J:fci 



-^- — ^'J-P: 





V~' 



V^ 



'^C5y| 









lb. 



Z"^" 



^^--.- -.■■-- 



la. 



^^ 



ATHolliclt dele tilth 



CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 



Wes t , Jfe wmaji 



imp 



PLATE XXXIX. 

Pecten (continued). 

Figs. 

] — ^5. P. (Neifhea) atoms, Rom. Lower Greensand, Upware. 1, 5, Mi"- J- P- 
Walker's Collection. 2, 3, 4, AVooclwardian Museum. (P. 197.) 

1, right valve. 2, left valve. 3 a, right valve; 3 6, j)osterior view of both valves. 
4 a, right valve ; 4 6, portion between the two middle ribs of left valve x 3 ; 
4 c, portion between the two middle ribs of right valve x 3. 5, portion 
between the two middle ribs of right valve X 4. 



6 — 10. P. (Neithea) cometa (d'Orl).). Upper Greensand, "Warminster. (P. 200.) 

6. British Museum, No. 38267. Eight valve. 

7. Woodwardian Museum, a, right valve ; b, posterior view of the same ; c, anterior 

view of same. 

8. British Museum, No. 88871. Left valve. 

9. Museum of Practical Geology, No. 8278. Eight valve. 
10. Same museum. No. 844-5. Portion of right valve X 4. 



11—13. P. (Neithea) Morrisi (Pict. and Renev.). (P. 201.) 

11. Hythe Beds, Lympne. Museum of Practical Geology, No. 8364. a, right 

valve ; b, posterior view of the same ; c, portion between two main ribs x 3. 

12. Same locality, etc., No. 8446. a, left valve ; b, posterior view of the same. 

13. Pc)-j(,n-bed, Atherfield. Woodwardian Musexim. Left valve — posterior margin 

restored. 



14 — 17. P. (Neithea) qmnqnecostatns, Sow. (P. 202.) 

14. Upper Greensand, Ventuor. York Museum, a, right valve ; b, anterior view 

of the same. 

15. Upper Greensand (zone of Pecten asper), Shaftesbury. Bristol Museum. 

a, right valve; b, left valve; c, anterior view. 

16. Same horizon, Warminster. Museum of Practical Geology, No. 8419. a, right 

valve ; b, anterior view of the same. 

17. Upper Chalk (? M. cor-ancjuiimm zone), Gra.vesend. Museum of Practical 

Geology, No. 8362. a, right valve ; b, left valve ; e, posterior view of the 
same specimen. 



PLATE XXXIX. 







\ 



^Mliili. 



rim' 



4-15. ;<3 



mmm 

4.C 




5 <4- 




x,3 




TABpockdd, 
ATHoUicVlith 



17t 



17c 
West. Newman ini]j 



CRETACEOUS LAMEI.LIBRANCHIA . 



PLATE XL. 

Pecten {continued). 

Fias. 

1 — 5. P. (Neithea) quinqiiecostatus, Sow. (P. 202.) 

1. Ceuomauian (Meyer's Bed 12), Dunscouibe. Woodwardian Museum. Portinu 

between two main ribs of right valve x 6. 

2. Upper Chalk (A. quadrafus zone), West Haruham, Salisbury. Dr. Blackmore's 

Collection. «, right valve ; 6, anterior view ; c, portion of right valve x 4. 

3. Upper Chalk, probably Sussex. British Museum, No. 74979. Right valve. 

4. Upper Chalk (? M. cor-angiiinum zone), Gravesend. Bristol Museum, a, right 

valve ; b, portion of the same between two main ribs x 4. 

5. Upper Chalk, Sussex. British Museum (Dixon Collection), No, L. 14742. Right 

valve. 

6, 7. P. (NeWica) quadricostatus, Sow. (P. 210.) 

6. Ui'per Greensand (Chert Beds), Sutton Veny, Warminster. Woodwardian 

Museum. Posterior half of left valve. 

7. Upper Greensand, Warminster. Woodwardian Museum. Portion of right 

valve X 4. (The line near the middle of each furrow is accidental.) 



8, 9. P. (Neithea) sequicostatus, Lam. (P. 208.) 

8. Upper Greensand, Worbarrow. Museum of the Geological Society, No. 1530. 

a, right valve x 2 ; b, posterior view of the same x 2. 

9. Upper Greensand (Chert Beds, zone of P. asper), Haldon. Bristol Museum. 

a, right valve ; b. anterior view of the same X 2 ; p, part of anterior ear of 
the same x 4. 



10 — 1.5. P. (Neithea) sexcostatm, Woodw. Upper Chalk (A. quadratuf< zone), East 
Harnham, Salisbury. Dr. Blackmore's Collection. Rig-ht valves, 
except fig. 12. (P. 214.) 

10 a, X 1| ; 10 b, portion of same x 4 ; 11 a, x li ; 11 b, posterior view of the 
same x 1* ; 12, left valve x IJ; 13 a, natural size; 13 b, part of posterior 
view of the same x 2 ; 14 a, x li; 14 6, outline of the same, posterior 
aspect, natural size; 15, natural size. 



PLATE XL. 




10 a 



T-ABrock del. 
AT.HollickHtli. 



CRETACEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHJA. 



We3t,Newn.an imp 



PLATE XLI. 

Pecten (continned). 

Figs. 

1 — 8. P. (Neithea) sexcostatits, Wooclw. 1 — 5, Form j3. Upper Chalk. 6 — 8, 
Form a, Lower Clialk. (P. 214.) 

1. A. quadratus zoue. East Harnham, Salisbury. Dr. Blackmore's Collection. 

a, right valve ; b, portion of the two middle main ribs and part between x 4. 

2. Same horizon, etc. a, right valve ; b, posterior view of the same. 

3. B. mucronafa zone, Hartford Bridge, Norwich. Woodwardian Museum. 

a, right valve X li ; b, portion of the same near the ventral margin x 4 ; 
c, portion dorsal to middle of valve x 4. 

4. B. mucronata zone, Norwich. Norwich Museum. Right valve x 2. 

5. A. quadratus zone. East Harnham. Dr. Blackmore's Collection. Eight valve. 

Portion of the two middle main ribs and part between x 4. 
6 — 8. Chalk Marl, Dover. Woodwardian Museum. Right valves. G a, x Ik; 6b, 
posterior view of the same x 2 ; 6 c, part between two main ribs x 4. 7 a, 
X li ; 7 b, posterior view of the same x 1-i- ; 7 c, part between two main ribs 
X 4. 8«, X l;l; 8 fe, jiart between two main ribs x 4. 

9,10. P. (Neithea) striatocostatus ? Goklf. Chalk, Trimingham. Musemn of 
Practical Geology (Coll. Mr. Clement Reid). (P. 217.) 

9 a, portion of right valve ; 9 b, part of the same x 6. 10 a, left valve x 2 ; 
10 6, part of the same x 5. 



Genu ft — Velopeoten, Pit ilippi. 

11. V. Studeri (Pict. and Roux). Upper Greensand, Warminster. York 
Musemn. (P. 218.) 

11 a, left valve ; 11 6, part of the same x 2 ; lie, right valve of the same specimen. 



PLATE XLI. 







10 a 






x4 




A/'/2 




y 







- {I ':■ 



.11 



\ 



' // 



TABrockdel. 
AT.HollicklitK. 



West,Newinaii intp 



CREmCEOUS LAMELLIBRANCHIA. 



PLATE XLII. 

Veloi'ECTen (con tinued) . 

Figs. 

1—4. F. Stndevi (Pict. and Roux). (P. 218.) 

1. Gault, Folkestone. Wiltshire Collection, Woodwardiau Museum. Left valve. 

2. Gault (Bed xi), Folkestone. Museum of Practical Geology, No. 1612. Left 

valve. 

3. Cambridge Greensand (derived). Internal cast in ph(_)S25liate. Woodwardiau 

Museum. Imperfect left valve. 

4. Red Limestone, Hunstanton. Woodwardian Museum, a, antero-ventral por- 

tion of left valve of a large specimen ; 6, portion of the same x 4. 

5. V. trilineans (Seel.). Cambridge Greensand (derived). Woodwardian 

Museum. The type. a, left A^alve; h, part of the same near the 
ventral margin X 3. (P. 219.) 

6. r. 2wctmatus (Seel). Cambridge Greensand. Woodwardian Museum. 

The type, n, part of left valve ; h, portion of the same X o. (P. 220.) 

7, 8. r. sp. Gault, Folkestone. Wiltshire Collection, Woodwardian Museum. 
7, left valve. 8, portion of another left valve X 4. (P. 220.) 



9, 10. Pecten Nilssoni, Goldf. Upper Chalk. Mr. R. M. Brydone's Collection. 
(Pp. 152, 226.) 

9. Trimiugliam. Portion of left valve. 
10. A. qiiadratus zone, Hampshire. Right valve. 

11. PectuvcvJus Vaughani, Woods. Greensand, Blackdown. Woodwardian 
Museum (Coll. Mr. A. Vaitghan). Left valve. (P. 224.) 



PLATE XLII. 




TABrook del. 
ATHollickhth. 



CREmCEOUS LAMELLBRANGHIA. 



West,Newinan imp 



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